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Full text of "Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal"

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JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



VOL. XXXV, 



PART I. 



Nos. I. to IV.— 18GG. 



EDITED BY 



THE PHILOLOGICAL SECRETARY. 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men 
of science in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such 
communications shall be long intermj t tfldjand it will die away, if they shall 
entirely cease." x*^w^i* W£/r*\ 

^s .^.N»S\ Sir Wm. Jones. 




CALCUTTA 



PRINTED BY J. WENGER, BAPTIST MISSION PRESS. 



1867. 



CONTENTS, 



No. I. 
(Published 15th June, 1866.) 
Outlines of a Plea for the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. 

— By J. Beames, Esq., C. S., ... ... ... 1 

A Translation of the Chapter on Ordeals, from the Vyavahara 

Mayukha. — By Professor George Bun leu, Elphinstonc 

College, Bombay, ... ... ... 14 

Bough Notes on some of the Antiquities in the Gaya District. 

By W. Peppe, Esq., ... ... ... ... 49 

Literary Intelligence, ... ... ... ........ 60 



No. II. 
(Published 31st August, 1866.) 

Descriptions of Ancient Remains of Buddhist Monasteries and 
Temples, and of other buildings, recently discovered in 
Benares, and its vicinity. — By the Rev. M. A. Siierring, 
L. L. B., and Charles Horne, Esq., C. S., ... ... 61 

Assyro-Pseudo-Sesostris. — By Hyde Clarke, Esq., Member of 
the German Oriental Society, of the Society of Northern 
Antiquaries of Copenhagen, of the Academy of Anatolia, 
of the Institution of Engineers of Vienna, Local Secretary 
of the Anthropological Society, ... ... 87 

Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir, especially those not 
described by General A. Cunningham in his Essay publish- 
ed in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 
September, 1848.— By W. G. Cowie, Esq., M. A., Chaplain 
on duty in Kashmir during the summer of 1865, ... 91 

Remarks on Barbier de Meynard's edition of Ibn Khordadbeh 
and on the Land-tax of the empire of the Khalyfs. — By 
Dr. A. Sprenger, ... ... ... 1:24 

Literary Intelligence, ... ... ... ... 147 



No. III. 
(Published 2nd November, 1866.) 
A Notice of the Qaunaka Smriti. — By Professor George 
Buiiler, Superintendent of Sanskrit Studies, Punah 
College, ... ... ... 149 



iv Index, 



Pase 



Notes on Atranji Khera or Pi-lo-shan-ua of General Cun- 
ningham, (vide Continuation of Report for 1862-63, 
No. VIII. page 15.)— By C. Horne, Esq. C. S., 165 

Notes on some Buddhist Ruins at Doob Koond. — By Captain 

W. R. Melville, in charge, Gwalior Survey, ... ... 168 

Some Objections to the Modern Style of Official Hindustani. — 

By F. S. Growse, Esq , M. A. Oxon, B. C. S., 172 

Description of the Chandrarekhagarh near Sashtani, Per- 
gunnah Nyegur, Zillah Midnapore. — By "W. J. Herschel, 
Esq., B.C. S., ... ... ... ... ... 181 

Notes on a Tour in Manbhoom, in 1864- 65.— By Lt.-Col. E. T. 

Dalton, Comr. of Chota-Nagpore, ... 186 

Notes on a Copper plate- Inscription from Sambhalpur. — By 

Ba'bu Rajendrala'la Mitra, .„. ... , ... 195 

Literary Intelligence, ... ... ... ,; n " ... 197 



No. IV. 

(Published 6th July ; 1~ . ., 
Notes on the History and Topography of the Ancient Cities of 

Delhi.— By C. J. Campbell, Esq., C. E., ... ... 199 

Notes on Pilgrimages in the Country of Cashmere. — By Major 

D. F. Newall, R. A., ... ... ... .... 219 

A Vocabulary of English, Balti and Kashmiri, compiled by 

H. H. Godwin Austen, Capt., H. M.'s 24th Regt. Assist. 

at. Trigl. Survey, ... ... 233 

Notes on Gupta Inscriptions from Aphsar and Behar. —By Babu 

Rajenjralala Mitra,... ... ... 268 

Literary Intelligence, ... ... ... ... 275 



LIST OF PLATES. 



I. Pillared portico at Nair, 

II. Stone figure at Gcnjun, 

III. Rough Section and Plan of the Koch temple, 

IV. Oomga temple, 
VI. Rough Plan of Tilia Nala Vihar Chaitya, 

VII. Buddhist Vihar in the Rajghat Fort, — ceiling, 

Vila. View of Buddhist Vihar in the Rajghat Fort, 

VIII. Buddhitft Vihar in the Rajghat Fort,— details 
Pillars, 

IX. Bhanyar Temple, Colonnade,... 

XIV. Temple at Lidar, ... 

XV. Buddhist Chaitya (ceiling,) ... 

XVI. Rough Plan of Atranji Khera, 

XVII. Conch Temple, 

XVIII. Roof of Pandrcthan, 

XIX. Temple in the lake at Manusbal, 

XX. Figure of Sesostris at Ninli, 

XXI. Hindu Temple at Chandrarekhagarh, ... 

XXII. Plan of the Masjid Kutb ul Islam, 

XXIII. Elevation and details of ditto, 

XXIV. Map of the sites of the old cities of Delhi, ... 
XXV. Facsimiles of Inscriptions on a stone pillar in the 

Behar Fort, 



Pa<?e 
50 
53 

55 
58 
72 
74 
68 

65 

92 

98 

67 

166 

54 

118 

111 

88 

184 

202 

218 

214 

270 



INDEX TO PART I. 



Page 

Aclndpow, on the Kallee Nudee, visit to, ... 106 

Acvala'yana, many passages of the (^aunaka Karika agree 

with the sutras of, ... ... ... 154 

Adam pur Mahatld, ancient mounds in the, ... ... 68 

A'di J>ishwf's/iiuara } description of, ... ... 83 

Adildbdd, fort of, ... ... ... ... ... 214 

Adityas, names of the twelve, ... ,.. 31 

Aditya Sena, ... ... ... ... ... 268 

Adoption, Qaunaka's Law of, ... ... 164 

Adultery and theft, ordeals in cases of, ... ... ... 15 

Ain-i-Akbary, extract from the, ... ... ... 218 

Alai Durwaza built by Ala Udin, .. ... 203 

Ala' I/din, description of the site of the entrenchment of, ... 206 

Ala' U'din's extensive improvements of the Kutb Ul Islam,... 203 

Altamsu's tomb, peculiarities in, ... ... 202 

Alyy Hasany's account of weights, ... ... ... 127 

A marndthj pilgrimage to,... ... ... , 219 

A'nanda Swa'mi, author of S'aiva sudhakara, ... ... 198 

Aphsar and Behar Inscriptions, Notes on, ... 267 

Arabic Element in Official Hindustani, a Plea for the, ... 180 

Arabic used in the language of law-courts of India, ... 174 

A'rhai Kangura mosque, description of the, ... ... 76 

A'soka's pillars, Lat Bhairo one of, ... ... ... 73 

Aureus of Constantinople, Standard of Musulman weights, ... 125 

Aurangzebe destroyed the temple where Lat Bhairo stood, ... 73 

Aurangzebe's mosque near Bishweshwara temple, 80 

Austen, Capt. H. H. Gr., Vocabulary of English, Balti and 

Kashmiri, ... ... ... ... ... ... 233 

Avantiswdmi temple, description of the, ... ... ... 121 

Avantiswdmi, pillars at, ... ... ... 94 

Bala and Vriddha, defined, ... ... ... ... 17 

Battis Khambha, description of, ... ... 75 

Beamed, J., Esq., Outlines of a Plea for the Arabic Element 

in Official Hindustani, ... ... ... ... 1 

Bela, ruins near, ,,, ,., ... ... .., 50 



vin 



Index. 



Benares, absurdity of deriving the word from Burna and Assi, 

antiquity of, ... ... ... 

■ certain Annals of, 

extent of the city of, ... ... 

Bhagavati sutra of the Jains, Dr. "Weber's Essay on, 

Bhaniyar tenrple, description of the, ... 

Bhaumajo temple, description of the, ... 

Biha'ri Das, author of the Satsaiya, 

Bona Dutta, founder of the Boonyar temple, 

Bonar raja, founder of Raj ghaut fort, ... 

Budaon Mahalld, small mosque in the, ... 

Buddhist Chaityas, at Rajaghat, ... ... 

• ■ origin of Lat Bhairo and Battis Khambha, 

— Vihar, Raj ghat, ... ... 

■ ■ and cloisters altered by Mahomedans, 

Buhler, Professor G., Translation of the chapter on Ordeals 
from the Vyavahara Mayukha, 

Notice of the Qaunaka Smriti, 

Burabur Hills, figures removed to JNewree from the, 

Burna, the boundary of Benares, 

faiva sudlmkar of Ananda Swami, ... ... 

Campbell, C. J. Topography of the ancient cities of Delhi, ... 

fanja, a system of Musulman weights, ... 

^a'nta Varma', 

gaunaka Smriti, Contents of the, ... ... 151, 

■ 5 antis peculiar to the, ... 

■ more extensive than a Grihyasutra, 

— Laghu and Brihat, ... 

. ' Genuineness of the first three verses of the, 

doubted,... 
Qaunaka Karika, written by. a Vaishnava, ... 

Chaityas at Rajghat, description of the Buddhist, 

Chand, the bard of the last Hindu King of Delhi,... 
Chandrak, sent Umr Sing and Beja Sing to the Doob Koond 

temple, ... 

Chandra ra'ja', founder of the Chandra Garh, 

Chandrarehlid Garh, measurements of the, 

Chaucer, ridiculed for French words, ... 

Choukhambha mosque, description of the, 

Clmllandaraka, gift of the village of, ... 

Churra, Devalayas at, 

Clarke, Esq. H. E., On Assyro-Pseudo-Sesostris,... 
Cloisters of Buddhist Vihars altered by the Mahomedans, 
Court-language of the Bengal Presidency unintelligible because 

it is highly cultivated, 

heterogeneous origin of the, ... 

Cowie, Rev. G. W., On the Temples of Kashmir,... 



Page 
86 
61 
70 
62 

198 
91 
69 

174 
97 
64 
68 
67 
75 
64 
65 

14 
149 
50 
63 
197 
199 
126 
268 
155 
153 
153 
150 

150 

155 

67 

174 

171 

185 

181 

3 

79 
195 
187 

87 

65 

10 

5 

91 



Index. ix 

Page 

Coins, silver Hindu, found at the Atranji Khera, ... ... 167 

Cossai, banks of the, colonized by the Srawaks, 186 

Court-language, convenience of the, ... ... ... 5 

Cubic measure, Qafyz, ... ... ... 1'28 

Dalton, Lieut. -Col. E. T., Tour in Maunbhoom, ... 186 

Damodara fought with the Hunas, ... ... 268 

Dattaka Mimansa quotes elokas from Caunaka, ... ... 149 

Delhi at the time of Tinmr, ... ... 214 

, chronology of the different cities of, ... ... "216 

, various cities of, ... ... ... "214 et seq. 

Deokund, ruins near, ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Dhulmi) antiquities of, ... ... ... 191 

Diodorus Siculus, account of Sesostris by, ... ... 88 

Dooh koond, repaired by Pandu and his brothers, .. 171 

Drubgama temple, description of the, ... 116 

Durjankari-panchanana of Rangachari Swauii, ... ... 147 

Dyarwutoy description of temples at, ... ... 109 

Egyptian measure, the Irdabb, ... ... ... loO 

English language, foreign elements in the, ... ... 1 

Eunuchs, how to be judged, ... ... 17 

Fire, ordeals by, ... ... ... ... ... 33 

Firuzdbdd, city of, ... ... ... 21~> 

Fttftehgurh, description of the temple at, ... ... 113 

Garbhalambhana, rules of, given in the Qaunaka Srnriti and 

the Rig Veda Grihya sutra, ... ... 154 

Gayd, antiquities of, ... ... ... ... ... 50 

Genjun, ruins near, ... ... ... 52 

Geography of Ibn Khordabeh, ... ... ... ... 125 

Growse F. S., Esq., Objections to the modern style of official 

Hindustani, ... ... ... ... 172 

Gulzar JJahalla, Maqdum sahib in the, ... 72 

Guptas, probable connexion of the, with Lat Bhairo, . . . 73 

of Aphsar, ... ... 207 

of Bhitari ruled in Behar, ... ... ... 271 

Hariri and Muhammad, languages of, ... 8 

Hasiika Gupta, ... ... ... ... ... 268 

Hellenes observed Iberian Mythology, ... 90 

Herodotus's account of the expedition of Sesostris, ... 87 

Hersciiel, W. J., Esq., Chandra-rekha-garh,... 181 

Himyaritic dialects spoken by troops of Yainan, ... ... 9 

Hindi current in Akbar's Court, ... ... 174 

and foreign words compared, ... ... ... 176 

different lands of, ... ... ... ib. 

Hindustani benefited more by Semitic than by Indian ele- 
ments, ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

, official, ... ... ... ... 1, 172 

Hodgson's notice of the affinity between the Caucasian and the 

Himalayan Valleys, ... ... ... ... 90 



x Index. 

Page 

Horne, C, Esq., Atranji Kliera or Pilushanna, 165 

m Buddhist remains in Benares, ... ... 61 

Ibn Batuta's travels, translation of, ... 124 

Ibn Khordabeh, MSS. of, ... ... ... ... 126 

Inscription, copper-plate, from Sambalpur, translation of, ... 195 

on Alamgir's Masjid, ... ... ... 77 

Inscriptions, Major Dixon's Sanscrit and Ciinarese, 60 

from Aphsar, ... ... ... ... 275 

,, Behar, ... ... ... 267 

Jahanpanah, Citadel of, ... ... ... ... 215 

Jain origin of the Bishweshwar temple, ... ... ... 81 

Jivtta Gupta, ... ... ... ... 268 

Qodama's account of the Sawad revenue, ... ... 136 

Karika, the original work of Qaunaka, ... 154 

K ash yapa, the " Ocean" desiccated by, ... ... ... 220 

Katyayana, works of Qaunaka known to, ... 149 

Kausika Gotra, Brahmans of the, ... ... ... 196 

Kavya PrakaYa of Mahesa Chandra, ... ... .... 147 

Kirta Bisheshwar temple and Alamgiri mosque, ... ... 77 

Kispa, ruins near, ... ... ... 52 

Kohil, temple at, ... ... ... ... ... 116 

Konch, ruins near, ... .... ... 53 

KonaDevi, ... ... ... ... ... 268 

Krishna G-upta, ... ... ... , 267 

Kuma'ra Gupta, ... ... ... 268 

Kunamoh, temples at, ... ... ... ... 123 

Kutb Minar, description of, ... ... 204 

Kutb Minar ascribed to Ananga Pal, ... 207 

Kutb ul Islam, description of, ... ... ... ... 199 

Lalkote, description of, ... ... ... 206 

Lall Mahal, remains of, ... ... ... ... 217 

Language of the Arabs corrupted by Mahomedan conquest, ... 9 

Lanka, description of temple on the island of, ... Ill et seq. 

Lat Bhairo Buddhist Vihar, ... ... 73 

Mahomedan Cemetry, ... ... ... 74 

Lidar, temples at, ... ... ... 97 

Lingam, measurement of the, at Atranji Kliera, ... ... 167 

Lomasa Bishi, cave of, ... , v . ... 51 

Madhava Gupta, ... ... ... ... ... 268 

MahaDevi, ... ... ... ... 268 

Maha Sudeb raja's grant of land, ... ... ... 195 

Maha Sena Gupta, ... ... ... 268 

Mauava Dharmas'astra notices Qaunaka, ... 149 

Manasbal, description of the temples of,... ... 110 et seq. 

Maqdum Sahib, remains of Buddhist chaitya at, 71 

M artand, description of the middle chamber in, ... ... 118 

pillars at, compared with those of Bhaumajo, ... 93 

Maruts, names of the seven, ... ... ... ... 31 



Index. 



XI 



Matris, names of the seven, 
Mash a, ordeals by hot, 
3Iaushari, site of, not determined, 

Melville, Capt. W. R , Buddhist ruins of Doob Khund, 
Mir a Saheb's tomb near Tilia JN'ula, 
Mithqal weights, ... 
Moqaddasy, editor of, 
Months suited for ordeals in general, 
Nagari characters abandoned on the adoption of Persian dialect 
Nair, ruins near, 

Narain Shah, description of the temple of, 
Nbwall, Major D. F., Pilgrimages in Kashmir, 
Neivree 

Nigumbode, temple of, 
Nirnaya-sindhu alludes to Qaunaka, 

Nunji, Sri Buddha and Chinamusta, temples dedicated to 
Oaths may be administered to both parties in an ordeal, 
Offerings, burnt, in ordeals, 
Omar I. sent Othman to survey Babylonia, 
Oomga temple, description of the, ... 
Ordeals, papers on, by Ali Ibrahim Khan, Professor Stenzler 
and Mr. Macnaghten, 

to be applied where human evidence fails, 

immediate and mediate, 



figures near the village of, 



invocation common to all, 



Packet a, Raja of, 

Padinapore, pilgrimage of, 

Pa/ec, ruins near, 

Pandit, (the) a monthly journal started at Benares, 

Pandrcthan, description of, 

• pilgrimage to, 

— — ■ Lidar temple copy of that at, 

Panjabi Dictionary examined, 

Pdthdn Sugandhecwara, description of temples at, ... 

Payach and Lidar drains compared,... 

Peppe, W. Esq. Antiquities of Gya, 

Persian, the effects of the abolition of, in law-courts, 

Ploughshare, ordeals by, ... .... 

Poison, ordeals by, 

Premsagur, the language of, ... ... 

Prinsep's ground plan of the Bisheshar temple, ... 
Putra Sangraha vidhi, text and translation of the, 
Ra'jendrala'la Mitra, Babu, Shambhalpur Inscription, 

1 Gupta Inscriptions from Aphsar 

and Behar, ... ... ... .., ... . 

Bdjghat fort, key of Benares, ... 

Ramayana's account of the Kols, ... ... 193 

Ranga'cha'ri Swa'mi, author of Durjana Kari Panchanana,. 



Page 

31 

45 

263 

163 

71 

126 

124 

17 

177 

50 

112 

233 

49 

215 

149 

171 

16 

33 

133 

58 

14 

14 

14 

20, 22 

194 

221 

50 

147 

117 

221 

99 

173 

115 

98 

49 

175 

47 

43 

173 

81 

157 

195 

261 
64 

et seq. 
147 



Xll 



Index. 



Rig Veda, Mantras quoted in the (^aunaka Karika from the, . 
Hitter doubted the Egyptian character of the monument of 

Sesostris, 
Rudras, name of the eleven, 
Sabhabilasa, the only Persian word in the, is the name of 

the writer, 
Sambhalpur and Sarabhapura, identity of, 
Sanaka taldo, stone pillars at, 
Sankara Gaureswara, description of temple at, 
Sankshepa Sankara Jaya, edition of, 
Sanscrit, Greek, German, Latin, and English words compared 
Sanscrit manuscripts of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
Sarabhapura, conquered by Maha Sndeva raja, 
Sarap, Serab, Serak. or Srawak, earliest Aryan colonists 
iSarnath encompassed by Benares, 



Sarvanukramani, an account of the writers of the Ri| 

Qaunaka, 
Sasanian king Jobad, revenue of the Sawad under him, 
Sawad, revenue of the, according to Qodama, 
Scales, ordeals by, suited to women, 

ordeals of, directions for, 

Seasons for special ordeals, 

Semitic language, endogenous character of the, 

Sesostris, images of, 



Veda 



23 



monument of, near Ninfi, 



Skahjehanabad, city of, 

jShahpur, fort of, 

Shahpur ruins, age of the, determined, ... 

Sherring, Rev. J., Buddhist remains at Benares, 

Silver standard in Persia, 

Siri, description of, 

Son, an only, not to be given awajr or adopted, 

Sprenger, Dr. A., Ibn Khordabeb and land-tax of tl 

Khalyfs, 
Square measure of the Arabs not much known, 
Srawaka settlements broken up by Hos and Lurka Coles, 
Sukshma Siva, ... 
Taht-i-Sulimani, description of, 
Ta/poban, Rama, halted at, ... .... 

Teivan, description of a temple at, 

Timira Nasaka of Babu Siva Prasad, 

Trendaraka, Sarabhapura in the district of, 

Tulsi Dasa, 

Turghai Khan's invasion discussed, 

Urdu authors, age of the, 

Urdu compared with languages of modern Europe, 

Urdu and Hindi, distinction between, not recognised, 

Vadivivadabhanjana, edition of, 



Page 
154 



88 
31 

174 

198 

84 

118 

195 

5 

60 

195 

186 

63 

149 
133 

et seq. 

16 

et se<{. 

17 

4 

88 

*7 

215 

215 

208 

61 

133 

206 

163 

124 
131 
ls6 

268 
119 
1*5 
114 
179 
196 
174 
208 
174 
1 
178 
279 



Index, xiii 

Page 

Vdpya caves, boulders close by, ... ... 51 

Vikrama'ditya, the raja of Pat Kote claims descent from, ... 190 

Vishnu, Avatars of, ... ... ... 192 

Vyavahara mayukha permits a widow to adopt a son, ... 164 

■ authorities quoted in the, ... 15 et seq. 

Wangat, description of the temples at, ... ... 10 et seq. 

Wat er, ordeals by, ... ... ... 39 

Weights and measures of the Arabs, remarks on, ... 125 et seq. 

Weights, grain, of different kinds, among the Mussulmans, .. 126 

Widow, the right of a Hindu, to adopt a son,... 150 

Ya'jnavalkya's vyavastha for heavy accusations, ... ... 14 

Yoga Aphorisms, Mr. Cowell's edition of the,... 60 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY, 



Part I.— HISTORY, LITERATURE, &c. 



No. I.— 1866. 



Outlines of a Plea for the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. — By 
J. Beames, Esq., 0. S. 

[Received 17th April, 18G5.] 

It is the fashion at present to lavish a good deal of abuse on the 
language generally employed in our law courts in this country. 

This unfortunate variety of human speech is condemned as barbar- 
ous, a medley of heterogeneous elements, a pedantic, clumsy, unintelli- 
gible jargon, and the rest. After seven years' daily experience and 
use of it, I venture to take up the cudgels in its behalf. I consider it 
as the most progressive and civilized form of the great and widespread 
"language of the horde." Not only is it compendious, eloquent, ex- 
pressive and copious, but it is the only form in which the legitimate 
development of the speech of the Gangetic tribes could show itself. 
Those who condemn it, in a spirit of short-sighted pedantry and affec- 
tation, must, if they are prepared to abide by the logical consequences 
of their opinion, condemn also those languages of modern Europe, 
which, by virtue of following the same course as the Urdu, have suc- 
ceeded in overstepping the narrow limits of their birth-places, and 
becoming the common property of half the world. To object to the 
free use in Hindustani of words derived from Arabic and Persian, is as 
absurd as to object to. the free use of Latin and Greek derivatives in 
English. As a merchant, by skilful trading with borrowed capital, 
1 



2 The Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. [No. 1, 

may become a millionaire, so English by readily borrowing and mak- 
ing good use of its borrowed stores, has raised itself from an obscure 
low German patois to the most extensively used medium of commu- 
nication between distant countries. 

I. The parallel between English with its Teutonic and Latin elements, 
and Urdu with its Sanskrit and Semitic components, is no newly dis- 
covered thing. It has been used again and again, with more or less 
learning, to help us to deplore the iniquities of our omla and mukhtdrs. 

The comparison, however, cuts both ways. It may perhaps help us 
to find something to admire in the phraseology of a rubakdri or the 
cunningly woven sentences of a pleading. 

First then, of English. English is a dialect, as every one knows, 
of Plate-Deutsch, allied to the Hoch-Deutsch, the tongue of Goethe 
and Schiller, by the ties of a common descent from the early Gothic, 
the sister of Sanskrit. It has been brought into contact with many 
other forms of speech, some closely, others remotely, akin to it. Celtic 
of Scotland and Wales ; Scandinavian of Norway and Denmark ; Latin ; 
Norman French, a blending of the two last named ; early French, 
the Frankish struggling still against the Latin element ; Latin again, 
barbarized by monks and lawyers ; French again, from the wars of 
the Henries and Edwards ; Spanish, from the Elizabethan wars, bring- 
ing with it a substratum of Moorish Arabic ; French again, of Racine 
and Moliere in the days of the degraded Stuart kings, from the court 
of the " Grand Monarqiie ; " Dutch with William of " glorious, pious 
and immortal memory ; " finally a sprinkling of Turkish, Persian and 
Kussian from our travellers, and many words from Latin which crept 
in in a roundabout way from time to time through our neighbours the 
French arid Italians. 

All these elements skilfully worked up, patiently pieced together, 
carefully incorporated into the solid English groundwork, have com- 
posed the bright, varied and harmonious mosaic of our modern mother- 
tongue. 

There were doubtless pedants and grumblers ready to find fault at 
each stage of growth in English. The Saxon clod of the time of the 
Conqueror objected to the terms 'beef,' 'veal,' 'pork,' 'mutton,' 
which were then supplanting his pure English 'ox,' ' calf,' 'pig' and 






1866.] The Aralic Element in Official Hindustani. 3 

' sheep.' Chaucer's introduction of French words into his poems won 
for him the ridicule of his contemporaries. But in spite of ridicule 
and learned objectors, the language assimilated these foreign words 
and profited by the process. 

The German on the other hand has absorbed very little of the Latin 
or other foreign elements. 

It has endeavoured to meet the wants of civilization and progress by 
combinations of indigenous words, rather than by borrowing. In 
other words it has done what our purists wish the Hindustani to da. 
The result is known to every one. Great as are the expressiveness 
and power of composition of the German language, its usefulness as a 
practical, working, every -day speech is far below that of English or 
any other European language. We have only, for instance, to compare 
a few German words with their English equivalents to see where lies 
the flexibility, expression, and delicacy of sentiment. 

" Gefangenschaft" (literally ' catch-hold-ship') would scarcely be felt 
as an advantageous change for 'custody.' Use might reconcile us to 
" Begripship" but ' custody' means more than mere holding fast. 

Vergnuegsam (' For-enongh-some') is but a barbarous substitute for 
' contented,' which latter gives us the klea of being contained and se- 
cure in certain limits ; — while the former is a barren enunciation of 
merely having enough. Not to mention the unpleasantly harsh colli- 
sion of consonants. 

Verurtheilung, sentence. Here the English word is far the more 
manageable than the clumsy circumlocution of " fore- out-telling" or 
" parting." 

Vervollkommen. l ' To complete" is again better than " To fore- 
full-come." 

Wiederanflehen, revival, "das wiederaufleben der Gelehrsamkeit 
(the again-up-living of be-lore-some-hood) is rather a roundabout 
substitute for the neat and concise English, "the revival of learning.'^ 

WiederhersteUungsmittel. Here is a nice morsel for throat and teeth. 
It looks very alarming, but only means " a restorative," and the 
English word gives the meaning quite as fully as the monstrous Ger- 
man compound. Wieder = re - r herstellung = stor (stauz) 's ; mittel 
= ative. 

Zusammeiiberufen , to convoke. 



The Arabic Element in Official Hiudustani. [No. 1 



Zuruchziehen, to retract, withdraw ; " withdraw" is formed from 
our own Teutonic stores. 

The fact is that in making compound words, the English has the 
advantage of using the short and expressive Latin prefixes, pro, re, 
con, per, in ; whereas the German, rejecting these commodious 
foreigners, has to fall back on the unwieldy natives ; Wieder, zusam- 
men, zuruck 7 wider, heraus, &c. The result is that its compounds are 
of uncomfortable length, and are rather circumlocutions than direct 
expressions of the idea involved. 

Turning now to Hindustani for Teutonic, let us put Indian as ex- 
pressing the class of languages from which the old Hindi Bhashas are 
derived and for Latin or Romance let us put Semitic. Then the pro- 
position I would maintain stands thus : The Hindustani language 
meets the requirements of civilization better by borrowing freely from 
Semitic sources than by forming words and compounds from Indian 
sources. 

To borrow a metaphor from Botany, the Semitic languages are en- 
dogenous, the Indo- Germanic exogenous. The former grow by addi- 
tions from within, the latter by accretions from without. 

Accretions, it is evident, are limited solely by their power of adher- 
ing to the original trunk. Or perhaps it would be better to say accre - 
tions may be multiplied up to the sustaining limit of the parent stem. 

Endogenous growth on the other hand is limited by the space it can 
squeeze out for itself in the enciente of the older formations. With a 
strong parent stem like German or Sanskrit, accretive compounds may 
be formed almost without limit. Sanskrit thinks nothing of a twenty- 
syllabled compound, and a word like ' herausbekommen' is as nothing 
to German organs. In Arabic, and Hebrew, on the contrary there is 
the triliteral root, which may be made to evolve many dozens of new 
words, but all within the limits of the three radical letters aided by a 
handful of serviles. The result is that the Semitic languages can ex- 
press more in a small compass than the Indo- Germanic can. A pre- 
fixed alif or mini will often have as much power as ' con' ' pro' ' re' 
or half a dozen Latin or Greek words strung together ; thus from 
nazara to see, the simple lengthening of a vowel gives us " nazir," 
a word, the technical and ordinary meaning of which, cannot be ex- 
pressed in any Indo- Germanic language without a compound, e. g. 



I860.] The Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. 5 

1. Sanskrit, Adhyaksha. 

Upadrishtd, 

Adhikdri. 

Avekshitd, all compounded with a preposition. 

2. Greek, Epistates. 

3. Latin, Inspector. 

4. German, Anf seller, InspeJdor. 

5. English, Overseer, Inspector. 

Illustrations may be multiplied by any one who possesses a few dic- 
tionaries. To be able to express ideas of a complex nature by short 
and simple words is an undeniable advantage. When a language has 
two or more sources from which it can draw, native sources giving it 
only long cumbrous compounds, foreign ones giving it neat and conve- 
nient uncompounded words, it is only natural that the latter should 
be chosen. The Bengali, like the German, has chosen to trust to its 
Indian resources ; and the result is a collection of ' sescmipedalia 
verba" of the most alarming description, and what is more to the pur- 
pose in these practical days, it is yielding visibly to the more progres- 
sive Hindustani. 

On the score of convenience then I defend the present court lan- 
guage. If we look at the historical question again, we find good rea- 
son for the use of foreign words. Hindi is in its origin Sanskrit, with 
a substratum of Turanian elements, the extent and exact direction of 
whose influence has never been fully worked out. I believe it to be 
much greater than is usually supposed. The language thus constitut- 
ed, was brought into contact with fresh Turanian influences through 
the Mogul invasions. In the same manner Persian, Pushtoo and 
Arabic were brought to bear on it. The point of contact was western 
Hindustan and the Punjab, but gradually the foreign influence pene- 
trated the whole country. It must be remembered also, that along 
with an influx of foreign languages came an entire change in the civil 
and religious organization of the country. Whole provinces were 
converted to a religion whose most sacred duties can be expressed only 
in Arabic. Offices were created on the model of those in Cabul and 
Persia. Systems were introduced which had long flourished in Central 
Asia among the Mantchus and the Kirghis. 

Hence a large importation of foreign words in religion, government, 



6 TJie Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. [No. 1, 

arms and art, which ended in the establishment of the Urdu or camp 
language, a language destined advisedly for the palace, the court, the 
camp, the market. Its father the Hindi, its mother the Arabic, it 
borrows freely from both its parents. 

Up to this point most men will agree with me that the free use of 
Arabic and Persian is defensible both on the grounds of the origin of 
the language as well as of convenience. 

The two great accusations brought against the language, however, 
are ; first, that the Arabic and Persian words are used in an incorrect, 
garbled and distorted way, and secondly, that the language itself is 
unintelligible to the mass of the people. I proceed to discuss these 
objections a little more in detail. 

II. First, then it is asserted that the use of Arabic and Persian 
words in the way they are employed by native officials is mere pedan- 
try ; that the words are used in wrong ' senses and often utterly mis- 
applied, that participles are used as nouns, nouns as verbs and so on. 

Now this may mean either that munshi Arabic is incorrect according 
to the rules of grammar of the times of the Kuran ; or that it is wrong 
according to the usages of the modern colloquial and written Arabic. — 
If the former of these two theories is advanced, I meet it by a simple and 
positive denial of its truth. A few examples may be taken as tests. 

Ashkhds. The Arabic shakhs, of which this is the legitimate and 
regular plural, means, literally separation, or the distinguishing of one 
thing from another ; or more strictly, the act or condition of being 
separate and distinct. Shakhs is therefore the exact equivalent of the 
English word "individual," a word which is good modern English 
enough ; and ashkhds, signifying the persons or individuals concerned 
in a lawsuit, is therefore a more accurate word than the Hindi fog ; 
which really means, " the world," or the collected body of human 
beings, and is quite out of place in designating a special class or num- 
ber of people. 

Mudda'i, from da' a, he called. 

(Freytag — vocavit, advocavit, provocavit,) is the regularly formed 
active participle of the 8th conjugation, and literally and exactly 
means a claimant or prosecutor ; " Arrogans vel sili vindicans rem 
contra aliquem ;" and is therefore a more expressive word than "badi," 



1866.1 The Arahic Element in Official Hindustani. 7 

which simply means a speaker; or " firiyadi" which, besides being a 
foreign word, means literally one who cries out, a weeper, lamenter ; 
which a plaintiff often is not. 

3Tiidda' a 'alayhi, literally " the complained against him," or "he 
who is complained against;" being the passive participle of rnudda'i, 
with the preposition and pronominal affix 'alayhi. Pratibddi, " he who 
speaks back again" is far less comprehensive. 

Hasbu'ttafsili'lzayli, " according to the specification below" is 
good and grammatical Arabic, and in its Persianized form " hasb-i 
tafsil zayl" gives a neat and convenient official formula for the 
roundabout Hindi " jaisd ki nichhe likhd hud hai," which cannot 
be formed into a compound adjective or otherwise manipulated. 

Inkizd, " completion," is the regular verbal noun of the seventh 
conjugation of the verb kazdya the original meaning of which, as I 
have elsewhere shewn, is " cutting off, finishing, defining, decreeing," 
the word is used frequently in pure Arabic in the same sense. 

Ba'd inkizd-i mohlat, " after the expiry of the term," is correct 
enough, and almost incapable of being tersely expressed in Hindi 
without recourse to some half obsolete word of Sanskrit origin. 

Bi muktazd ; according to ; in the phrase, " hi muktazd rdi 'addlat" 
" according to the opinion of the court," the root kazdya in the eighth 
conjugation, has the sense of deciding. The expression bi muktaza is 
used in Arabic authors as the equivalent of "secundum" "ad." I 
should be glad if some of our critics would express this phrase in 
modern Hindi in terms equally neat, and as generally intelligible. 

Inkishdf ; istiswdb ; intizdm ; ikbdl ; are further instances of words 
which may be found in Arabic and Persian classics in the same sense 
as they bear in Hindustani. It is useless to multiply instances, were 
I to give half of the words used correctly by our Munshfs I should 
have to write a volume, not an essay. 

To turn next to words which are used by Hindustani writers in a 
sense different from their classical usage, also words which are not 
found at all in the classics ; we find them tolerably numerous, and 
they form in fact the chief stumbling-blocks to the purists. The word 
"istimzaj" for instance is not found in good Arabic or in those Persian 
authors who use Arabic words. The root ' mazaja' means he mixed, 
and the noun " mizaj" implies c mixture' and is used for that mixture 



8 The Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. [No. 1, 

of feelings and passions which constitutes the temperament of a human 
being; in other words, his 'disposition.' Istimzdj is used by our 
Hindustani writers to signify, " wishing to know what the sentiments 
of a person (mizaj) are on a certain point," i. e., asking for permission. 
In other words, the noun mizaj is taken as the root from which a sort 
of denominative verb in the tenth conjugation is formed istamzdja, and 
from this again a regular verbal noun istimzdj is formed. Now I ad- 
mit that such a process is not found to exist in Arabic with regard to 
this verb, but such a process is found with regard to other words ; and 
we do not know enough of the state of the various dialects of Arabic 
in the thirteenth century to be able to affirm that such a word may 
not have been used in some of them ; and that it may not have been 
brought into India by some of the " mixed multitude," who accom- 
panied the earlier Musalman invaders. We have no right to suppose 
that those writers who, three or four centuries ago, created the Urdu 
tongue, borrowed their Arabic solely from the classical dialect of the 
Kuran. So far was the Kuran from being written in the ordinary 
colloquial style, that we know Muhammad himself was in the habit of 
pointing to it as one of his greatest miracles, and that the unapproach- 
able purity of its diction is to the present day a subject of admiration 
to all the faithful. The conversazione of Hariri again, from which so 
many of our European scholars draw their ideas of Arabic, is a profess- 
edly pedantic work, and it is never pretended that the ordinary Arab 
of the period talked in such elaborate strains. We must seek for the 
■origin of many of our modern Indo-Arabic words in the language of 
the lower class of which, to this day, we know next to nothing. That 
the language of the towns even in Muhammad's time had lost much of 
Its early purity is shewn, inter alia^ by the customs of the townsmen, 
of sending their children into the desert to learn from the mouths of 
the Badawin the unadulterated tongue. The prophet himself is said, 
in this way, to have spent some years among the tribe of Saad a branch 
of the Kuraysh. 

After the death of Muhammad the decay of the spoken language 
was very rapid. One of the latest and best authorities on this sub- 
ject says ; " Every language without a written literature tends to decay 
more than to development by reason of foreign influences ; and the 
history of the Arabic exhibits an instance of decay remarkably rapid 



1866.] T/ie Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. 9 

and extraordinary in degree. An immediate consequence of the 
foreign conquests achieved by the Arabs under Muhammad's first four 
successors, was an extensive corruption of their language : for the 
nations that they subdued were naturally obliged to adopt, in a great 
measure, the speech of the conquerors, a speech which few persons have 
ever acquired in such a degree as to be secure from the commission 
of frequent errors in grammar, without learning it from infancy. 
These nations, therefore, and the Arabs dwelling among them, con- 
curred in forming a simplified dialect, chiefly by neglecting to observe 
those inflections and grammatical rules which constitute the greatest 
difficulty of the classical Arabic." (Lane's Arabic Dictionary. Pre- 
face ; p. vii. London, 1863.) 

The inference I draw from the above remarks is, that we have no 
right to compare the Arabic used in modern Hindustani with the 
Arabic of classical writers, and to condemn it, if it does not agree with 
theirs. Still less have we any right to compare it with the elaborate 
Arabic of the grammarians. The Indo- Arabic of the present day is 
the legitimate descendant of the Arabic brought into India by the 
early conquerors, and we may safely give them credit for having spoken 
their own language correctly, even though that language was not pre- 
cisely the same as that spoken by Muhammad and his tribesmen. 
When Abu Bakr raised the standard of Islam and sent out the armies 
of the faithful to the conquest of Syria, warriors from Yaman and 
Hadramaut joined his troops. These must have spoken Himyaritic 
dialects, differing widely from the dialects of Mecca and Medina. 
Bar-Hebrous, in his Syriac " History of the dynasties," speaks of the 
Arabs always as " Tayoye," or men of the tribe of Tai, whose dialect 
'differed considerably, not only in the use of words, but in grammatical 
forms, from the literary standard of Arabic. 

Moawuja's army was composed almost entirely of Syrians ; and the 
Arab troops which conquered Persia were largely composed of the 
same semi-foreign element. There is thus ample ground for supposing 
that the form of Arabic which the conquering troops of El Islam 
brought with them into Persia, and which so powerfully influenced 
that language, was not the form which is reproduced in the Kuran 
and in the classical works of western and central Arabia. Here again 
2 



10 The Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. [No. 1 

I confine myself to hinting at a probable source of Indo- Arabic ; to 
follow up these suggestions thoroughly, would require an intimate 
knowledge of all the forms of spoken Arabic, and would lead me too 
far from the present enquiry. I trust, however, that I have shewn that 
our Munshi Arabic should not be hastily judged by comparison with 
an almost foreign standard. 

III. The second assertion, that the court language is unintelligible 
to the mass of the people, is partly true, partly false. The real fact is 
that the court language, being the highest and most cultivated form 
of Hindustani, is intelligible to the people exactly in proportion to 
their education. To the highly educated native it is perfectly intelli- 
gible ; to the illiterate rustic it is as Coptic or Chinese. Precisely the 
same may be said of any language which can boast of a literature. 
The literary style always will be, must be, in fact, from its very 
nature, above the comprehension of the masses. 

Put the Times or the Saturday Review into the hands of a peasant, 
and see how much he will understand of it. Never was there a more 
absurd and unreasonable demand made of any cultivated tongue, than 
that it should exhibit copiousness and expressiveness, and at the same 
time not be above the understanding of the boor. The ideas of the 
Indian rustic do not soar above the petty wants and homely occupa- 
tions of his every-day life, except in a few instances. When they do, 
he uses Persian or Arabic words to express them. His own Hindi 
does not help him. A considerable number of simple Arabic and 
Persian words enters into the vocabulary of the peasant, and they are 
as familiar to him as they are to the educated pleader or official. 
Some exist side by side with words of Sanskrit origin, and have a 
special sub-shade of meaning attached to them. Others stand alone, 
having no equivalent in the Hindi. 

Of the first class are such words as iuakt } time in general ; and bela 
or vela, a special time of the day ; tarf and ur or diq ; mahdn and 
ghar ; rasta and sarah ; darwdza and divdr ; hitda and khet ; abdd 
kamd and jotna ; zamin and matti ; 'aurat and randi ; sarliad and 
siwdnd ; and many others. Of the latter class, ma'liim, matlab, tabdil ; 
ziydda, (jdsti), ziyddati, roshan, badma'dsh, siirat, tajviz } zarur, 
tamdm, nihdyat, mal, maivdshi, (maweshi), tarah, ivdste, mudfik, 
jabr 7 zabanlast, zulm i zdlim, gharib, iMrwarish, (panvasti), jatvdb* 



1866.] 



The Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. 



11 



jangal, maiddn, durust, and a long list besides. Any one of these 
words may be beard from the month of the most ignorant ryot in the 
most secluded parts of the country, as any one who has travelled 
much in India knows. This large class of foreign words has almost, 
if not entirely, displaced the corresponding Hindi terms. If any one 
doubts this, let him read the following list, and judge for himself which 
of the two he is most familiar with in the mouths of the people — these 
Hindi words or their foreign equivalents : — 



Foreign. 
ma'lum. 
matlab. 
tabdil. 
ziyada. 
roshan. 
badma'ash. 
Biirat. 
tajviz. 
zariir. 

tamam. 
nib ay at. 
mad. 
mawashi. 

tarah. 
waste. 
muafik. 
jawab. 
jangal. 
maidan. 
&c. 



Hindi. 

parkash. 

parojan. 

pher. 

adhik (aur.) 

pargat, 

gunda, lucluu 

rup. 

(no equivalent.) 

uchit (more common in Ben- 
gali than in Hindi.) 

sard, sab. 

bahut. 

dhan. 

goru. 

prakar, (Bengali.) 

liye. 

sa (as an affix.) 

uttar. 

ban (very inadequate.) 

badh> 
&c. 



A few of these words express adequately the meaning of the corre- 
sponding Persian word, but how many of them are known to educated 
people ? I do not here speak of the English official, who may be 
expected only to know the simple surface words which meet him in 
his every day work ; but I would ask any educated native how many 
Hindi words he uses in his ordinary conversation with men of his own 
and other classes. 



12 



TJie Arahic Element in Official Hindustani. [No. 1, 



As I am here only outlining a defence of my side of the question, 
I will pass on to another argument. Hindi is not one language. It 
is ten or fifteen or more different dialects. The following list, taken 
from a work which relates the early efforts of the Serampore mission- 
aries to introduce the Bible in his own tongue to the home of every 
ryot^ will shew how great the diversity is. 



Dialect. 


Locality. 




BrijbhaVha, 


Agra, Muttra. 


Canojia, 


Cawnpore, Futtehgurh, Eta- 




wah, Bareilly, Alligurh. 


Koshala, 


Oudh. 


Bhojpuri r 


Benares, Grhazipoor, Arrah. 


Hariani, 


Hariana, Hissar, Rohtak. 


Bnndelkhandi, 


Bundelkhund. 


Boghela, 


Boghclkhund, (Central India.) 


Harroti, 


Malwah. 




Oojjainee, 


Ujayin. 




Oodeypooree, 


Udaypur. 




Marwari, 


Marwar. 


> Rajputana. 


Jaypuri, 


Jaypur. 




Bikaniri, 


Bikanir. 




Bhattaniri, 


Bhattanir. 




Magara, 


Behar, Patna. 


Tirhutiya or 


Tirhoot, Purneah. 


Maithil, 


Bhaugulpoor, 


Monghyr. 



Now, I would ask those who wish us to abjure Persian and Arabic 
and draw from " the well of Hindi undefiled," which of all these dia- 
lects is to be considered as undefiled. If to the above dialects we add 
Marathi, Guzaratti, Sindhi, Ooch, Punjabi, Dogra, Cashmeree, Par- 
buttia, Moonugee, Palpa — all of which are more or less Hindi — the 
difficulty of selecting our standard becomes almost insurmountable ; 
for in these various forms of Hindi not only do the vocables differ, 
but the very declensions and conjugations, the very root and fibre of 
the language. Thus for the genitive case affix, we have kd, Jce, ki, 
Hindi : da, de, di, didu, Punjabi : clia, die, chi, chya, Marathi : sa, se, 
si &c. Sindhi, and so on. The verb hond to be, undergoes a wonderful 
variety of inflections. Not to multiply instances, it may suffice to say 



i 



1866.] The Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. 13 

that there is no such thing as a Hindi standard of speech which is at 
once intelligible to all classes, in all parts of Hindustan. For a com- 
mon standard you are driven to the Urdu, which has selected and 
embalmed the purest and most widely used forms of the old Hindi. 
Just as in England, if we threw aside our classical English tongue 
with all its foreign importations, we should find ourselves in a chaos of 
Hampshire, Somerset, Yorkshire, Lowland Scotch and other jargons ; 
so would it be in India. Who that has not lived among the 
people understands the following words, common though they are in 
the mouth of the Hampshire peasant ? to brize, to douut, fessey, to hov, 
frittering, triolein, rumwards, skrow, stalble, tidy, wivvery, ivosset, yape, 
to yaw. Examples without number might be given by any one who 
recollects the peasant-talk of his own county in England. No one in 
his senses would recommend our generally adopting any of these 
words, good old Celtic and Saxon though they be, and yet we are 
asked in India to recommend and assist in a precisely similar process. 
The fact is that the languages of modern times have all arisen from a 
fusion of cognate dialects, just as most nations have been formed by 
coalitions of kindred tribes. By throwing aside that which was pecu- 
liar to themselves, and retaining all those words and inflections which 
they possessed in common, modern nations obtained a national basis 
of speech on which to engraft words borrowed from foreign sources ; 
and thus were built up English, French, Italian, Spanish, Turkish, 
and all the leading languages of our times. That the Grangetic tribes, 
by a happy coincidence, have been able to follow the same course, and, 
by fusing the rough Hindi dialects into one, to add thereto many ex- 
pressive foreign words, is a circumstance which, far from being lament- 
able or a sign of decay, entitles the language so formed, to rank among 
progressive and civilized tongues. If the rudest of the peasantry 
cannot understand the cultivated language of their educated compa- 
triots, it is not therefore advisable to despoil the language of its legiti- 
mate gains, to bring it down to the level of grihasths and gwalas. 
Rather let the latter be educated till they do understand. The diffi- 
culty which the peasant finds in understanding the Court language has 
been immensely overrated, and is only due to his imperfect education. 
The true remedy for the difficulty is not to be found in an insane 
attempt to impoverish a fine and copious language, but in making it 
more widely known to all classes in India. 



14 On Ordeals. [No. t 



A translation of the Chapter on Ordeals, from the Vydvahdra Mayukha. 
— *By Professor George Buhler, Elphinstone College, Bombay. 

[Received 2nd June, 1865.] 

The following translation of the Mayukha's chapter on Ordeals was 
originally prepared by a Bombay Shastri at the request of my learned 
friend, Mr. Wh. Stokes, and intended to be inserted in the reprint of 
Mr. Borradaile's translation of the Mayukha, which was being published 
under his superintendence in Madras. When I looked over the Shis- 
tri's work, I found that it would be of no use, as his translation was 
frequently unintelligible, and often decidedly wrong. I therefore retrans- 
lated nearly the whole, with the assistance of Mr. Vinayak Laxman, 
late Hindu Law Officer of the Bombay High Court. Circumstances 
prevented the completion of the translation, before the printing of Mr. 
Borradaile's Mayukha was too far advanced to admit of its insertion. 

These circumstances will explain how it happened that my attention 
was directed to a part of the Hindu Law, like the Ordeals, which has a 
purely antiquarian interest, and has become rather trite by the publica- 
tion of two papers on it ; one by Ali Ibrahim Khan, As. Res. I., p. 389, 
the other by Prof. Stenzler, Journ. D. Morg. Gres. Yol. IX., as well as 
by the appearance of a translation of the chapter on Ordeals from the 
Mitakshara by Mr. W. Macnaghten, (Principles and Prec. of H. 
Law, Madras, 1865.) 



Here (begin) the ordeals : 

They are used to decide matters which are left undecided by human 
evidence. They are of two kinds (1st) such, as decide (a case) 
immediately, and (2nd) such, as decide it after the lapse of some time. 

Amongst them Brihaspati describes those of the first kind (in the 
following verse) : 

" The scales, fire, and water, poison, fifthly consecrated water ; rice 
grains are declared to be the sixth ; hot masha (coins) the seventh ; 
the eighth is the ploughshare, according to the (ancient sages) ; the lot 
is recorded as the ninth." 

Yajnavalkya declares (II. 95) that the first five (of these nine 
ordeals) (are to be used) in (cases involving) heavy accusations only. 






1866.] On Ordeals. 15 

" The scales, fire, water, poison and consecrated water are the 
ordeals (used) here (in lawsuits) for exculpation, if the plaintiff binds 
himself to abide by the award (Cirshakastha means ready,) and to 
suffer the punishment, which the defendant would suffer in case of 
defeat. 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" Let him (the judge) order the scales, etc. for those, against whom 
the accusation is urged with great confidence ; rice grains and consecrated 
water he should order in doubtful cases." 

Avashtambha (means) confidence. 

According to this passage (of Pitamaha) consecrated water may be 
used when the plaintiff is full of confidence, (as well as when he is) 
doubtful. 

In the Kalikapurana (we read) : 

u In case of an accusation of adultery, of theft, of a connexion 
with women (the intercourse with whom is) forbidden, or of a 
Mahapataka or of high treason, let an ordeal take place. 

" When there is conflicting evidence or (any other) dispute, or if a 
blame is attached to the plaintiff, then shall the king order the ordeal 
(to take place) after the plaintiff has declared himself ready to suffer 
the punishment (of defeat). When there are many witnesses in an 
action for adultery, let the defendant undergo the ordeal, in order to clear 
himself without any additional punishment." 

Women, the connexion with whom is forbidden (ctgamydli) are others 
than married women ; such as common prostitutes. 

' Qaste' means ' in the case of an accusation.' 

1 Sahasam' means ' a crime perpetrated by violence.' 

' Avarnah' means ' blame.' 

' Qirah (head) means c punishment.' 

The specification of the accusation by the words ' for adultery,' is 
unnecessary, because this accusation has been already mentioned. Like- 
wise are the words ' where there are many witnesses' (unnecessary). 
Therefore an ordeal may take place in every action, even if witnesses 
be wanting. The indication of the object of the ordeal by the words 
" in order to clear himself," is proper only, (if the passage be to her) 
in this (sense). And it is a common saying, " In actions for high trea- 
son and accusations of an offence which causes loss of caste (the defen- 



16 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

dant) should undergo an ordeal, even if the plaintiff be not ready to 
undergo the punishment of defeat." 

Narada (says) : 

Those who are suspected by kings, those who are accused by Dasyus, 
and those who wish to clear themselves, shall undergo an ordeal, without 
(any additional) punishment (in case of defeat). 

The ordeal which decides a case after (the lapse of some) time, is 
the oath. 

Narada has declared the different kinds of this (the latter) : 

" (Let (him swear) by truth, (or) let him touch (whilst swearing) 
a vehicle, arms, a cow, grains, or gold, or the feet of the gods, or of his 
father or mother ; or (let him swear) by his pious gifts, and his good 
works ; or let him touch the head of his child, of his wife or of a friend ; 
or he may also — in case of any accusation, — drink consecrated water." 

The oaths are declared by Manu (to be resorted to) even on very 
trifling occasions. 

Though consecrated water decides a case only after the lapse of 
some time, it has been enumerated in the first (division), because it 
is used in great accusations (also). 

Yajnavalkya (says) (II. 96) : 

il According to (their) pleasure either of the two may undergo (the 
ordeal), and the other may take (upon himself) the punishment (in 
case of defeat)." 

This alternative (lies) only at the pleasure of the plaintiff. If 
he does not wish (to undergo the ordeal), (it falls) on the defendant. 
Let nobody oblige the plaintiff to undergo the jsunishment. 

" The ordeal should be imposed upon the accused by those who know 
(the rules respecting) the ordeal." 

These are the words of Katyayana in the Divyatattva. 

Here (follow) the rules regarding the different kinds of ordeals 
appropriate to (different) individuals. 

Yajnavalkya says (II. 98) : 

" The scales (are appropriate) for women, children, old, blind, or lame 
persons and Brahmans ; fire or water, the seven grains of Yava or 
poison, for a Cudra." 

(The scales are for every body) without reference to sex or caste 
or age. 



18GG.] On Ordeals. 17 

B&la (is a person) who is younger than 16 years, of whatever caste 
he may be. (A person who is) older than 80 years (is called) vriddha 
(old). 

Here (in this passage it is meant) that the scales only are intended 
for a Brahman (when the ordeal takes place) at the time generally 
(appointed for the scales), of which (more) will be spoken (below). 
But (when the ordeal takes place) at the time (which is fit for the 
employment) of fire and the like, those (ordeals) are employed even 
(for a Brahman)." 

Therefore Pitamaha (says) : 

" All castes can, according to the rule, be cleared by (taking) conse- 
crated water. All the (ordeals) (can be employed in case) of every 
one, except poison (in the case) of a Brahman." 

In the Kalikapurana (we read) : 

A hot gold masha coin should always be given to a man of the 
lowest caste. 

Narada (says) : 

" Let (the judge) always examine eunuchs, men bereft of strength, 
those whose mind is violently agitated, and these three, children, 
old and sick people, by means of the scales. But neither poison 
nor water, is prescribed for women ; by means of the scales, consecrated 
water, etc. let him enquire into the hidden truth about them. Those 
who are in (bodily or mental) pain, shall not clear themselves by the 
water (ordeal), nor those who suffer of a disease caused by gall or 
poison. The (ordeal by) fire is not ordained for the leprous, the blind, 
those who suffer of a disease of the nails, and the like. Children and 
women should not be immerged (into water) by those who know the In- 
stitutes of law, nor (should this be done) to sick, old or weak men. He 
should (likewise) not immerge into water those who have no force, and 
those who have been enfeebled by sickness. When they are immerged, 
they always die ; for little life (is left) in them. He shall not im- 
merge them even if they have come (to court) on account (of an 
accusation) of an offence perpetrated with violence. Nor shall he make 
them take (into their hands) hot iron, nor shall he make them clear 
themselves by (taking) poison. 

Vishnu (says) : 

" (Let him not impose any of the abovementioned ordeals) upon those, 
3 



18 On Ordeals. [No. I, 

who suffer of a disease caused by the phlegmatic humor, or who are 
(otherwise) sick, or women or asthmatic persons." 

Katyfiyana (says) : 

" Let him not give the ordeal by fire to smiths, nor (that by) water to 
those who (by their profession) have to work in water (as divers, etc.) 
nor by any means poison to those who know the application of charms. 
Let him not order a man, who is engaged on fulfilling a religious vow 
or who has a disease of the mouth (to undergo the ordeal) of the rice 
grains. 

A man who is engaged on a vrata (vratin) (means) a man who 
performs the milk- vow and the like. 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" Consecrated water should not be given by wise (men) to those who 
drink spirituous liquor, to adulterers, gamblers or atheists." 

Narada (says) : 

" He shall avoid to give consecrated water to a man, who has com- 
mitted a great crime, or who does not obey the law, an ungrateful 
(person), a eunuch, a despicable (person), an atheist, a man whose crimes 
(faults) are (generally) known. 

Katyayana (says) : 

" But the king should not order (the abovementioned ordeal) for 
people, who ought not to be touched, for those of the lowest castes, for 
slaves, barbarians, evil-doers ; nor for those born by pratilomya (whose 
mother is of a higher caste than the father). 

He should order for them, at the time, the ordeals which are known 
(to be fit) for the (season). 

Known (to be fit) for them are the scales, poison and the like (each 
of which is fit for some proper season.) 

If the person who has to undergo the ordeal is unable (to do so,) 
the same (Katyayana) prescribes a substitute (to be chosen for him,) 
in the Divyatattva. 

" If there is no hindrance (for the person, who has to undergo the 
ordeal) as far as regards place or time, then let him undergo it, as 
it is proper. He can have it performed by another (person) ; that 
is the rule in the contrary case." Anyena, by another, harayet, he 
may cause it to be taken, (means) he may have it performed by a sub- 
stitute. Viparyaye (in the contrary case), (means) if the person who 



I860.] On Ordeals. 19 

has to undergo the ordeal is unable (to do so), let (then another 
person) do what is appropriate. 

In the contrary ease, i. e. when there is a certainty that the defend- 
ant formerly did commit a great crime, such as the murder of his 
father or other (near relations) ; or when at some other time (the de- 
fendant) was suspected of some other matter, the same (Katvayana) 
declares (that he should perform) the ordeal through a substitute. 

" (In the case) of people who have killed their father, mother, a 
Brahman, their spiritual teacher, an old man, a woman or a child, of 
such as have committed a Mahapataka, and especially of atheists, 
those who bear the sign (of another caste than that to which they 
belong) of women, of those who arc acquainted with the use of charms 
and yoga (supernatural power acquired by meditation, etc.), or of tlio.se 
who are born in a mixed caste, of those who live or cause others to 
live in a course of vice; — in the case of such shameful accusations, a 
justice-loving king should by no means order (the accused to undergo) an 
ordeal. The ordeal ought to be undergone by good people appointed 
by these (the abovementioned sinners). Where there are no good 
men, there they should be cleared by their own people (undergoing 
the ordeal)." Svakaih (by their own people) (means) by relations. 

Here (follow) (the rules regarding) the time (when the several 
ordeals should take place). 

Pitamaha (says) : 

11 Caitra (March, April) Margacivas (December, January) and Yai<;a- 
kha (April, May) are months generally (used for all ordeals), and they 
do not present obstacles to ordeals." 

The (ordeal by the) scales is ordained (to be employed) at any 
season, (but) one should avoid it, if the wind blows. 

The (ordeal by) fire is declared (to be good) in the dewy, cold and 
rainy seasons, the (ordeal by) water in autumn and the hot season, that 
by poison in winter and dewy season. 

Poison (is recommended) to be taken in the cold and dewy seasons, 
(but) other seasons also (at times) are included ; beacuse further on (the 
passage) varshe caturyavamatra, etc. will be quoted. 

Narada (says) : 

" Consecrated water may be given at any season (of the year), (and) 
the scales (likewise) may (be employed) at any time." 



20 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

Pitamaha (says further) : 

" The ordeal by fire must take place in the morning, and in the morn- 
ing the scales (must be employed). The (ordeal by) water ought to be 
given in the middle of the day to those who wish (to leam) the real state 
of truth. But the clearing by means of consecrated water is ordered 
(to take place) during the first half of the day. But in the last quarter 
of the night should the poison be given, being cold. 

These ordeals should take place on a Sunday, thus say the Qishtas, 
(i. e. those Brahmans who have studied the Vedas and Vedangas and 
thereby have become authorities in law). 

Now (follow the rules on) the place (where the ordeal ought to 
take place). 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" The scales must always be made to turn towards the east, immove- 
able, in a pure place, near to the flag, in the hall (of justice), or in the 
gateway of the king's (palace), or on a crossing." 

Narada (says) : 

" (Let it be placed) in the hall or at the door of the king's palace, 
in a temple or on a crossing." 

Katyayana (says) : 

" Let him order those men who are accused of a Mahapataka, 
to undergo the ordeal near the flag, those who (are accused to) 
have committed high treason, at the door of the king's (palace) ; those 
who are born in pratilomya should undergo the ordeal on a crossing, 
and wise men know that in other cases (the ordeal should take place) in 
the midst of the hall (of justice)." 

Narada (says further) : 

" If ordeals are not given at the proper time and place, or undergone 
by people who claim to be exempted from them, they always cause in 
lawsuits a false result ; of that there is no doubt." 

Now (follow) the rules which are common to all ordeals : 

Pitamaha (says) : 

Then let the judge, who is conversant with the religious law, invoke 
the gods according to the following rule ; turning towards the east and 
joining his hands, let him speak : " Come, come, divine Dharma, ap- 
proach this ordeal, together with the Lokapalas (eight protectors of the 
world) and the crowds of Vasus, Adityas and Maruts." But if he 



J 



1866.] On Ordeah. 21 

has brought Dharma to the scales, he should assign to the subordinate 
gods their several places. 

The same (Pitamaha says further) : 

" Having placed Indra in the eastern direction, and the lord of the dead 
in the south, Varuna in the west, and Kuvera in the north, he should 
divide the (other) Lokapalas, etc., Agni in the intermediate points 
of the horizon. Indra is yellow, Yaina dark-blue, Varuna shines 
like crystal, Kuvera like gold, Agni also (glitters) like gold, and 
Nirriti is dark-blue, Vayu dark-brown, and let Icana be red — thus he 
shall meditate on them in their order. To the south of Indra a wise 
man should place the Vasus. These eight Vasus are declared to be 
Dhara, Dhrava and Soma, Apah (the waters), Anila (wind), Anala 
(fire), Pratyiisha (early morning), Prabhasa. Between the lord of gods 
(Indra) and Icana is the place of the Adityas. The names of these twelve 
Adityas are declared to be Dhatri, Aryaman, Mitra, Varuna, lea 
and Bhaga; Indra, Vivasvat, and Pushan ; and as the tenth Parjanva ; 
then Tvashtri, then last born, though not last (in power), Vishnu. But 
the western side of Agni (between this god and Yaina), they know to 
be the place of the Rudras. The Rudras arc recorded to be eleven (name- 
ly), Virabhadra, Cambhu and the famous Girica, Aja Ekapad, Ahi 
Budhnya, and the unconquered Pinakin, and BhuvanadlnVvara, and 
Kapali, Vitampati, Sthanu, and the illustrious Bhava. Between the 
lord of the dead (Yaina) and the Baxasa (Nirriti) let him make the 
place of the mothers. (They are) Brahmi, Mahecvari, Kaumari, and 
Vaislmavi, Varahi, Mahendri, and Camunda, accompanied by her Ganas. 
They know (tell) that Ganeca's place is to the north of Nirriti (between 
him and Varuna). 

• The place of the Maruts is declared (to be) on the northern side 
of Varuna (between him and Vayu). 

The seven Marutas are said (to be) ; Gaganasparcana, Vayu, Anila, 
Maruta, Prana, Praneca, Yiva. A wise man should bring Durga to the 
north of the scales : and they prescribe adoration to these deities, 
/calling each) by his name. Having given to Dharma in the proper 
order the (offerings), the first of which is the Arghya and the last of 
which consists of ornaments (in flowers, etc.), he afterwards should give 
to the subordinate gods the (offerings), beginning with the Arghya and 
ending with the (presentation of) ornaments. 



22 On Ordeals. [Xo. 1, 

(And) he should offer the adoration which begins with the (obla- 
tion of) perfumes and ends with the (oblation of the) food. 

By (Brahmans) who have studied the Vedas a burnt-offering should 
be presented in each of the four points of the horizon. Let him offer 
at these offerings clarified butter, boiled rice Samidhs accompanying 
the act with the recital of the Savitri, the Pranava (Omkara), and 
the Svaha at the end." 

Havi's (oblation) (means) Charu, boiled rice. The Eastern Mi- 
mamsakas declare in the Divyatattva, that the clarified butter, the 
boiled rice and the sacred fuel (Samidhah) are offered conjointly, just 
as at the two Samnaya-ishtis, because the deities, (to whom they are 
offered), are not opposed to each other. 
That is wrong. 

For (it is declared) in the Sutra of A'cvalayana and the rest : " He 
cuts off two portions of ajya, he places fuel once on the boiled rice, he 
cuts off (portions) of the boiled rice twice from the middle and the 
fore-part (of the heap), and he sprinkles the rice which he has cut off 
(with ghee). This is the rule for cutting off." 

Sruva means, (here) fuel, because it has also this meaning. 
(Besides) the conjoint oblation (of the various offerings) is im- 
possible, because (in each case) a different instrument (for completing 
the oblation) is prescribed (by the Sutra) hastasya. 

But in the case of the two Samnaya ishtis the conjoint of oblation (of 
the ghee, fuel and rice) is proper, because (there) only one instrument, 
the juhii, is used. 

The same (Pitamaha says) : 

" The accused having written the (crime) of which he is accused, on 
a scroll (of paper) together with the following Mantra, places that (scroll) 
on his forehead. 

And the Mantra (is the following), 

" Sun and moon, wind and fire, heaven and earth, the waters, (man's 
own) heart, and Yama, day and night, the two twilights and Dharma 
know man's actions." 
Narada (says) : 

" Then the judge (who ought to be) a Brahman, who has studied 
the Veclas and the Vedangas, who possesses fame and a good character, 
who has extinguished (the passions of) his mind, who has forsaken 






1866.] On Ordeals. 23 

envy, who keeps his promises, pure, clever, rejoicing in the welfare of all 
creatures, who has kept a fast (on the day of the ordeal) in wet clothes, 
(who has bathed in his clothes), who has cleaned his teeth with water, 
having worshipped all the gods according to the (prescribed) rule 

YAjnavalkya (says II. 97), 

11 (The judge) having called the accused who has bathed in his 
garments and fasted from sunrise, shall cause him to undergo the 
ordeals in the presence of the king and the Brahinans." 

Pitamaha also (says) : 

" Ordeals always (should be ordered) to be performed by the accused 
when he has fasted one or three days, who is pure, and dressed in a wet 
garment." 

The same (author says) : 

° Surrounded by good men, the king should (order him to) perform 
this clearing (through an ordeal) and should (order him to) gladden 
the sacrificial priests, house-priests, and spiritual teachers by presents. 
A king who orders the ordeal to he performed in this way, after having 
enjoyed heart-gladdening pleasures, having obtained great fame, he 
becomes fit to be (united with) Brahma. 

Now follows the rule on the (ordeal) of tin 1 scales. 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" The king should order (his people) to construct a hall for the 
scales, which (is) broad, high, resplendent, where a man will not be 
defiled by dogs, Chandalas or crows, possessing an instrument for 
(shutting) the doors, protected by watchmen, which contains (jars 
with) water and the like, which is well furnished." 

Narada (says) : 

" Let him (the king) order (scales) to be made there, of any Khadira 
wood, except £ukla Khadira, which must be free from clefts ; Quklavarji- 
ta (lit. except white) means except white Khadira wood. 

" tf there is no (Khadira) (it should be) made of Qimcapa, or (if 
that be wanting) of Qala, which must be free from holes, or (it may be 
made of) iron-wood (arjuna), or Tinduki, or of Tinica or red sandalwood. 

Mahava gives the following reading (of the passage arjuna — candana) : 
The arjuna, Tilaka, Acoka, Tinica, (or red sandal tree) (should be used). 

He should use such like woods for the scales. 

Such like (evamvidhani) means (that he may use) also others, as 



24 On Ordeals. [No. 1 



Udumbara-wood (Indian fig-tree) and the like ; thus (says) Madana. 

For this very reason, 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" Having cut (any) tree, that is fit to be used at the sacrifice, pre- 
ceding the action, as in the case of the sacrificial post, with Mantras 
(prayers from the Veda), and having worshipped the guardians of the 
world, wise men should make the scales. The Mantra are addressed 
to Soma, and to Vanaspati during the cutting, and muttered only. 
Preceding the action by a Mantra as in the case of the Yupa (means 
having muttered) : "0 tree, protect him, etc." 

The two Mantras addressed to Soma and Vanaspati, are both spoken 
during the cutting, because on account of the Mantras being muttered 
their object is not visible. (Which Mantras are called) saumyah, ad- 
dressed to Soma, that is known. The Mantra addressed to Vanaspati is : 
Vanaspate Qatavalcosvaroha, (R. V. III. 8.) The transferring of the 
qualities of the Yupa to the scales (by the words) asya yupavat i. e. 
in the case of this as in the case of the Yupa, causes the repetition 
of something established (before). 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" But the scales should be made (in length) four hastas, and the side- 
posts as long, the space between (the scales and the posts) should be 
one hasta and a half." 

Vyasa (says) : 

" But two hastas of each side-post (of the scales) are to be dug into 
the ground." 

Pitamaha (says further) : 
\ " The scale beam is to be made four-cornered, firm, and straight, 
and hoops should industriously be placed in three places (middle and 
the two ends)." 

The same (goes on) : 

Having fastened the two basins to the two ends (of the beam), let 
him place kuca-gras, the tops of which are directed to the east, also on 
the two basins. 

Let him weigh those who undergo (the ordeal) on the western scale, 
on the other (he shall place) clean clay, bricks or ashes, (but he shall) 
avoid stones, potsherds, bones. 

Narada (says) : 



1866.] On Ordeals. 25 

u Having firmly tied the scales (plates) to the two rings (at the 
ends) of the scale-beam, let him place in the one scale the man, in the 
other a stone. On the northern side scale let him place the man, on 
the southern (side) the stone. (Or) let him fill the basin with bricks, 
dust or clods of earth." 

The same (Narada) declares the manner of examining (the respective 
weights of the man and stone) ; 

" (Before the weighing) the examiners (should) always (make) the 
scale-beam even by means of two mason's plummets, and (people who 
are) expert (in this business) should (always, when weighing,) pour 
water on the scale-beam." 

" That scale-beam on which the water does not flow, is what one 
should know — to be even? 

Pitamaha (also) prescribes the two plummets (to be used) in order 
(to produce) evenness : 

" At the two ends should he make two arches( torana), (which should 
be) higher than the scale-beam by ten lingers, and a mason's plummet 
(should hang down from each arch (torana) made of clay, tied (to the 
arch) by a string, touching the corner of the scale-beam." 

Pitamaha (further says) : 

" Having weighed the man first, he should make him descend from 
the scale ; but he should always adorn the scales with wimples and 
banners ; then (a Brahman) who knows the Veda should bring the 
gods near to it by this rule, with drums and horns, perfumes, wreaths 
and ointments." 

Narada (says) : 

11 Let him first honour the scales, with red sandalwood powder, per- 
fumes and flower-wreaths, curds, cakes, unground (rice) and the like; 
then he should honour the learned (Brahmans)." 

Yajnavalkya (says) : (II. 100 and 101) : 

" People who are expert in weighing should make the accused ascend 
the scale, (and) when they have placed (in the other scale) a weight 
equal to his (weight) and made a line on the scales, he should be 
ordered to descend. (Before he ascends the scale for the second time, 
the accused) should address the scales with this Mantra : 

" ' Thou, oh balance, hast been formerly constructed by the gods to 
be the abode of truth, therefore, oh good (goddess), speak the truth 
4 



26 On Ordeals. [No. 1 

(now), and free me from suspicion. If I have done wrong, mother, 
make me descend ; if I am pure, let me ascend.' " 

Narada (says) : 

■" Having bound (the accused) by oaths, he (the judge) should again 
make him ascend the scales in (a place) sheltered from wind and 
rain, having tied to his forehead a scroll (on which the accusation 
is written)." 

Samayaih parigrihya, having bound him by oaths. These (oaths) are 
given (in detail) by Vishnu : 

u The hells of the murderer of a Brahman, the worlds where the liars 
go to, those are the worlds (destined) for him who practises fraud at 
the time of weighing." 

Narada declares the address (to the scales) at the time of ascending 
it for the second time (to be the following) : 

" Thou knowest the bad and good deeds of all creatures ; thou alone, 
oh god, knowest, what men do not know ; this accused man is weighed 
on thee, therefore deign to protect him who is under suspicion, accord- 
ing to truth. By truth thou excellest gods, Asuras and men. 

" Thou art truthful, divine one, in discerning right and wrong. 
Sun and moon, wind and fire, heaven and earth, the waters, the 
heart and Yama, day and night, and the two (gods of) the twilight 
and Dharma know the deeds of men." 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" A Brahman of good character, who knows astronomy, should 
examine the time (when the accused has ascended the scales for the 
second time). Five Palas are the time allowed for the ordeal — that 
should be known to (those who are) expert (in the matter). But the 
king should employ as examiners the best of Brahmans who (will) 
announce the result as they see it, (who are) wise, pure not covetous. 
All the witnesses (after the lapse of five Palas) announce to the king 
(whether the accused) is guilty or not guilty." 

Vinadyah (means) Palas ; because (it is written) in the Smriti, that 
the time (required) in pronouncing ten long syllables is called a breath, 
(Prana, and) six (such) breaths are one vinadika (Pala). 

Narada (says) : 

" If the man who is being weighed, rises, he shall doubtlessly be 
guiltless ; if (the scales) remain even, or if it sinks, he shall be guilty." 






1866.] On Ordeals. 27 

Vriddhih (lit. increase, means) rising. Hani (lit. abandonment 
means) sinking. 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" If (the scales remain) even, (the judge) should know that he is 
a little guilty ; but a very guilty man sinks." 

The smallncss (of the guilt is implied, if the accused has) committed 
a crime once (or) without intention. 

But when it is asserted in the (scroll of impeachment) which he 
wears on his forehead, that the crime has been (cither) committed only 
once or without intent, and there is a conflict of evidence regarding 
the crime only, then, if the ordeal has been instituted and evenness 
(of the scales has been the result), it must be repeated, because in such 
(a case) the fault cannot be a small one. 

Therefore Brihaspati (says) : 

" A man who (remains) level with that (counterweight) should be 
weighed again ; a man who rises shall Lave won (his cause)." 

Katyayana names another reason for repeating (the ordeal) : 

" If the scale, or the beam, or the string should break, or if there 
should be a doubt about the guiltlessness (of the accused), he (the 
judge) should examine the man again." 

Yyasa (says) : 

" If the scale, or the beam, or the two hooks, or the string or the 
upper beam (which joins the two posts) break, the king should allow 
(the accused) to try to clear (himself) a second time." 

But these (opinions of the lawyers) refer (to cases) where the 
reason for the breakage is visible. But if no reason for the break is 
apparent, he is certainly guilty. 

For in another Smriti (we read) : 

" If the scales, or the beam, or the two hooks, or the string, or the 
upper beam, should break, then he shall declare (the accused) guilty." 

Kaxa the basins of the scales. 

Axa (axle, means) the upper beam (joining the two feet or side 
beams) which holds the scale beam. 

The eastern (lawyers say) : 

" Only the weighing is repeated, not the whole ceremony with (all 
its) parts (as prayers, etc.)" 

Madana (says) : 



28 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

" In order to avoid defects, the proceedings with all their details 
should be repeated, in the same manner (as before)." 

Now follows the description of the proceeding. 

The person who has to conduct the ordeal goes, on an auspicious day, 
to one of the before-mentioned trees and cuts it, whilst reciting the 
Mantra : " plant, protect me." Then he mutters (the verse), " Somo- 
dhenum" (R. V. I. 91-20) — Grautama is its Rishi, Soma the deity, the 
metre is Trishtubh, and the manner of its recitation is Japa (muttering) 
Somoclhenum, etc — , and (the verse), " Vanaspate (RV III. 8, 11") its 
Rishi is Vicvamitra, the son of Gradhi, its deity Vanaspati, its metre 
Trishtubh, the manner of reciting it is Japa, " Vanaspati catavakah, 
etc." Then he worships the guardians of the world, Indra and the rest, 
each separately, and makes the scale-beam four hastas long, four fingers 
thick, four-cornered in the middle, and at both ends four ringers thicker, 
and in the middle fitted with a hook or ring which is turned upwards, 
and at each end with a grapple or ring which is turned downwards. 

Some (lawyers) say, that he then should make an altar, seven or 
five hastas long and four fingers high. Then he shall there or in 
another clean place dig into the earth, two hastas deep, two four- 
cornered posts six hastas long, and surmounted by tops. Above 
the earth will remain four hastas (of the posts), besides the top portion ; 
the distance between those two posts should be two hastas or one 
hasta and a half. Between the two tops he shall place a piece of the 
wood which is fitted with a grapple (lit. crab), a ring, a hook or the 
like instrument turned downwards, for fastening the scale-beam to it. 
From that (beam) hangs the scale-beam with its upper hook or ring 
or the like, and two boards should be tied to the ends (of the beam), 
each with three strings. Having dug into the earth a pair of posts, 
(the one) to the south (the other) to the north, at a distance of two 
hands (from each other), at the eastern end, of the scale-beam, he shall 
place a joining-piece over them. This is the arch (torana) and that 
should be ten fingers higher than the balance. He shall make an (arch) 
of this kind also on the western side of the scale-beam. In order to know 
if the scales are even, he must make two mason's plummets, of clay, 
in the shape of balls, hanging down from the arches, tied to them 
by strings, and touching the ends of the scale-beam. He shall spread on 
the scales Kuca-grass blades with their tops turned to the east. Then 



i 



1866.] Ov OrdaU. 29 

the Pradvivaka, having fasted one (day), shall make the accused, 
who has fasted one (day), or in case of heavy accusation, if he can 
do it, three (days), and who has bathed in his garments, ascend the 
western scale on a Sunday after sunrise, and having placed in the 
eastern scale stones, bricks, clay, or the like, shall make (this weight) 
equal (to that of the accused). Truthful Brahmans and goldsmiths 
shall make an enquiry into this (if the scale-beam stands even) by 
throwing water (on it) and the like. Then (the Pradvivaka), having 
made a line (in the scale) in order to know the place, where (the 
accused) was sitting at the time of being weighed (for the first 
time), he shall make him to descend. 

' Then the accused, having named the place and the time (where and 
when the ordeal takes place), and having vowed, " In order to prove 
my innocence, I will undergo this ordeal," .shall elect, by presenting 
clothes and the like, besides the Pradvivaka four priests (to perform 
the following sacrificial ceremonies). 

The great doctors in Smriti lore say, that also the Svastivacana 
should be performed. The Pradvivaka, standing with his hands joined, 
shall bring Dharma to the scales (pronouncing the following prayer), 
accompanied by the sound of musical instruments, " Om, come, come, 
divine Dharma, approach this ordeal together with the guardians of the 
worlds, the Vasus, Adityas, and, the flocks of the Maruts." Afterwards 
he shall bring the subordinate deities. 

He uses for bringing Indra (near), " Omindramvicva" (R. V. I. 11-1,) 
which verse (was seen by) Madhuchandas, (and has for its deity) Indra, 
(and for its metre) Anushtubh. The application (of the verse remains) 
everywhere the same. (Having muttered) " indramvicva, etc." 
(and having with these words) " Indra come, mayest thou stand here," 
brought Indra to the eastern (corner of the place), he should meditate 
on the yellow colour. (He then speaks the verse) " Yamaya somam," 
(R. V. X. 14-13) (of which) Yama (is the Rishi), Yama (the deity), 
and Anushtubh (the metre). (Having muttered the verse) " Yamaya 
somam," (and having by the prayer) " Yama come hither, mayest thou 
stand here," brought Yama to the southern (corner), he should medi- 
tate on the dark-blue colour. (He then recites this verse) " Tvamnah," 
(R. V. IV. 1, 4 of which) Vamadeva (is the Rishi), Varuna (the 
deity), and Trishtubh (the metre). Having muttered " Tvamnosgne 



30 On Ordeah. [No. 1, 

varunasya," (and having with the prayer) " Varuna come hither, ma vest 
thou stand here," brought Varuna to the western (corner), he should 
meditate on the colour of crystal. 

Having brought Kuvera with the prayer from the Yajurveda 
" Rajadhirajaya" (and with this prayer) " Kuvera come hither, mayest 
thou stand here," to the northern (corner), he should meditate on 
the colour of gold. (He then recites the verse) " Agnim," (R. V. 
VIII. 44, 3) (of which the) Rishi is Medhatithi, (the deity) Agni, 
(the metre) Gayatri. Having muttered " Om agnim dutam" (and 
having brought Agni (with the words) " Agni come hither, mayest 
thou stand here," to the corner sacred to Agni (south-east), he should 
meditate on the colour of gold. (He then recites the mantra), " Moshu" 
(R. V. I. 38, 6), (of which the Rishi is) Grhora of the race of Kanva r 
(the deity) Nirriti, (the metre) G-ayatri. Having brought Nirriti (by 
muttering) " moshunah," (and) "Nirriti come hither, mayest thou stand 
here," (to the south-western corner), he should meditate on the dark- 
blue (colour). 

(He then recites this mantra) " Tavavayo" (R. V. VIII. 26-21,) of 
which the Rishi is) Vyacva, the deity Vayu, (and the metre) G-ayatri. 
Having brought Vayu (by muttering " Tavavayav," etc. and, " Vayu, 
come, etc." as before (to the north-western corner), he should meditate 
on the brown (smoke) colour. 

(He then recites), " tamicanani," etc. (R. V. I. 89, 5) (whose Rishi 
is) G-autama, (whose deity is) Icana, (whose metre is) Jagati. Having 
brought Icana by muttering " tamicanam," etc. (and) " Icana come," 
etc. as before (to the north-eastern corner), he should meditate on the 
red colour. 

To the right of Indra he should bring (the eight Vasus (with this 
verse) : " Imayatra vasavah" (R. V. VII. 39, 3), (whose Rishi is*) 
Vasishtha, the son of Mitra and Varuna, (whose deities are) the 
Vasus, (whose metre is) Trishtubh. He should mutter " imayatra, 
etc." (and the invocation) " Vasavas come hither, stand here." 

The eight Vasus are declared to be ; Dhara, Dhruva, Soma, Apah, 
Anila, Anala, Pratyusha, Prabhasa. 

He places between Indra and Icana the twelve A'dityas (with this 
Mantra); " tyamnu" (R. V. VIII. 561) (whose Rishi is) Sammada 
Matsya, (whose deities are) the twelve A'dityas, (whose metre is the) 
Gayatri. (He should mutter) " tyam nuxatriya, etc." 






1866.] On Ordeals. 31 

Dhatri, Aryaman, Mitra, Varuna, Amca, Bhaga, Indra, Vivasvat, 
Pushan, Parjanya as the tenth, next Tvashtri, then Vishnu last not 
least, these are declared to be the twelve Adityas, by their names. 
He brings to the western side of Agni the eleven Kudras (by this 
verse) " arudrasah" (R. V. 5. l.J), (whose Rishi is) Qyavacva, (whose 
deities are) the eleven Rudras, (whose metre is) Jagati. (He should 
do so by muttering) " arudrasah" (and the prayer,) " Rudras come 
hither." As the eleven Rudras arc recorded Virabhadra, Qambhu 
and the glorious Gririca, Ahir-budhnya, Aja Ekapad, and the uncon- 
quered Pinakin, Blmvanadhicvana, and Kapalin, the lord of men, 
Sthanu, Bhava, and Bhagavat. Between Yama and Nirriti he places 
Brahman (masc.) (with this verse) "Brahma yainanam" (whose Rishi 
is) Vamadeva, Gotama's son, ( whose deity is) Brahman (masc), (whose 
metre) Trishtubh. (He should do so by muttering) " Brahmayajna- 
am" (and this invocation, "'Brahman come) hither." (And he 
brings to the same place) the mothers (with this verse) " Gaurirmi- 
maya," (R. V.I. 164, 41) (whose Rishi is) Dirghatamas, (whose deity 
is) Uma, (and whose metre is) Jagati. (He should do so by mutter- 
ing) " gaurirmimaya," (and the invocation)" mothers, come hither, 
stand here." 

The seven mothers are Brahmi, and Mahecvari, Kauinari, Vaish- 
rjavi, Varahi, Indrani, Camunda. To the north of Nirriti he places 
Oaneca (with this mantra), " Gananamtva" (R. V. II. 23, 1), (whose 
Rishi is) Gritsamada, (whose deity is) Ganidhipati (the lord of hosts), 
and the (metre) Jagati. (He should do so by muttering) " Gana- 
namtva" (and the invocation " Ganapati, come) "hither, etc. etc." 
To the north of Varuna (he places) the Maruts (with this mantra), 
" Marut yasya" (R. V. I. 86, 1), (whose Rishi is) Rahugana, (deity) 
the Maruts, (metre) Gayatri. (He should do so by muttering) " Marut 
yasya" (and the invocation, "Maruts, come) hither," etc. 

The Maruts are declai-ed to be seven, viz., Gaganasparcana, Vayu, 
Anila, Maruta, Prana, Pnineca, Jiva. 

At the north side of the scales (he places) Durga (with this mantra) 
" jatavedase," (R. V. I. 99, 1, (whose Rishi is) Kacyapa, (deity) Durga, 
(metre) Trishtubh. (He should do so by muttering) " jatavedase" 
(and the invocation " Durga, come) hither," etc. 

When thus he has placed these deities, he should worship them 



32 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

m 

(saying) "I give the Arghya to Dharma, adoration." Having in this 
manner and the like, at every new gift, repeating these words, given to 
Dharma the Arghya, water for the feet, water for rinsing the mouth, 
the honey-mixture, water for rinsing, a bath, clothes, a Brahmanical 
cord, water for rinsing the mouth, and finally ornaments, such as a 
crown, bracelets, and having presented the gifts beginning with the 
arghya and ending with the ornaments (as above) to Indra and the 
rest, (pronouncing) their respective names preceded by the word Ora, 
and standing in the dative case (Om indraya arghyam prakalpayami- 
namah, etc.) according to the fit time for giving the gift, and having 
(then) presented to Dharma perfumes, flowers, frankincense, lamps 
and eatables, such as curds, cakes, unground rice, he shall also present 
perfumes, etc., to Indra and the other gods in the manner before 
described. And the perfumes, flowers,- etc. must, when Dharma is 
worshipped at the ordeal of the scales, be coloured red : to Indra 
and the other (gods) they may be offered in the state in which they are 
obtained. The judge shall perform the ceremony which ends with 
this (act just described). 

Then the burnt- offerings are to be offered by four priests, after 
common fires have been kindled in the direction of the four points of 
the horizon. 

Then having pronounced the Gayatri together with the word Om, 
(and) again Om followed by the word svaha, they shall offer of each 
of (these, viz.) clarified butter, boiled rice and firewood, one hundred 
and eight oblations to Savitri. Then the accused shall write the 
matter he is accused of, on a scroll and the prayer " Sun and moon? 
wind and fire, heaven and earth, the waters, the heart and Yania, 
day and night, and the two twilights and Dharma know the acts of 
man." Then he (the judge) should correct (the writing) and place 
the scroll on the accused's forehead ; and these ceremonies which begin 
with the placing of the gods and end with placing of the scroll on 
(the defendant's) head, are common to all ordeals. 

Then the Pradvivaka shall address the scales with this prayer : 

" Thou, scale, art created by Brahman in order to examine the 
evil-minded. Because (thy name contains) the letter dh y thou art 
Dharma. Because through that letter, thou causest constantly to be 
known (to men) a bad man, therefore thou art called dhata. Thou 



1866.] On Ordeals. 33 

knowest the good and evil deeds of all creatures. Thou alone knowest 
everything which men know not. This accused wishes to be cleared, 
therefore deign to save him, according to justice, from the suspicion 
(cast upon him)." Then the accused addresses the scales in the follow- 
ing manner) : 

" Thou, scale, art the abode of truth, having been made (so J 
formerly by the gods. Therefore, good one, speak the truth and 
free me from suspicion. If, mother, I am a sinner, then make me 
id ; if I am innocent, let me rise upwards. 

Then the Pradnvaka makes the accused, to whose forehead the 
scroll has been tied, reascend the scales in (exactly the same) place, 
and sitting (in the same manner) as (at the first weighing), and remain 
there (on the scale) for the space of five Palas. In that time (the 
accused's) innocence or guilt must be examined and announced by 
holy Brahmins to the king and to the members of the court. Then 
he descends and gladdens the Pntdvivaka, the Brahmans and the priests 
(who have officiated) by rewards. Then, having dismissed the gods 
(with these verses) " Brahmanaspati arise" (Tligveda I. 40, 1) and "go 
ye crowds of gods," etc., he gives everything (the presents offered to 
the gods) to the judge. 

Now (follow) the rules for (the ordeal by) fire. 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" I will deelare the rules (for the ordeal) by fire, as they are ordained 
by the institutes of law. Let him order to be drawn eight circles, and 
also in the eastern (direction) a ninth. The first circle is declared to 
be sacred to Agni, and the second to Varuna, the third to Vayu, the 
fourth to Yama, but the fifth to Indra, the sixth to Kuvera, the seventh 
to Soma, the eighth to Savitri, and the ninth to all the gods : thus 
know those, who know the Vedas." 

But Madana has declared : " They know that the eighth is sacred 
to all the gods, but that which is the ninth (drawn in the eastern 
direction) (should be) great and sacred to the earth ; they should be 
smeared with cow-dung and sprinkled with water." 

The same declares the size of the circles. 

" (Measured by) thirty -two fingers should be the distance that sepa- 
rates circle from circle. The space occupied by the eight circles should 
be 256 fingers." 
5 



34 Cn Ordeals. [No. 1, 

Mandalat, " from circle" (means) from the beginning of the circle. 
The space occupied by a circle and the intervals between it and the 
next, should be thirty-two fingers ; that is the meaning (of the pas- 



Amongst these the circle occupies (a space of) sixteen ringers, and 
the interval between two circles as much, because Yajnavalkya says ; 
" it ought to be known, that (each) circle occupies sixteen fingers, and 
the interval (between two) as much." 

If the foot-print of the person who is to be cleared (by the 
ordeal) (occupies) more than sixteen fingers, then the distance be- 
tween the two circles should be made less than sixteen fingers. If the 
(foot-print) of the person who is to be cleared (by the ordeal) 
(occupies) less than sixteen fingers, then another circle, just as broad 
as his foot-print, ought to be drawn inside the circle occupying sixteen 
fingers. 

But if Narada has written (these words), "thus two hundred, ex- 
ceeded by forty (should be the measure), if (one) measures the 
space by fingers," that is to be understood (of the first eight circles), 
leaving out the portion of ground between the eighth and ninth circle, 
because it is not necessary for the accused to step through that. 

If the reading of the Kalpataru is ; " the ground prepared is thus 
said to be (two hundred) and twenty-four (fingers)," the number of the 
fingers must be added up, leaving out the first circle, where the accused 
stands (and takes the fire on his hands). 

" Blades of Kuea-grass ought to be placed in every circle, according 
to the injunction of the institutes of law, and the accused should place 
his foot on these ; that is the rule." 

In the Mitaxara and in the Madanaratna (we read) : 

" He should offer in the fire one hundred and eight oblations of 
clarified butter, in order to propitiate (it)." 

And Vijnanecvara (says), that this burnt-offering should be offered 
with the prayer, " To Agni, the purifier, Svaha." 

Narada (says) : 

" A man who is by caste a smith, or expert in working with fire, 
or otherwise acquainted with the proceeding, should heat the iron in 
the fire — a ball of iron (heated till it becomes) of the colour of fire, 
throwing sparks, well prepared." 



1866.] On Ordeals. 35 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" Having made a ball of iron, without corners, (perfectly) smooth, 
equal to eight fingers (in circumference) and to fifty palas (in weight), 
he should heat it in the fire." 

In the Kalika Purana (we read) : 

" The king should give to the accused an iron (ball), weighing fifty 
palas, twelve fingers in circumference, consisting (as it were) of fire only, 
(heated by) blowing (with bellows)." 

But Cankha and Likhita declare that the ball must weigh sixteen 
palas, (in the passage) beginning thus : 

" But having taken, into his joined hands, a fire-coloured ball sixteen 
palas in weight, enveloped in seven Acvattha-leaves." And this (ball 
weighing sixteen palas) is for a weak man. 

The ball should be heated three times, because Narada says : " this 
(ball) being heated for the third time." 

There (at this ordeal) after the ball has been heated for the first 
time), it is thrown into water ; when it has been heated (for the second 
time), it is (again) thrown into water ; and whilst it is again being 
heated the Pradvivaka should perform (the ceremonies), beginning 
with the bringing near of the gods, and ending with the placing of 
the scroll on the forehead (of the accused). 

Then (at this stage of the proceedings) Pitamaha mentions a pecu- 
liarity in the worship of the fire : 

" Then the king should order the fire to be worshipped with red 
sandy ointment and perfumes, and also with red flowers," 

Harita (says) : 

" He (the accused) should then place himself, facing the east, with 
outstretched fingers, in wet garments, clean, having tied to his forehead 
the scroll." 

The words " the accused" must be understood. 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" He shall place himself in the first circle, facing the east, with his 
joined hands^stretched towards the) east, being pure," 

Narada (says) : 

" In all wounds or contusions (which he may happen to have) in 
his hand, let him make (marks in the shape of) swan's feet ; and he 
I should look at them again (after the ordeal) (and he should make) 



36 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

the hands variegated by dots (with a coloured substance)." 

Yajnavalkya (says) : 

" Having marked his hands, by crushing (in them) some rice, he 
should place (in them) seven Acvattha-leaves and tie them as often 
with a string." 

(The word) tavat, " often," qualifies the action. 

Vijnanecvara means to say therefore " he should tie it seven times." 

Madana (on the other side) says : 

" Tavatsutram, ' so much string' means a collection of strings by so 
much, therefore he should tie (the leaves) once with seven strings 
taken together." 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" Let him place in his hands seven Pippala-leaves, unground rice, 
flowers, curds, and tie them there with a string." 

The verses with which the Pradvivaka addresses, on this occasion, 
the fire contained in the ball, will be declared in the Prayoga. 

Yajnavalkya (says) : 

" l Thou, Agni, goest into the interior of every creature, purifier, 
sage, speak the truth in regard to my good and bad deeds, like a 
witness.' He shall place into both the hands of the accused, who has 
thus spoken, a fire-coloured, smooth iron ball, fifty palas in weight." 

Pitamaha (says) : 

(? Then the king, who is intent upon exercising justice, or a (man) 
ordered (to do so), shall place it (the ball) with pincers in his hands." 

Narad a (says) : 

" Having taken it (the ball) into his hands, being ordered (to do so) 
by the Pradvivaka, (and) standing in one (of the circles) he shall 
walk over seven others, walking straightforward." 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" He (the accused) should not walk quickly but steadily and slowly, 
he should not overstep (any) circle, nor should he place his foot into 
the intervals, and having reached the eighth circle, he shall throw it 
(the ball) down into the ninth, (if he is) a wise man." ^ 

But the ball must be thrown down into the ninth circle, which is 
covered by Kuca-grass. 

For thus the Kalika Purana (says) : 

H And he should walk (through) seven circles, each sixteen fingers 






I860.] On Ordeals. 37 

by measure, and (over) as much (distance) in the intervals. Having 
walked (this distance), he shall throw (it) down on fresh Kuya-grass 
(which is strewn in the ninth circle)." 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" Then he should place in his (the accused's) hands, rice with its 
husk, or barley (yava). But if he rubs them to pieces without hesita- 
tion and shows no change (then in his hands) at the end of the day, he 
shall declare him to be innocent." 

Katyayana (says) : 

" If the accused stumbles, or is burnt anywhere else (than in his 
hands), the gods do not consider that burn (as a proof of guilt) ; he 
shall allow him (to perform the ordeal once) more." 

Yajnavalkya (says) : 

"If the ball falls from Lis hands, or a doubt (arises whether it lias 
been done properly), he should take it (the ball) again." 

Now (follows) the manner of proceeding. 

After the plaee has been purified in the morning, the nine eireles 
should be drawn in the evening. Having made the first amongst these 
sixteen ringers broad, he divides a space of thirty-two fingers (just) 
before (the first circle) in two parts. The second part (of these) he 
makes of the size of the (accused's) foot, the rest becomes the interval. 
And having finished in tliis manner, beginning from the third and end- 
ing with the eighth circle, and having before (the Last) left a space 
of sixteen fingers in breadth, he makes a ninth circle of an un- 
defined size. And thus the space (occupied) by the eight circles 
and (eight) intervals together, is two hundred and fifty-six (fingers). 
Eight grains of (yava) barley measured across their thickest part, 
or three rice grains in their husks measured from top to end, are 
declared to be equal to a finger. 

A span (vitasti) contains twelve fingers. A hasta ' ell' (or ' cubit,' 
from elbow to top of fingers) is (equal to) two spans. A Danda, ' yard' 
is (equal to) four ells. Two thousand yards make one Kroca, and four 
Krocas make one Yojana. 

The span and the other (measures) will be used (in passages occur- 
ring) below. 

Then the judge, after having worshipped, in their order, the gods 
presiding over the nine circles, of which the western is the first, viz. 



38 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

Agni, Varuna, Vayu, Yama, Indra, Kuvera, Soma, Savitri, and all the 
gods, (and) having kindled a common fire in a place that lies to the south 
of the space occupied by the circles, offers one hundred and eight 
oblations of butter, (saying) : " To Agni the purifier, svaha !" (This 
is done) in order to propitiate (Agni). 

Then having placed into that fire a round, smooth, iron ball, with- 
out corners, eight fingers in circumference and weighing fifty palas, 
he performs, whilst it is being heated, the ceremonies described in 
the rules for the ordeal by the scales, beginning with the bringing near 
of Dharma and ending with the burnt- offering ; (and) when it is being 
heated for the third time, the Pradvivaka should address Agni, who 
dwells in the iron ball, with the following verse : 

" Thou, Agni, art the four Vedas, thou art called at the sacrifices, 
thou art the mouth of all gods, thou art the mouth of all speakers of 
divine knowledge, thou livestin the bellies of the creatures, therefore thou 
knowest (their) gailt and innocence. Because thou purifiest from sin, 
therefore thou art called the purifier. To the guilty show (thy power), 
purifier, shine with brilliancy. 

u But be propitious to those who are of innocent mind, thou who 
eatest the oblations. 

" Thou, Agni, walkest in the interior of all creatures as a witness. 
Thou, god, knowest what men do not know. This man, who is 
accused, wishes to be cleared, therefore deign to save him from 
suspicion, according to truth." 

In order to clean the iron, having thrown the heated iron-ball into 
water, it should be again heated and again thrown into the water, 
and then again heated, — it is the third heating. 

The judge, after having taken up the well-heated, fire-coloured 
iron-ball, which has been thus addressed, with a pair of pincers, 
and holding it before the person, who undergoes the ordeal, who 
has fasted, bathed, is in his wet garment, wears the scroll on his 
forehead, and stands in the western circle, he places it into his 
hands. 

The latter (before taking it) addresses it with the following (verse) : 

" Thou, fire, dwellest in all creatures, purifier, speak thou the 
truth in regard to my guilt or innocence, sage !" 

The " preparation of the hands" consists, in crushing rice in them 



1866.] On Ordeals. 39 

and joining them, in marking the black and red spots, the wounds and 
weals in them and the like with lack-jnice and the like, in placing in 
them seven equal Acvattha-leaves, or (on failure of them) seven Arka 
leaves, or seven ^ami-leaves or seven Durva-leaves, rice grains, i. e. rice- 
grains wetted with whey and flour, and in tying up (the whole) seven 
times with seven white threads. Then the person who undergoes the 
ordeal, should walk through the ci "inning with the second and 

ending with the eighth, and having thus made seven steps, throw the 
iron-ball, which he holds in his joined hands, into the ninth circle. 

Then lie should again crush rice (in his hands), and if his hands are 
not burnt he is innocent. 

Now follows (the rule for the ordeal by) water. 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" Now I will declare th the ordeal) by water, the eternal law. 

A wise (judge) should order i > be made a place (purified by the 
application of cow-dung), theD he should devoutly worship arrows with 
lamps and incense, and a how made <»i' bamboo, with auspicious flowers 
and incense, and afterwards perform the ordeal." 

The construction i-; "he should worship the arrows with lamps 
and t lowers." 

The worship must take place in the (purified) space. 

Narada describes the size of the bow : 

11 The strong bow ought to be understood to be one hundred and 
seven lingers long, (the bow of) middling (strength) one hundred and 
six, and the weak bow one hundred and five ; this is the rule regard- 
ing the bow. But let a wise (judge) shoot three arrows with the 
bow of middling (strength), having made a target at the distance of 
one hundred and fifty hastas. 

Saptacatam (lit. seven hundred) means one hundred and seven fingers 
long. In the same manner must be interpreted the expressions shat- 
catam (six and hundred), pancacatam (five and hundred). 

Katyayana (says) : 

" And he should make the arrows (used) at the ordeal without iron 
tops, only consisting of a piece of bamboo ; but the bow-man should 
shoot strongly." 

Narada (says) : 

" But going to a place full of water, he should make an arch, as 



40 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

high as the ear of the accused, on even and pure ground. He should 
first worship Varuna with perfumes and fragrant garlands, with 
honey, milk, "clarified butter, etc., being of collected mind. A Bra- 
hman, Xatriya or Vaicya, who is neither a friend nor a foe (of the 
accused), should be placed in the water where it reaches up to his navel, 
(and he must be) a man strong like a post." 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" First the king should place in the water a man, (strong) like a post, 
and then having ordered the person who undergoes (the ordeal) to go 
into the water, facing the east, he should then bring near (by invoca- 
tion) the gods, and address the water." 

The gods, i. e. Dharma and the rest (see above). 

That he should perform the (ceremonies), beginning with the bring- 
ing near of the gods and ending with the placing of the scroll (on the 
accused's forehead), this and the like (and) the verses addressed (to 
the water) must be looked for in the (description) of the manner of 
proceeding. 

Vyasa (says) : 

" 'By truth protect, Varuna ;' having conjured the water (thus), 
and taking hold of the thighs of the man who stands up to his navel 
in the water, he (the accused) should enter the water." 

Xam means water ; abh'icdpya (lit. having conjured) means having 
addressed. 

Brihaspati (says) : 

" When he has made the (accused) man enter the water he should 
discharge three arrows." 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" The bow-man should be a Kshatriya or a Brahman, who follows his 
(a Kshatriya's) occupation, (who is) not hard hearted, of subdued pas- 
sions, dressed and pure." 

Katyayana (says) : 

When (the arrows) have been discharged, the submerging ought to 
take place, and at the same time the starting (to fetch the arrows.) 

The meaning of the word samakdliha " at the same time," is that 
(it is to take place) at the same time as the submersion. 

Narada and Pitamaha (say) : 

" A young, swift man should go according to his utmost power from 



1866.] On Ordeals. 41 

the place of shooting to where the middle arrow (lies). Another man 
of the same qualities, having received the middle arrow, should quickly 
go back to the place, whence the (first) man came. But if the 
arrow-bearer, arriving, sees him not, and (he is) in the water, then he 
shall declare him to be cleared, otherwise he shall be guilty, though 
he may show only one limb, or if he has gone to another place from 
that where he entered before. ' One limb' means the ear. 

And Katyayana (says) : 

" Of whom he does only see the (top of the) head, and neither the 
ears, nor the nose, at his entering in the water, him also he should 
declare to be innocent." 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" The (place where) the arrow falls is to be used (as the starting 
point for the second runner), and not a (place to which the arrow may 
have glided)." 

Narada (says) : 

" Those two runners who are the swiftest among fifty, should be 
appointed there (at the ordeal) in order to bring the arrow." 

Now (follows) the manner of proceeding. 

The place of (the ordeal by) water (is described as follows). 

A river, the ocean, a lake, a natural water-course, a pool or a tank 
and the like (places) containing quiet water, should be used. One 
should avoid a small or unclean (place), and one that is full of grass, 
reed, waves, mire, alligators, leeches, fish and the like, one which is 
quick-flowing and the like. There, in water which reaches up to the 
navel, a pillar for (fulfilling) the law should be made from a tree whose 
wood can be used at the sacrifice. Near this, on the western bank an 
arch, reaching up to the ear of the accused, should be made. 

A bamboo bow of one hundred and six fingers length, and three 
arrows made of bamboo, without iron tops, should be placed near this. 
A target is to be placed on cleared ground, one hundred and fifty 
ells from the arch. Then after having worshipped the bow and the 
arrows with white sandal-wood and garlands, having brought Varuna 
(by invocation) to the water and worshipped him, and having com- 
pleted the above described (ceremony), which begins with conveying 
f Dharma to the bank of the water and ends with the burnt -offering, 
5 



42 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

and having tied the scroll with the accusation to the forehead of the 
accused, the judge should address the water as follows : 

" water, thou art the breath of living creatures, thou wast first 
produced at . the creation, and thou hast been declared to be a means 
of purifying things and living beings, therefore show thy (power) in 
discerning between guilt and innocence." 

The person who is to be cleared also should address (the water) : 

" Through truth protect rne, Varuna." Then the accused should 
approach a very strong man, who supports himself by the pillar of 
the law, who has his face turned to the east and stands in the water 
up to his navel. Then a Kshatriya or a Brahmana, who follows his 
(the Kshatriya's) occupation, should vigorously shoot the three arrows 
without iron tops towards the target. 

Then, whilst one swift man has- taken up the middle arrow, and, 
having left the place where it rolled to (on the earth), placed himself 
on the spot where it fell, another swift (man) must stand at the foot 
of the arch whence the arrow was discharged. 

And the swift (one) must be the swiftest amongst fifty runners. 

Then, when the judge, who stands at the foot of the arch, has 
clapped his hands three times, the accused must submerge himself and 
the swift man, who stands near the arch, must begin to run very 
quickly. And the submersion has to take place by catching the 
thighs of the (man) who supports himself on the pillar of the law. 
Then when he (the first runner) has arrived at the place where the 
middle arrow fell, the man who stands there and took up the arrow 
runs very quickly towards the arch. If he finds the accused sub- 
merged, then he is innocent. He is also innocent, if the top of the head 
only is visible ; (but) not (innocent), if his ear or any other member 
is visible, or he has moved from where he had dived to any other 
place. 

Now follows the rule for (the ordeal by) poison. 

In (regard to) this, Narada (says) : 

" A Brahman (the judge) with collected mind, turning his face to- 
wards the north or east, having fasted, should give the poison, before 
gods and Brahmans, after having worshipped Mahecvara with incense, 
food and Mantras, (to the accused) who stands before the Brahmans 
facing the south." 



18G6.] On Ordeals. 43 

The same declares the quantity of the poison. 

" In the rainy season the measure is recorded to be four barley 
grains, in the hot season five, in the cold season seven, in autumn 
even less than that." 

Less (means) three barley grains. 

The cold season indicates also the dewy season, because these two 
(words Hemanta and Qicira) are always used as a compound. 

But the spring is fit (for this ordeal) because it is common to all 
ordeals. 

Vijnanecvara declares that the measure (of the poison) is also then 
seven barley-grains. 

The poison should be given (mixed) with thirty times as much 
ghee. Because Katyayana says, " but the poison should be given to 
men in the forenoon in a cool place, mixed with thirty times as 
much ghee, well pounded." 

Yajnavalkya (II. 110) has declared the address to the poison : " 
poison, thou art Brahman's son, firm in the duty of (making known 
the) truth, save me, according to truth, from this accusation ; become 
ambrosia to me." 

Narada (says) : 

" Sitting clown in the shade, he must be watched the rest of the day, 
without taking food. Manu says, that if he overcome the force of the 
poison, he is innocent." 

In case of excess of the measure of the poison the same ordains 
another interval of time : 

If he remains healthy for 500 Palas (about 500 seconds), then he 
is innocent and may take medicine. 

And the symptoms of (the working of) the poison (have been de- 
scribed) in the Vish at antra. 

" The first attack of the poison causes the erection of the hair (on 
the body), (then follow) sweat and dryness of the mouth, after that 
arise (frequent) changes of colour, and trembling of the body. Then 
the fifth attack causes the immobility of the eyes, loss of speech 
and hiccoughing. The sixth, hard breathing and loss of conscious- 
ness, and the seventh, the death of the person. There (at this ordeal) 
he (the accused) should take the poison, after it has been placed 
I before Mahadeva, by the judge, who has fasted." 



44 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

Now (follows) the rule for (the ordeal by means of) water taken 
from the bath of a god. 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" He (the judge) should make (the accused) drink the water (from 
the bath) of that god whom (the accused) worships especially, but if 
he worships (all) the gods equally, he should make him drink (the 
water from the bath) of Aditya. Thieves and people who live by 
the sword, he should order to drink (the water from the bath) of 
Durga ; but he should not make a Brahman drink the water from the 
(bath) of Aditya." 

Brihaspati (says) : 

" The (bathing water of the god) whom the accused worships exclu- 
sively, is his (the gods) weapon ; having sprinkled the god he 
should make the accused drink three handfuls of the water/' 

Narada : " Having called the accused and placed him in the circle 
(drawn at the beginning of the ceremony) facing the sun, he should make 
him who has bathed according to the beforementioned rule, is dressed 
in his wet garments, and is pure, drink three handfuls of the water." 

Narada : 

" Having worshipped that god (who is especially addressed at the 
ordeal), and sprinkled him with water, and told (the accused) the 
(greatness of the) sin (in case he lies), he should make him drink 
three handfuls (of the water)." 

There (at this ordeal) the judge, having fasted (from sunrise) 
and worshipped the god in the forenoon, and having taken (the god's) 
bath, and performed (the ceremonies) beginning with the bringing 
near of the gods and ending with the placing of the scroll on the fore- 
head of the accused, should address the water with the Mantra 
prescribed at the ' ordeal by water.' Likewise should the accused' 
address the water with the formerly-mentioned (Mantra), and then 
drink afterwards. 

Brihaspati (says) : 

" He who does not suffer any misfortune in regard to children, wives 
or property within a week or a fortnight, shall doubtlessly be (consi- 
dered) innocent." 

Now (follows) the rule (for the ordeal by) rice grains. 

In regard to this Pitamaha (says) : 



1866.] On Ordeals. 45 

" I will declare the rules for the (ordeal by) rice grains, as it is 
described by its particular characteristics; but the maxim is, that 
the ordeal by rice grains should be allowed in case of theft only, not 
otherwise." 

He should order grains of £<lli, not of any other (kind of rice), to 
be made white. Unsullied (by impurities) he should expose them in 
an earthen vessel to the sun, and should keep them mixed with water 
from the bath (of the god) for one night, and should perform the 
ceremonies beginning with the bringing near of the gods according to 
the rule during the night." 

Katyfiyana also (says) : 

" At the eating of rice grains mixed with the water of the god's bath, 
he (the accused) shall be considered clean, if lie spits them out clean 
(not mixed with blood, etc.) ; he (who does) otherwise (is) guilty, and 
should be punished." 

Pitamaha (says) : 

11 He should declare that man guilty, who is seen to bleed, whose jaw 
or palate is torn, or whose body trembles." 

Now (follows) the rule for (the ordeal) by hot masha — grains (made 
of metal). 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" I will declare the rale for (the ordeal by) hot maxhas (which is) 
good for (the judge) clearing (men*). He should have made an iron or 
copper vessel of sixteen fingers (in circumference) and four fingers deep, 
or an earthen round (vessel). He should have it tilled wfth clarified 
butter and oil (to the weight of; twenty palas. Then he should 
place into it, (when it is) well-heated, a golden masha — grain. 
(The accused) should take out the hot masha, with the thumb and 
(first) finger. If he does not move the ends of the fingers, or no 
' blister comes, he whose fingers are not hurt is (considered) innocent 
according to the law." 

The same describes another mode (of undergoing this ordeal). Being 
pure, he (the judge) should order clarified butter prepared from cow's 
(milk) to be heated in a golden, silver, copper, iron or earthen (vessel), 
and he should throw a beautiful golden, silver, copper or iron coin, 
which has once been washed with water, into the (liquid). When it 
is full of small and great gyrating waves and cannot be touched with 



46 On Ordeals. [No. 1, 

the nails, then he should examine it on a wet leaf, whether it makes 
loudly the sound Chnru, and then he should address it once with this 
Mantra : 

" Thou, ghee, art the best means of holiness, and ambrosia at the 
sacrifice ; purifier, burn thou the bad man, be cool like snow to the 
innocent." 

Then he should make (the accused), who must come, after having 
bathed, in wet clothes, without having eaten or drunk, take that coin 
which lies in the ghee. The examiners (Brahmans appointed thereto 
as in the ordeal by the scales) should examine his first finger. If there 
are no blisters, he is innocent, otherwise guilty." 

Now follows the rule for (the ordeal by) the ploughshare. 

Brihaspati (says) : 

" The ploughshare must be made of iron, twelve palas in weight. 
Eight fingers be its length and four its breadth. A thief should once 
lick strongly that with his tongue, when it is heated to the colour of 
fire. If he is not burned, he shall be innocent, otherwise he is guilty." 

Now (follows) the rule for the (ordeal by) lot. 

Pitamaha (says) : 

" Now I will declare the examination of murderers, persons who raise 
(unjust) claims, and of persons who refuse to perform a penance for a 
crime of which they are accused, by means of (lots bearing the 
figures of) Dharma and Adharma. He should cause to be made (one 
lot) of silver, bearing the figure of Dharma ; and one of lead, bearing 
the figure of Adharma ; or he should draw on (two) pieces of the 
inner bark of the birch-tree Dharma and Adharma in white and 
black. Having sprinkled (the two lots) with the five products of the 
cow, he should worship (them) by presenting sandal-ointment and 
flower- wreaths. But to (Dharma) white-flowers (should be presented), 
and black flowers to Adharma. Having performed this and smeared 
(the images with cowdung), he should place the two (lots) in two 
heaps (of cowdung). The two heaps must be made round, of cowdung 
or (clean) earth, and must be placed in a new earthen jar, without 
being marked. In a clean place, smeared (with cowdung) in the 
presence of (the images of) the gods and of Brahmans, he should 
then bring near the gods and the guardians of the points of the 
horizon, as formerly (described). But before bringing Dharma near, 



1866.] On Ordeals. 47 

he should write the Pratijnapatra, (a paper declaring the resolution 
of the accused to perform the ordeal and the crime of which he is 
accused.) Then the accused (saying,) " if If I am free from guilt, may 
(the lot of Dharma) fall into may hand," should take one (of the heaps) 
without hesitating. If he has taken "the lot of Dharma" he shall 
be cleared, but if he has taken the lot of Adharma, he loses his cause. 
Thus has been declared in short the examination of by the two (lots 
symbolising) innocence and guilt." 

Brihaspati (says) : 

" Figures of Dharma and Adharma must be drawn on two leaves 
(in) white and black. Haying addressed (Dharma and Adharma) with 
the verses which convey life to them and others, and with the 
Sama-melodics beginning with the Gayatri, he should worship them 
with perfumes and white and black flowers. Having sprinkled them 
with the five products of the cow and placed them into two heaps of 
earth, and made (the heaps) equal in size without marks, he should 
place them in a jar. Then (the accused) should take one heap out of 
the jar without hesitation. If lie has taken " the lot of Dharma" he 
shall be considered free from guilt, and is to be honoured by the 
persons conducting the ordeal. 

Now (follows) the manner of proceeding. 

Having drawn a white figure of Dharma and a black figure of 
Adharma on two leaves, and having given life to the image of Dharma 
by this (mantra) : "Am, hrim, krom, ham, yam, ram, lam, vam, cam, 
sham, sam, ham ; I (am) he (Brahma) ; may breath come here (to this 
image) and remain long and happily, SvaM ;" he (sings) the Samans 
beginning with the Gayatri-saman if he knows the Samans. 

(Then) he again pronounces this Mantra (Am, etc.) (and substitut- 
ing for the word Dharma's breath, etc.), " Dharma's soul is here." 
(Afterwards) he pronounces the same once more, substituting for the 
words " Dharma's breath," etc., " Come hither, Oh mind, Oh eyes, Oh 
ear, Oh nose, breath, (come hither) all ye organs of Dharma, remain 
here, Svaha !" Having thus given a soul to the image of Dharma, and 
having uttered the Gayatri-saman, if he knows the Saman-melodies, 
if not, the Gayatri-verse preceded by Vyahritis and the syllable Om, 
he performs the ceremony of bringing near (the gods) and the rest. 
Having honoured the (images of) Dharma and xldharma in their order 



48 On Ordeals. [No. 1 ; 

with white and black flowers, and having taken the five products of 
the cow, (pronouncing) the syllable Om, and sprinkling (the images)? 
he lays each of the images, Dharma together with white flowers and 
Adharma together with black flowers, into a heap of earth and places 
(these two heaps) in a new jar. The judge then performs the ceremonies 
beginning with the bringing near of Dharma and ending with the 
burnt- offering, prepares a Pratijnapatra on which also the Mantras 
are written, and ties this leaf to the forehead of the accused. The 
accused saying, " If I am pure of guilt, may (the image of ) Dharma 
come into my hand," takes one of the two (heaps) in the jar. If he 
has taken the image of Dharma, he is to be considered innocent. After- 
wards he should give a present (to the Brahmans). 

Now (follow) the oaths. 

Manu : " Let the judge make a priest to swear by his veracity ; a sol- 
dier by his horse, or elephant, and his weapons ; a merchant by his kine, 
grains and gold ; a mechanic or servile man by (imprecating on his 
own head if he speak falsely) all possible crimes." 

Brihaspati (says) : 

" In small causes oaths by (the aecused's) veracity, vehicles, arms, 
kine, grain, or gold, by the feet of the gods or Brahmans, by the 
(accused's) sons' or wives' heads are prescribed, but in accusations of 
crimes attended with violence the other ordeals are declared to be the 
means of proving (the accused's) innocence." 

Yajnavalkya (says) : 

" He shall be considered innocent, without doubt, to whom within 
a fortnight (after his taking the oath) no dreadful misfortune, caused 
either by the king or the gods, happens." 

Dreadful (ghora) means great, because a small (misfortune) is 
unavoidable for men ; thus (it is written) in the Mitaxara. 

Katyayana also (says) : • 

" He, to whom within a fortnight no dreadful misfortune from the 
king or from gods happens, is to be considered cleared by the oath." 
Vyasana means apat, misfortune. Ghora (dreadful) means exceedingly 
painful, because small (misfortunes) are incidental to all creatures 
possessing a body. 

Again Katyayana (says) : 

" But now, if a misfortune coming from god happens to the accused 






18G6.] On Ordeals. 49 

within a fortnight, he (the judge) should anxiously make him pay the 
property (disputed) and also a fine, — if (the misfortune) befalls him 
alone, and not all the people (at the same time). Sickness, a confla- 
gration (of accused's house, etc.), the death of relations, heavy fever, 
eruptions, and deep-seated pains in the bones, disease of the eyes or Of 
the throat, madness, disease of the head, and the breaking of an arm, are 
the diseases which befall men, (coming) from god." Misfortunes coming 
from the gods (arc) such as the death of relations. By the (words) . 
"(If it befalls) him alone," epidemics, such as cholera (mari), are 
excluded. As in this (passage) by the (word), " his" the before-men- 
tioned accused is referred to, sickness and the like are a sign of a 
false (oath), only (if they befall) the accused, and not (it they happen) 
to his sons or other (relations). And such (illness) ought, as before 
mentioned, to be grave, not trilling. With reference to this (last 
point) Vacaspatimicra (gives us) the meaning (of the passages) : 

"Uncommon sickness (which befalls) the accused is a BigB of a false 
(oath). Therefore it is also declared that the death, not the fflckness, 
of relations (is a sign of the accused's perjury)." 

Rough Notes on some of the Antiquities in (he Gaijd District. ~~ 
1>D \V. Pbppe, Esq. 

[Received 20th November, 1865.] 
About 11 miles from Gaya, on the Patna road, there is a small 
village and bazar called Newree ; on the right of the road there is a small 
temple on a mound with one or two large pepul trees round it. There 
| are several figures lying about, and there is a slab on the pucka 
terrace of the temple, representing a prince on horseback with attend- 
ants, one holding an umbrella or chatta over him ; others are carrying 
various articles ; one has two vessels slung on a pole, much in the same 
way as pilgrims now carry the Ganges water; another has a pig on his 
shoulders, as far as I can make out ; it would seem to represent some 
notable person performing a pilgrimage, (see Photograph, 9 a.*) and may 
have been executed to commemorate the pilgrimage of some prince. 
The villagers state that this slab has only been in its present place but 
a short time, and that it was found in a village about a mile to the 

•The photographs alluded to in this paper may be seen in the Asiatic 
iSocieiy'.s Library, — Ens. 



50 Antiquities of the Gay a District. [No. 1, 

east, but it most likely came from the Burabnr hills, which are only 6 
miles from here. 

The little temple or " Mutli" is about 100 years old, and is said to 
have been built by a Mussalman Zemindar, a singular instance of toler- 
ation, if true. 

Beta. — A mile further on is the village of Bela ; there is a dak bun- 
galow here, and it is the point where the main road is left by visitors 
going to the Burabur hills. 

To the north of the village are extensive mounds of brick rubbish, 
several large tanks and the ruins of several temples (judging by the 
number of Lingams) dedicated to Mahadeo ; they lie to the east of 
the large mound, through and over which the main road lies. To the 
south of this there is a modern temple dedicated to Kalee, built by the 
Tikaree family, in the Adytum of which there are a number of figures, 
principally in fragments : there are several of a Buddhist character. 

Palee. — About two miles further on at a village called Palee, there 
is a large tank, now nearly filled up, to the north of which there are 
several life-sized figures standing on the road side, but of no interest, 
and of the kind so very common in this district. 

Nair. — About four miles further on is a village called Nair ; to the 
east of the village through which the road runs, is the ruin of a tem- 
ple, with the pillared portico still standing ; (see Photographs Nos. 10 
and 11, Plate I.) The pillars are of granite in one block ; the temple 
itself would seem to have been of brick, but is now only marked by 
a mound of brick rubbish : its internal chamber is still standing, and 
now contains a lingam. 

There are several statues lying about, mostly in a mutilated condi- 
tion, but none of them are of much interest. There are several large 
tanks in the neighbourhood, both to the east and west of the road, 
with several lingams in situ. 

Returning to Bela and leaving the Patna road there, after going 
about six miles to the east, is the isolated peak called Kowa Dhol, but 
as this has been so fully described both by Major Kittoe and Col. Cun- 
ningham, I need only describe the photographs from this and adjacent 
localities. 

No. 12. View of Kowa Dhol from the east, showing the site of the 
ancient village on the right. 



o. 




1866. J Antiquities of the Gay a District. 51 

No. 13. The Gigantic Boodh mentioned in Col. Cunningham's 

report. 

No. 14'. A view of the Great Gurha caves, showing the entrances to 
the Lomas Rishi to the right and the Ladama cave to the left, and the 
huge block of granite, out of which they have been chiselled at the 
expense of so much labour: the crack or flaw in the rock which arrest- 
ed the work in the Lomas Rishi is also seen to extend to the outside. 

No. 15. A new view of the entrance to the Lomas Rishi cave, 
showing the frieze of elephants, the drawing of which will bear com- 
parison with that of the best artists of the present day. 

No. 16 is a view of the Nagarjnn hill, with door-way and ascent 
to the Gopi cave. 

No. 17 is a view of a huge boulder supported by others, forming 
a natural cavity or grotto which had been built up into a small cham- 
ber or cell ; the only part of the work now remaining is the mass of 
brick rubbish on the top, which has been kept in its place by the roots 
of the plants growing out of it. It is immediately alongside of the 
Vapiya caves, a view of which I did not obtain. 

Proceeding on to Durawuth — 

No. 18 is a view of the Dandoker Tal from the north-west, shoAving 
the little temple on the bank of the Tal and the hills in the background. 

Nos,.19and 20 are views of the twelve-armed figure mentioned by Col. 
Cunningham ; I have only met with one other example of this figure. 

There are several figures and sculptures of interest in this neigh- 
bourhood ; one is a seated figure of Boodh, surrounded by a seven- 
headed snake ; it is called Nagjee by the natives. I also found 
several slabs with quaint representations of the worship of the 
solid temples or chaityas, see Photograph No. 21.* These came 
originally from the small hill \p the south of the tank. These little 
1 hills have been covered by little buildings, the character of which I 
have not been able to make out ; I counted some 15 or 16 on one little 
hill ; they were mostly built on the highest peaks and also crowned 
1 every projecting spur ; all that remains of them now are small plat- 
forms of rough stones and mounds of brick. What their outward forms 
were, cannot now be guessed, nor for what purpose they were built ; but 
most probably they were cells for the abode of recluses. I have met 
# The base of pedestal of a figure of Buddha, has the creed in Kutila characters. 



52 Antiquities in the Gay a District. [No. 1, 

with these little buildings in several localities, and will refer to them 
again in noticing those I found in better preservation at Cheon. 

Genjun. — Referring to the map,* you will see that there is a village 
called Genjun, about 6 miles distant, west of the Patna road, in a direct 
line with Durawuth. There are very extensive mounds at this village, 
and several large and interesting figures, one of which is represented 
in No. 22. It is well executed and, with the exception of the fracture, 
in good preservation ; the figures surrounding the Boodh are represent- 
ations of events in the life of Sakya Singha, with the Nirvan at the 
top. The figure is called Byro by the Brahmans of the village. The 
pedestals of several large figures as well as the lintel of a sculptured 
Buddhist doorway have inscriptions, but they are defaced, from the 
villagers having used them as whet-stones. I was informed that these 
figures were exhumed when the mounds were dug into for the erection 
of a small mud fort which adjoins these mounds : no doubt these 
mounds are the sites of large buildings, and their excavation would 
bring to light may other interesting figures. 

To the north-east also a number of figures have been collected in a 
small brick enclosure, but they seem to be of more modern date ; a 
figure of Glunesh is the principal one. 

Kispa. About two miles to the south-west is a village called 
Kispa, where there are some very fine life-sized figures ; one in 
the middle of the village to the east is a fine standing figure of 
Boodh, in capital preservation, with an inscription ; near it are 
slabs and pillars of granite shewing that a temple had existed at 
this spot ; the whole village stands on high ground formed of brick 
rubbish. To the south of the village are extensive mounds, and to 
the north of this there is an old mud fort. On the west side of the 
ditch surrounding the fort there is a twelve-armed figure, the same as 
the one at Durawuth, and has evidently been found when digging the 
fort ditch. Close by these mounds, to the south, is a small temple dedi- 
cated to Tara Devi, and a number of figures are collected in and 
around it ; the temple itself is of the common kind seen in every 
village. Tara Devi is a standing figure of a Buddhist character, but it 
was so covered by drapery, that I could not make it out. A little to the 
north of this temple, and on the opposite side of a ditch cut as a water- 
* Preserved in the Asiatic Society's Libraiy. Eds. 



Journal: ks ■. Soc:XXXV PI! 
I 



Hale T I 








lf1 ^.iii 1 unuiiMiiPwwwii w mini 

2)r-a»m m Stone by Xrisb> Bccrv Das Statienb G-tS School *F Art CalcuMa 



STONE FIGURE AT GENJUN 

LiUv.Vy- H-TStiven S &. .Calcutta May 1866. 



I860.] Antiquities in the Gaud District. 53 

course by the villagers, is a very singular figure, and the only one of 
the kind I have hitherto met with : see Photograph No. 22 J (Plate II.) 
It represents two figures, life-sized, one seated on the shoulders of the 
other. From the ornaments and style it is evidently Buddhist, hut I 
am completely at a loss as to its meaning. To the north of the village, 
there is another little temple in a mangoe grove, with a number of 
figures, more or less mutilated, collected around it. I noticed a nicely 
sculptured Lingam of a square form, and the only specimen of the kind 
I have met with. 

KtUangee. — About five miles west of this place is a village called 
Kutangee. There is in it a large mud fort of some pretensions, and 
numerous mounds of brick rubbish, some figures in fragments, but 
none of any interest. 

Mnjheaivan. — About a koss further north, there is another large mud 
fort at the village of Mujhcawan, and nearly every village about this 
have mounds and small mud forts, but I saw no figures of importance 
or interest. 

Kyal. — About eight miles west of Mujhcawan, there are large tanks 
and mounds, but no other features of importance. 

Deokund. — South of Kyal on the borders of an extensive tract of 
land covered with shrub jungle is a place called Deokoond, which seems 
to have possessed a Buddhist temple or monastery. There is a fair held 
here in the month of Fagoon, when great numbers of people assemble 
to bathe in the tank or koond. On a former visit, I observed a num- 
ber of broken Buddhist figures and miniature stupas collected under 
the trees : these have since been covered with a coating of mud. The 
temple itself is in the centre of a mass of brick rubbish, through which 
a road has been cut to give access to the interior chamber which is 
now occupied by a Lingam. A rude sort of dome has been erected 
immediately over the central chamber. See Photograph No. 23. 

No. 24 is the gateway of a fortified serai in the old village of 
Daoodnuggur, so named from Daood Khan the founder, who died 
some 200 years ago. 

Konch.— On the road between Daoodnuggur and Gaya, about 16 
miles from the latter, is the village of Konch ; I have already noticed the 
temple at this place, but the following notes may not be unacceptable. 
The present village consists of two parts, the bazar on both sides of 



54 Antiquities in the Gay a District. [No. 1, 

the road, and the village proper, which is about 100 yards to the north 
of the road. Between the two villages there are several extensive 
mounds of brick rubbish, and a number of scattered Buddhist figures. 
On the right there is an old mud fort, and it would seem that in digging 
the mud for its erection, the larger figures were found ; the principal 
one is life-size, highly finished, but wanting the head ; see No. 25. This 
is placed upright on a level with the path. Higher up on the mound to 
the west are the Buddhist figures with inscriptions shown in Photograph 
No. 26. To the south are two figures (see Photograph No. 27) of the 
form I have already referred to, as being the most general all over this 
district, and which are named according to the fancy of the Purohit, who, 
provided with a few of these figures only differing in the execution, has 
the range of the whole of the Hindoo Pantheon, and names them at his 
own discretion, or according to the wishes or wants of the community. 

Passing through the village proper, you come to the temple men- 
tioned by Buchanan, and of which a drawing is given in the first volume 
of Martin's India. Photograph No. 28 (Plate XII) is a view of the 
front of the building from the east with the opening above the entrance, 
leading into the upper chamber. Photograph No. 29 is a view from the 
southwest. The accompanying ground plan (Plate III) will give 
the reader some idea of its structure, and the section will show the 
superstructure with the arched lower chamber, and the interior recess 
over the entrance which resembles that in the Boodh Gaya temple. 
Nothing but mud has been used to cement the bricks,but the latter have 
been so well prepared that they fit together most accurately. There 
would seem to have been a coating of plaster on the outside, but this 
has nearly entirely disappeared. A porch had been added with an 
arched roof, but it has fallen in, the only arch in the original building 
is that of the lower chamber which is painted. 

In the centre of the lower chamber there is now a lingam, and in 
the porch there are a number of figures. Photograph No. 30 is a slab 
let into the wall with a representation of the avatars. Photograph No. 
31 are other figures in the same enclosure. Photograph No. 32 is a 
nearer view of the entrance and opening above the doorway. 

Immediately outside, there are a number of granite pillars, and from 
their number and situation, they seem to have formed an enclosure 
round the temple. 



Journal As. Soc: XXV 



Plate. XV II. 







i 



'■■ Utttei 



TEMPLE OF KONCH FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY-J.H. PEPPE ESQ « 
Dravrn on stone at the Govt. School of Art Calcxitta,]ojKristolauiTy Dass, Student. 

UITH.-BY H M.SMITH, SURVEYOR GENERAL'S OFFICE CALCUTTA MARCH 1868. 














. 



L866 ] Antiquities in th Gayd District. 55 

In a corner of the village near the temple, there arc a great number 
of lingams collected, of all -i/.rs. many with 3 and 4 sculptured faces. 

To the east of the temple there is a small tank : OD the banks there are 

several snmadhs or tombs, of the form which is so common at Boodh 

(Java. 

Palee. — Ponr miles nearer Gaya is another village called Palee, which 
-.•mis to have had several temple- ; one at least was Buddhist) and of 
the same form as the one at Nair and at Poonawa. Judging by the few 
pillars still standing (see Photograph No. 33, ) a great number of pillars 
have been removed. "When I Last visited the place, quarrying for 
bricks was being actively carried on. Several large lingams had been 
dug ouf of the mass of rubbish, and also a hull of the usual form, so 
that the temple, which was most likely originally Buddhist, had subse- 
quently been converted into a Hindoo one. A tew paces t«> the wesi 
close to the road there i> a large lingam in situ, with a peepul tree 
growing in the interstices : Bee Photograph No. 3 1. Close by i> the lintel 

Of a Buddhist temple door, and the side p«.-4s are a little distance apart 

under a peepul tree : see Photograph No. 35. For some distance round 
there arc trace- of temples, but those described -eeni to bave been the 

only ones of any si/.<\ 

Almost directly south from Koiich is a large village called Kabiu, 
and adjoining it is a rather large tort marked Mudun in the maps, but 
I could find no local name tor it. From the extensive mounds in every 
direction, and the appearance and size of the tort, it is of much earlier 
date than the generality of the mud torts so common in this district. 
It is attributed to the Kole Rajahs by the natives, and this is the case 
with everything which is earlier than the advent of the Mussulmans. 
I was disappointed in not finding any figures or inscriptions in tin; 
neighbourhood. There are one or two pillars of black chlorite which 
must have belonged to some old Hindoo Temple, but the natives in 
formed me they had been collected for the building of a mosque by 
some former inhabitant of the village. There is a granite stone, itseli 
originally a part of a pillar, inserted in a large well, but which has 
proved to be the dedication of the well by BOme obscure individual : sec 
Photograph No. 36. 

Aboul <) miles to the south-wesl IS a large village and bazar called 
Chirkawan ; it is the principal place in the Pergunnah of that name. It 



56 Antiquities in the Gayd District. [No. 1, 

is built on the site of an ancient village, and there is an old mud fort 
adjoining. A large tank to the south-east of the village has a stone 
pillar in the centre, but with no inscription ; it is one block of granite 
rudely sculptured, and is now only about 10 feet above ground. Another 
pillar of the same kind occurs at a village called Belar, with extensive 
mounds about 5 or 6 miles to the south. Two miles to the south, 
there is a cluster of small detached hills at the foot ; almost easterly 
there is a village called Cheon (pronounced Cheo). To the east of this 
village, on a small eminence, there is a ruined temple still partly 
standing : see Photographs Nos. 37 and 38 : the first shows the appearance 
of the temple from the south, and the second gives a nearer view of 
the doorway. The temple is built of squared granite blocks, with little 
cement or iron bands, and is evidently of the same age as those at 
Oomga. There is a lingam in the interior, but no other figures, and 
there are only a few figures about. I failed in finding any inscriptions. 

Some little distance to the north, near the hill, there are several 
large figures all more or less mutilated, and a great number of squared 
granite blocks, from which it would seem that another temple existed 
here ; and the base of the hill on the west, north and east, is covered 
with brick rubbish in mounds of more or less distinct shapes. The hill 
runs down into a low spur on the west side, and every available spur 
and ridge had been covered with buildings. Some of the mounds to the 
south are both large and high, so that there is little doubt that this 
must have been the site of a considerable settlement in former days ; 
and that it was a Buddhist community, may be inferred from the pre- 
valence of figures of a Buddhist character. 

To the west is another little hill called Puchar, which is also cover- 
ed with the remains of little buildings ; and on the south side, 
half way up, there is a small cave temple with the doorway and passage 
still standing : see Photographs Nos. 39 and 40. The doorway is 
supported on pillars with the usual bracket capitals, and the roof of the 
passage is made with slabs of the same granite. The cave is only some 
ten by twelve feet, of an irregular form, as it is a natural cavity between 
the huge boulders, with some addition in the shape of a few bricks to 
close up the interstices ; one of these communicates with other cavities 
in the hill, as a strong current of air was found to be passing into the 
interior, so much so that a light was extinguished, but as the opening 



18G6.] Antiquities in the Gayd District. 57 

vtfl >o narrow, there could have been no cave beyond, else it would 
have been widened. The roof is a boulder supported by others at each 
side. 

There are several fragments of images, but only two are perfect ; one 
is a seated figure of Boodh about 3 feet high, but it is partly imbedded 
in the accumulation of rubbish on the floor ; it has the same canopy 
of a seven-headed snake which I observed at Durawut, where it is 
called Nagjee ; here it is called Langa-beer ! The other figure is a 
female, one which, Babu Rajendralala Mitra says, represents Mayadevf, 
Mother of Boodh. 

Outside, there is a small platform, in front of the entrance, of undress- 
ed stones, and a series of rude steps leads up from the foot of the hill. 
I may mention that there is a story current amongst the natives here, 
that a party of strangers arrived at this place, ostensibly as a marriage 
procession, that they encamped at the foot of the hill, and that in the 
night time they dug up a quantity of treasure which had been buried 
at the foot of a large detached boulder : the hob' which they had dug 
was pointed out. They say that they were Coles or people from the 
South, and it was explained that these people were formerly in poa- 
>u of this part of the country, and this was how they came to 
know that there was treasure buried here. 

About a mile to the north there is another little hill which was 
originally crowned with a temple, judging by the number of squared 
granite blocks which lay strewn about, and by the stones made use of 
in erecting a Durga over the tomb of some Mussulman Saint. 

To the south of Cheon, at the distance of a mile, there is another 
cluster of hills ; the nearest village is called Deokillee ; the easternmost 
pinnacle of the hill is crowned by a mass of brick rubbish. In the centre 
of this mound, facing the east, the internal chamber is intact, but the 
entrance was nearly blocked up. By dint of squeezing, however, a 
native managed to get inside, but there was no figure ; the little 
chamber was only some 10 by VI feet long, but the rubbish filled 
it to within two feet of the roof, so that it is possible there may 
be some figures buried in the rubbish. To the north on the same space 
of the hill is a small cavity amongst the boulders which had been 
built up and thus formed a small chamber, and in front there is a 
natural basin in the rock which had been added to, and thus formed a 



58 Antiquities in the Gayd District. [No. 1, 

small tank or reservoir. Lower down on the north side there are two 
more of these cavities ; in both cases the doorway is formed of granite 
pillars with bracket capitals, — the entrances are blocked np with 
rubbish. There are several others on this side of the hill, and on the 
connecting spur between this hill and the next, there is a small temple 
or altar, with a roof of granite slabs supported by 6 granite pillars 
with bracket capitals ; there seems to have been a superstructure of 
brick, but very little of this now remains ; there are no figures or in- 
scriptions from which the age may be deduced, but it is probable that 
they were, Buddhist, for the style is exactly the same as at Cheon in 
which Buddist figures are found, and it is most likely that all 
these hills, and also those at Durawut, were the abode of numerous 
Buddhist ascetics, and Fa-Hian states that the hills at Raggae contain- 
ed several hundred grottos inhabitated by devotees. 

Some distance to the south-west there is another cluster of hills, and 
near a village called Chain there are several very large mounds cover- 
ing several acres, and great numbers of granite blocks are lying about 
in every direction, but there are no figures or inscriptions, and it is 
quite impossible to guess at the age or description of the buildings 
which must have existed here. At the mouth of a small valley, partly 
where it runs into the plain, a dam had been erected for the water. 

About four miles west from this is a large village, called War. There 
are extensive mounds to the south of the village, and there is a mud 
fort with a pucka citadel in rather good preservation ; the wall is of 
brick, loop-holed all round ; a range of rooms runs round the enclosure ; 
and underneath there is another range of rooms evidently intended as 
store rooms and as a refuge for the families of the garrison during an 
attack. 

About five miles to the south-east is a small village called Mudun- 
pur, on the Grand Trunk Road, and near it, about a mile and a half 
to the west, on a spur of the hill is Oomga temple, which has already 
been described by Major Kittoe in the 16th Yol. of the Asiatic Society's 
Journal. Photograph No. 41 (Plate IY.) will give some idea of its 
appearance from the south, and of the rock on which it is built ; the 
temple faces the east. See Photograph No. 42, which shows its front. 

Higher up and on the same hill is another temple, but now in ruins : 
see Photograph No. 43. Scattered all over this hill and the adjoining 



Journal As.Soc: XXXV. 






r^W 



ML 1 



1 



i 



1 1 




2W* an lSW ^JG-,*^ Hari Lns Student., fen 

OOMGA TEMPLE 

h Joy H .Niv'en S . &. . Calcutta Mar 1866 






1866.] Antiquities in the Gayd District. 59 

one, are a great number of little temples and altars, all of them built 
of dressed granite, and a great profusion of figures, principally of 
Gunesh and lingams, of every conceivable shape and size. There is an 
entire absence of Buddhist figures, which shows that these erections 
are of a more recent date. From the translation of the long inscription 
given by Major Kittoe, it would appear that the temple was erected 
A. D. 1439. The Bamboos, which he bewails as having all died off, 
have sprung up again, and are as vigorous as ever. 

Deo is distant about 10 miles from this. To the south-west the 
temple has a very strong resemblance to the Oomga one : see Photo- 
graph No. 44. It is of much the same size, and in capital preservation. 

The village of Poonawa, visited by Col. Cunningham, is about 14 
miles from Gaya to the eastward, on the Nowaderle road. Photograph 
No. 45 is a view of the pillared temple from the north-east. There is a 
strong resemblance between this temple and the one at Nair. The 
door is a very finely sculptured one (see Photograph No. 46), and is 
almost a facsimile of the one at Palce : see Photograph No. 35. 

At Koorkihar there are a great number of figures ; the principal one 
is a Boodh with representations of events in the life of Sakya Singha 
round the margin (see Photograph No. 47), but it is much inferior to 
the same figure at Genjun, (see No. 2'2.) No. 48 is a group of figures 
outside the little temple to the north of the village. 

The remaining photographs are from Rotasghur in Shahabad. No. 
49 is a distant view of the palace from the east side of the ravine. 
No. 50 is the elephant gate or principal entrance to the palace from the 
court-yard. 

No. 52 is a view of the Mausoleum over the tomb of the chamberlain 
of one of the former Governors. 

No. 51 is a view of the interior of the Palace. 

Gayd, 9th November, 1865. 



60 Literary Intelligence. 

Literary Intelligence. 

Mr. E. B. Cowell has sent to press the Yoga Aphorisms of Patan- 
jali, with the commentary generally ascribed to Yyasa. The work? 
we understand, is to appear under the auspices of the Sanskrit Text 
Society. 

Major Henry Dixon. H. M.'s 22nd Reg. M. N. L, has just published 
a large quarto volume containing Photographs of 113 Canarese and 
10 Sanskrit inscriptions. They are from the districts of Chittledroog, 
Davenghiri, Hurrihur, Ballagamee, Taldagundee, Sooroob, Annant- 
pur, Shemogah, Taicul, and Beygoor in the Mysore Territory, and 
contain records which will prove of great interest to the historian of 
the Indian peninsula. The Canarese inscriptions are taken mostly 
from Sati stones of the Saiva period, and a number of them have the 
figures of Siva and his attendants carved on the top. The Sanscrit 
ones are title deeds of grants of land made by the former princes of 
Mysore, Canara and the Carnatic. We hope some enterprising 
scholar in Madras will, by translating these records, render them 
accessible to European scholars, and Major Dixon will meet with 
sufficient encouragement from the Government of Madras and the 
public to rescue from the ravages of time other documents of the kind 
of which there are a great number in Mysore. 

The following is an extract from a letter from Dr. R. Rost of 
London. 

"I mean to take an early opportunity of drawing attention to some 
rare Sanscrit MSS. in our possession, which are in Grantham characters, 
and have never been looked into. Amongst them are the Rik, 
White Yajur, Sama and Atharva Yedas ; Kumarila, Mimansatantra- 
vartika, the Sankhya Saptati with commentary (2 copies), the Mayukhar 
malika on the Sastradipika, Mananam (Yedanta), and Bharata's 
Natya S'astra. Of the last mentioned work, there are several copies 
in the Brown collection at Madras ; but all of them being, like our 
copy, in Dravidian characters, they are sealed books to the intending 
editor, Mr. Hall. We have altogether nearly 200 Sanscrit MSS. in 
the Grantham character. I wish Mr. C. P. Brown had deposited his 
large collection of Sanscrit MSS. (above 2300) in London ; in Madras 
no one cares for them." 



JOURNAL 

OP THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



Pabx I.— HISTORY, LITERATURE, <fcc. 

No. II.— 18G6. 



Description of Ancient Remains of Buddhist Monasteries <n/d Temples, 
and of other buildings, recently discovered in Benares ami its vici- 
nity. — By the Rev, M. A. Siiekking, L. L. Jl 7 and Ciiakles Hornb, 

/>/., a. s. 

[Received 20th November, 1865.] 

In a former paper on the Buddhist Remains band at Bakarya 

Kund, Benares, which we had the pleasure ol* communicating to the 

Asiatic Society last year, it was shown how that at this spot extensive 
traces still exist of ancient edifices, for the most part of the Gupta 
period, consisting of remains of several Buddhist temples and of one 
vihar or monastery. It is our purpose in the present paper, to give 
the results of further investigations into the antiquities of this city. 

Fully satisfied, as we believe most persons are, that Benares is a 
city of extreme antiquity, we have endeavoured to ascertain to what, 
portions this epithet will apply. And by the term ' old' we mean not 
a few hundred years merely, although a city six or seven hundred 
years old is generally regarded as an ancient city. But we must re- 
member that Benares lays claim to an antiquity of several thousands 
of years, and undoubtedly it is referred to in various ancient Hindu 
and Buddhist writings. Consequently, we are not satisfied with dis- 
covering in it edifices erected half a dozen centuries ago, any more 
than we should feel satisfied with discovering edifices of a similar date 
in Jerusalem, or Damascus, or Rome. The terms ' ancient' and ' old' 
9 



62 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

as used in this paper, will therefore not be applied to buildings erected 
500 or even 800 years ago, but to those of a previous period. 

That wonderful mass of lofty houses separated by narrow lanes and 
packed together in such wild disorder, appearing in fact like one 
immense structure of gigantic proportions, which extends along the 
banks of the Ganges for more than two miles, and has a circumference 
of at least six, although built for the most part of solid stone, and 
presenting largely the aspect of hoary age, has no right to the epithet 
of ' ancient.' Some of the buildings of which it is composed, have been 
standing fully five hundred years, yet there are very few indeed which 
have not been erected since the commencement of the Mohammedan 
period in India. But speaking generally, this, together with a part 
of the northern boundary of Benares, is the oldest portion of the 
present city, while that large extent of buildings lying south and 
west beyond it, and occupying four or five times its area, is chiefly 
of recent date. 

The question which we have attempted to investigate, is, what 
is there in Benares more ancient than, say, the epoch of Mahmud 
of Gazni, who invaded India in the year of our Lord 1001 ? Are 
there any remains of the preceding Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist 
periods ? And is there any remnant whatever of the first Hindu 
period before the rise of Buddhism in the sixth century B. C, or 
even before it became paramount in the reign of Asoka, B. C. 250 ? 

When, after diligent search and careful scrutiny, we endeavoured to 
find proofs of the existence of Benares during these earlier periods, 
we soon ascertained that they were scanty, and with a few exceptions 
unimposing. The debris of ancient Benares may be traced in the 
multitude of carved stones, portions of capitals, shafts, bases, friezes, 
architraves, and so forth — inserted into modern buildings in the nor- 
thern and north-western quarters of the city. These fragments exhibit 
a great diversity of style, from the severely simple to the exceedingly 
ornate, and are in themselves a sufficient proof of the former exist- 
ence of buildings, of styles of architecture corresponding to themselves, 
yet differing in many important respects from the styles of modern 
Hindu and Mohammedan structures, and coinciding with those of 
ancient temples and monasteries of the Gupta and pre- Gupta periods, 
the ruins of which are still existing in various parts of India. Were 



1800.] Bud&kut Monasteries and Temples, 63 

these the only remains found in Benares, they could not fail to 
awaken much curious interest in the mind of the antiquarian ; and he 
would naturally carry on a process of induction in regard to them, 
and would say to himself, ' here are the stones, but where are the 
buildings ? What was their form ? What their age ?' And with the 
help of the ruins of other places, he would be able to answer most of 
these questions satisfactorily, and would, to a large extent, describe 
the buildings, to which the stones at one time belonged, and would 
determine the epoch of their erection. Our belief is, that the most 
ancient ruin yet discovered in India, exhibits nothing older than some 
of these Benares stones, now embedded in modern walls and parapets, 
and scattered about in divers holes and corners of the city. 

The fact that such old fragments are found in Benares, united with 
tin; circumstance that such an exceedingly small number of structural 
remains of any pretensions to high antiquity are traceable in it, goes 
far to prove that the city has been not once, but several times, de- 
stroyed, until, except in rare instances, and these chiefly consisting 
of foundations and basement moulding!, not one stone of the ancient 
city has been left upon another, and the foundations of its temples 
and its palaces have been torn up, so that their places are no larger 
known. Moreover, there is no manner of doubt, that the site of 
Benares has considerably shifted, and that at one time it came quite; 
up to the banks of the river Burna, which flows into the Ganges on 
its northern boundary, and from which it is now distant nearly half 
a mile, and stretched beyond the opposite bank, until perhaps it 
coalesced with the ancient city which, if we may believe the Ceylou 
historians, encompassed Sarnath in the age when Sakya Muni arrived 
there to "turn the wheel of the Law," or previous to it. If this be 
true, the Hindu pilgrim who performs bis wearisome journey of 
perhaps many hundreds of miles, with the object of reaching holy 
Kashi, and dying in the city of his fathers, is labouring under a prodi- 
gious delusion, for the city which he visits, has been chiefly erected 
under Mohammedan rule, and on a spot for the most part different 
from that which his fathers trod ; and the fanes in which he worships, 
are not the spacious temples which his ancestors built, but either the 
pinched and contracted cage-like structures, which Mohammedan em- 
perors just permitted their idol-loving subjects to erect, or modem 
imitations of the same, 



64 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

We shall now proceed to describe such ruins and remains of ancient 
edifices, whether Hindu or Buddhist, which we have discovered in 
Benares or in its immediate suburbs. 

Buddhist Vihdr — No. I. 

The remains of this vihar are in the interior of the fort at Raj 
Ghaut, in the outskirts of the city on its northern boundary. There 
is a small tongue of high land, about fifty feet above the plain below, 
extending to the junction of the Ganges and the Burna, which, in the 
mutiny, was strongly fortified, and has been styled ever since, the 
Raj Ghaut Fort. There is a tradition amongst the natives, that this 
spot was selected, ages ago, for a similar object by the famous Rajah 
Banar. It is probable that formerly the whole of this elevated tract 
was inhabited, and that the Rajah governing the city had his chief 
residence there. It is the natural key not only of modern Benares, 
but also of the country for several miles around ; and a well-eqiiipped 
force in possession of it would, with difficulty, be approached and 
dispossessed. The Government has lately abandoned this grand 
strategical position on the ground of its alleged unhealthiness. 

A short distance to the right of the main road leading into tho 
Fort, may be seen the remains of the vihar, which I will now describe, 
and which, next to the Buddhist temple at Bakarya Kund, are the 
most complete, and certainly are the most beautiful, of any ancient 
remains yet discovered in Benares. They consist of two cloisters in 
a continuous line, each being sustained by a quadruple colonnade, but 
differing both in height and in length. The smaller cloister is 66 
feet long, and the larger 84 feet, and therefore the entire facade is 
exactly 150 in length, whilst the breadth of both is uniform, and is 
25 feet. There are 8 columns in each row in the one room, or 32 in 
all; and in the other, there are 10 in each row, or 40 in all ; so that 
the number of stone pillars standing in the entire building is 72. 
Those in the smaller cloister are barely 9 feet high, and are all square 
and of a uniform pattern, a slight difference only being traceable in 
the capitals, which are of the old cruciform shape. There is not 
much ornamentation on these pillars, but the chess-board and serrated 
patterns are abundantly carved upon the architraves. The pillars in 
the larger cloister, including the capital and base, are 10 feet in 



JOURNAL AS: SOC: XXXV. V I 



FLATE VJH, 



BUDDHIST VIHAR-RAJ GHAUT FORT 











pillar, not ie Scales 



8 Scrolls ens £h& , 



ihafb 




0rditi4X.ru t-ypsy 
Scroll an pi/lars 
from; 



7. 2.3 4-. 
Ccnlrca of Scrolls 
on; piZLocrs 
Ttaj-ciheuit ■ 



oc Scztr&m^rti' 7-rioulcLirKf 



/.aver cZci'sier' bct<seme>nb 



r 



lO fa 71 



1ft to 7uvJ,. 
Seclocns 



Ba^es S cxzplfal to Scales. 

7 'Black &&>. Col: 



Section/ 



HcLf-aJi/z./ii, 



1866.] Buddhist Monasteries and Temple*. G5 

height, but the architraves above the capitals are of the same height 
as those in the smaller cloister, namely one foot. These pillars differ 
greatly both in shape and ornamentation from those just described. 
Some of them are covered with profuse carving cut deeply into the 
stone, which in many instances is so sharp and well-defined as to give 
the appearance of having been recently executed. The lotus plant — 
pod, leaf, blossom and stem — forms a conspicuous object in many of 
the designs, all of which are striking, but some are exquisitely chaste 
and elegant. The chakiva or Brahmani duck is represented in various 
attitudes on the noble scroll-work extending along the square 
sides of several shafts from the base to the capital. These scroll bas- 
reliefs equal the carvings on the Sanchi pillars in richness, whilst the 
designs are much more free in their conception. There were formerly 
human figures, probably of a grotesque form, carved upon some of 
the pillars, as traces of them are still distinctly discernible, but thes«> 
were defaced and almost obliterated by the Mohammedans, on taking 
possession of the edifice and appropriating it to their own uses. The 
pillars are regularly arranged with regard to the Singhasan, and the 
finest pillars arc in the centre of the cloister, in the direction of its 
depth ; and above them, near the inner wall, the stone ceiling in two 
divisions of the roof is singularly carved, and, strange to say, is of 
the kind described by Fergusson as Jain architecture. One of them 
is Alhambric in character, while the other is covered with lotus 
blossoms carved in relief. 

There is not the smallest doubt that these cloisters have been much 
altered from their original condition, and that principally by the 
Mahommedans who transformed them into a mosque, in which service 
they were employed even as late as the mutiny in 1857, and were 
regarded with peculiar sanctity by this people. On closely examining 
the columns, architraves and cielings, it is plain that not only has 
there been a good deal of shifting of places, but new pillars carved 
I in recent times have been added to the old, and some of the old have 
been cut up for repairs, and their separated portions have been 
scattered amongst several pillars and joined on to them. The inner 
massive stone wall running along the entire length of the building, 
': is evidently unconnected with the original structure, as also is the 
present stone floor which is a foot and upwards higher than the old. 



66 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2 



A trench having been dug on the east side, it was discovered that 
the bases of many of the columns were embedded deep below the 
modern stone pavement, while in the front of the smaller cloister, at a 
depth of about a foot, the onter moulding of the ancient floor could 
be traced continuously from one end to the other. Notwithstanding 
all these extensive alterations which the building has undergone 
from time to time at the hands of different masters, we cannot but 
think that many of the columns are standing on their proper sites, 
and that the edifice, although greatly changed, is still in its *main 
features a Buddhist structure. The cloisters were transformed into 
their present condition as a mosque some 80 years ago, and the 
modern pavement was then put down. 

There is reason to believe that a third cloister, corresponding to the 
smaller, formerly existed at the southern extremity of the larger 
cloister ; and this supposition is greatly strengthened by the circum- 
stance of a Singhdsan or throne of Buddha, already referred to, being 
still standing by the wall in the centre of the latter, but altered 
from its original form, having been used by Mohammedan Mullahs as 
a rostrum or pulpit. The vihar, when complete, was in all likelihood 
a square, each side being at least the length of these three cloisters, 
and the chief Buddha was exactly opposite the centre of the square. 
What other buildings were formerly here, in addition to those now 
visible, can of course only be conjectured. It is probable that on 
three sides were cloisters, and on the fourth, namely that to the east, 
was a row of temples, the largest containing the principal figure of 
Buddha. That other buildings were once here, is certain from the 
various sculptured stones found near by. We observed seven pillars, 
sixteen isolated capitals, and four large carved stones used for archi- 
traves, some of which support a recently erected structure attached 
to the smaller cloister. 

The venerable ruins described above, present a very remarkable 
appearance. In the year of the mutiny, barracks for European troops 
having been erected in their neighbourhood, they were converted into a 
vast cook-room or kitchen. Fires were lit inside on the stone floor 
from one extremity to the other, and consequently the roof, walls, 
and columns, were charred by the heat and blackened by the soot, 
so that now the interior of this grand edifice is most dismal and 



JOURNAL A8: SOC: XXXV. PI. 



PL ATE. XV. 



BUDDHIST CHAITYA 

N.W. OF RAJ-GHAUT FORT. 

OLD CHAITYA CEILING. 
Scale 2 fee tolin^k 




PILLAR. 
2 feet toliack. 




mm 



1866.] Buddhist Monasteries and Temples. 67 

forbidding. Mr. Home spent a few rupees in cleaning the building, 
and in removing, as an experiment, the encrusted soot from some of 
the carvings. Fortunately the Mohammedans or the British Govern- 
ment authorities, we know not which, in their care for these beautiful 
works of art, have embedded them in mortar from base to capital, 
so that many of them might be restored. The removal of the en- 
crustations, however, will have to be accomplished with the greatest 
care, or else the surface stone, rendered friable by the heat to which 
it has been subjected, will come away with the superimposed mortar, 
thereby destroying the delicate edge of the carvings. We trust the 
Government will not grudge a few hundred rupees for the thorough 
cleaning of this fine specimen of Buddhist architecture. The inner 
stone wall and the modern pavement should also be removed. 

Besides these remains, there were, until quite recently, hundreds of 
stones lying about in the fort, bearing traces of great antiquity. In 
the mutiny, many of these were collected, and were made use of for 
the foundations of temporary barracks which were then erected. 
These stones may have once belonged to the vihar just described, 
when it existed in its integrity, but may also have been portions of 
other contemporaneous buildings situated in its vicinity. 

During the mutiny, Mr. Tresham, by Government order, blew up 
some ancient buildings standing near the vihar, and there are yet 
the foundations of one, which defied all attempts at its destruction. 
Mr. Home also remembers a chaitya which was removed to afford 
space for barracks. 

Buddhist Chaitya No. I. 

A few hundred yards due north from the old gateway leading into 

the Raj Ghaut Fort is a mound of circumscribed extent, now used 

as a Mohammedan burial-ground, on the summit of which are the 

remains of an old Buddhist chaitya or temple. They consist simply 

1 of four pillars, richly carved with scroll-work, sustaining an ancient 

■ roof. At the corners of the shafts is the ordinary ornamentation 

■ resembling a chain of lotus seed-pods. The capitals are cruciform 
and the bases are square with embellished faces. The ceiling is very 
beautifully sculptured, and is composed of slabs over-lapping one 
another, with the centre stone crowning the whole, according to the 



i**k.&c?zxu* 



68 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

primitive mode of Indian roof-building. This latter stone exhibits 
the out-spread petals of a lotus blossom, while eight out of the twelve, 
triangular spaces formed by the intersection of the slabs, are freely 
carved with the scroll-pattern. A few sculptured stones lie about the 
mound ; amongst them is an erect figure of Buddha with garland 
and armlet, much mutilated. There are also three stone beams or 
architraves bearing the chess-board and spear-head patterns. In the 
small terrace likewise on which the chaitya stands, are inserted four 
carved stones, taken doubtless from some ancient building formerly in 
the neighbourhood . The occurrence of three or four plain cloister 
pillars of the usual form, adapted by the Mussulmans as head-stones 
for graves, together with the carved architraves already alluded to r 
would -seem to indicate that a small cloister for monastic purposes 
must originally have stood upon this mound, which was then terraced, 
the stones of which have been by degrees removed both for building- 
Mohammedan graves, and also for repairs in the Fort. 

Small Mosque in the Budaon Mahalla. 
In the Budaon Mahalla near the Raj Ghaut Fort, a short distance 
south of the high road, there is a small mosque in an enclosure, made 
up to a great extent of ancient remains. The building seems to have 
been curtailed from its original dimensions, leaving a ruined portion 
still standing on its southern side. The entire structure contains 
seventeen stone pillars, eight of which exhibit ornamental carvings 
and probably belonged to a Buddhist chaitya. There are also eight, 
capitals inserted in the walls without shafts and bases, and in addition 
there are fragments of other capitals in various places. None of these 
old remains are in situ. They were brought, most probably, from 
some temple in the neighbourhood, perhaps indeed from the mound 
occupied by the ruins of the Buddhist Chaitya No. I., which is not, 
far off. 

Ancient Mound or Eidge running from the Burna, near its confluence, 
into the Adani'pura Mahalla. 

This very remarkable ridge extends for a long distance, and com- 
mences at the river Burna when at its flood. In the dry season 
therefore there is a stretch of low land lying between its extremity. 



JOI'KNAL AS 



SCX.V XXXV. PI 




J Blacklist '■■ lititrs CalaUia 



VIEW OF BUDDHIST VIHAP.-RAJ GHAUT FORT. 



1S66.] Buddhist Monasteries and Temples. 69 

in that direction and the bed of the stream itself. The ridge is 
manifestly an artificial work, and was originally intended either as a 
wall to the ancient city, or as a rampart thrown np against it and the 
neighbouring fort of Raj Ghaut. The latter supposition was that 
held by Mr. James Prinsep, who imagined that it w r as cast up by 
the Mohammedans in their attack upon Benares, and was specially 
directed against the fort. This supposition may be true, although 
it is difficult to perceive how it could have been of much service 
either in an attack on the fort or on the city, especially in a period 
when artillery was not in use. Had it reached as far as the river 
Ganges, we could understand how, by severing the fort from the city, 
it might have been a source of damage to both, but the south-western 
extremity is not near the Ganges by a third of a mile or perhaps 
more. "We are inclined to think, however, that this extremity was 
once connected with that river, but at a time far more ancient than 
the Mohammedan conquest of India. On the whole, it appears not 
unlikely that this long embankment was the old boundary of the city 
in the early periods of its history, which was possibly employed for 
offensive purposes by the Mohammedans on the extension of the city 
to the south and south-west, and the consequent abandonment of 
this means of defence by the inhabitants. The embankment may 
have been originally carried on to the Ganges in a straight line with 
its present direction ; or, making a short circuit, may have entered 
it by Tilia Nala, on the banks of which are the remains of a Buddhist 
temple, which will be hereafter described. In this case, a portion of 
it must have been thrown down and swept away to make room for 
the growth of the city, and there is good ground for supposing that 
the city extended in a narrow band on the banks of the Ganges 
about as far as the Man-mandil observatory, even before the Christian 
era. Should this idea be correct, it would follow that the most 
ancient site of the city of Benares was situated within the limits of 
this wall, stretching across from the Burna to the Ganges, cutting off 
a tongue of land as far as the confluence of the two rivers, and 
including the high land of the Raj Ghaut Fort, which was, in all 
probability, once well populated. The city must have been then of 
small extent, as compared with its existing dimensions, unless, as we 
10 



70 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

believe, and as it is almost indisputably certain, it crossed over to the 
right bank of the Burna. 

That both sides of the river Buma were in former days better 
inhabited than at present, is somewhat corroborated by an examin- 
ation of the ground on both sides. Brick debris is scattered about 
among the fields on the right bank of this stream, and old coins and 
broken stone images are occasionally found by the people, or are 
dug up by the plough ; while on the other, or Benares side, not only 
are old remains found in the fort, but also below it on the lowland 
already referred to, blocks of stone, some of which are carved and 
exhibit ancient mason marks engraved upon them, are still to be seen* 
Moreover, it is stated in the Ceylon Annals that formerly the city 
surrounding Sarnath, (about three miles from the right bank of the 
Burna,) coalesced with or was a part of Benares, which, if true, must 
have been at a period of remote antiquity. Indeed, the allusion in 
these records is to an epoch long anterior to that of the historical 
Buddha or Sakya Muni, and therefore prior to the sixth century 
before Christ. This account must of course be received with much 
caution, and not as absolutely authentic history. At the same time, 
it is manifest that there was a tradition amongst the Buddhists of 
India, conveyed thence by their missionaries to Ceylon, that in 
remote ages the city of Benares extended to Sarnath. 

In visiting this ridge or embankment, it will be observed that the 
high road leading to Raj Ghaut cuts right through it, the earth of 
the cutting being used to raise the road above the level of the country. 
It is well to remark too that where the road passes under the fort 
to the ghaut, the soil has been cut away to make room for it, so that 
formerly we may suppose that instead of a steep and almost preci- 
pitous wall which the elevated land to the east of the road now 
exhibits, the mound of the fort in this direction diminished in a 
gradual slope, terminating perhaps not far from Tilia Nala. 

The ridge is in one part formed of three terraces, the uppermost 
being perhaps thirty feet above the land, upon which elevated spot 
is the tomb of Mira Sahib. In the mutiny a large portion of the 
mound opposite the Fort was cut away for strategical reasons, although 
what is left is sufficient to prove of great service to an enemy 
attacking the fort. 



18GG.] Buddhist Monasteries and Temples. 71 

On the south side of the ridge, in sight of Mira Sahib's tomb, is 
an Imambara, a modern edifice, built altogether of new materials ; 
and a few paces distant from it are two small structures, one in front 
of the other, which, although of recent erection, are partly composed 
of old materials. Each building possesses four ancient pillars of the 
Buddhist type, and lying about in various places are four pillars more, 
live kulaees, two architraves, and seven bases, one of the latter being 
richly carved. All these are the spoils of some ancient temple or 
monastery. 

Remains <>j Buddhist Chaitya, No. II, and Buddhist Monastery^ 
No. 77., el Tilia Ndld and Maqdum Sahib. 

We have ehosen to unite these remains, and to speak of them under 
one head, because, although separated and standing in different 
Mahallas, yet they arc near enough together to uive rise to the sup- 
position, that they may have been atone time connected. There is 
no question in our minds that at least one monastery stood in tin's 
neighbourhood, which is very rich in old carved Fragments of stone 
scattered about amongst the walls and foundations of dwelling-houses 
and in divers other places. Perhaps it may lie questioned whether 
the ruins at Tilia Nala, now forming part of a deserted mosque, were 
originally a portion of a monastery or a portion of a temple, but our 
own opinion is in favour of the latter ; yet even though this conjeelurc 
were true, it would still be probable that the temple was within the 
precincts of a large monastery and was considered to be a portion of it. 

The remains at Tilia Nala are immediately above the Nala on the 
high ground of its left bank, a very short distance only from the 
point where it runs into the Ganges, and close to the main street 
under which the stream flows. The ruins not only overhang the 
brook, but there is no doubt that at one time they must have extend- 
ed nearly, if not entirely, across its present bed. They consist of 
seventeen massive square columns in three rows, namely four double 
columns in the front row, four single ones in the second, and rive in 
the third or innermost row. Between the third and fourth pillars or 
the last row is the Singhasan of Buddha, an immense slab of stone, 
nine feet three inches in length and five and a half in breadth, retreat- 
ing beyond the boundary wall behind, into which all the pillars of 



72 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

this row are Inserted. There can be no dispute that the Singhasan 
was in the centre of the building, that is to say, that as there are 
three pillars to the right of it, there were as many to the left, in 
each of the three rows, the front row being of double pillars through- 
out. Re- constructing the edifice as it originally stood, therefore, 
there were one row of six double pillars, and two rows of six single 
pillars, or twenty-four pillars in all. Each capital is ornamented with 
the bell pendant, of which the Buddhists were so passionately fond 
and which was after them much used by the Brahmins. The double 
columns are surmounted by one huge capital, five feet and a half in 
breadth, each of which possesses a long arm for the eaves stone. Over 
the two inner rows are two domes, one of which is above the 
Singhasan, and is more ornamented than the other. There must have 
been originally a third dome to the left of the central dome, corre- 
sponding to that on the right. Outside the building there is a fine 
basement moulding which doubtless belonged to the primitive struc- 
ture. Estimating the building as it once stood, it was fully fifty-four 
feet in length and about twenty-four in breadth. The Mussulmans 
may have altered it considerably in transforming it into a mosque, 
but we apprehend that not a little of the old temple still remains. 
Some of the large stones have fallen into the Nala or upon its banks, and 
others have not unlikely been made use of in the repairs of the 
bridge, and of its adjoining stone wall, so that we believe it would 
not be a difficult task to find nearly all the missing pillars and capitals. 
The Maqdum Sahib is a square enclosure in the Oulzar Mahalla 
near to Tilia Nala, used by the Mohammedans as a cemetery. On 
its northern and western sides are cloistered pillars, partially in situ, 
with portions of ancient stone eaves overhanging their capitals, 
presenting on their upper surface imitations of wood-carving. There 
are twenty-five pillars on the western side, and twenty-eight, or, if all 
could be seen, probably thirty-two, on the northern side. Several of 
the pillars are carved ; while some of the capitals are ornamented, and 
some are double. There may be seen also handsomely carved stone 
brackets for the support of the eaves above alluded to. The eastern 
wall bounding the enclosure is evidently composed, to some extent, 
of cut stones of an ancient date. The entire court is one hundred feet 
long from east to west, and sixty feet broad from north to south. 






CRN AX AS SOC XXXV. PI. 



PLATE VI 



ROUGH PLAN 

O F 



TIL I A. NALA VIHAR CHAITYA 

ScoJf IZJUl clutch. 

54 3 




'Enclosing -wrdl J& ifujcb- w(A £ i„cAcj v/' k* , ,. ;/ 

QuSsu/r ntetxevurcntcrvh. fj/t'.7,'.o fry '_>/. Jbiween/ sJLafbb of colusrutnqfr 

'Double. ( oh \crnns _ capitals ufvth. 'lorva am i eioruc 5. 6'iruorte/ 

fjvecC'; S^sfC of alf shafts 7S inches saccate 



SCROLL ON CAPITAL 




grv-i 



noKTIOH OF CAPITAL 
10NC ARM OF DOUBLE CAPITAL. 



T 



■^7 



/ secrioito'BEAH 
> 12" 




ln'SfU't-rr 



SECTION OK BASEMENT MOULDING 



icit.-SeC?ZWu-*. 




Buddhist Monasteries and Temples. 73 

Site of Buddhist Viiiar — No. III. 
Ldt Bhairo. 

At the junction of the old G-hazeepore road with the Raj Ghaut 
road, to the north of the latter, and about a short mile from the fort, 
is a large square tank, on the left bank of which, as on a terrace, 
stands the ldt or pillar, which gives the name to the spot. It is pro- 
bably not more than three or four feet high inside, and is covered 
with copper sheeting. We endeavoured to prevail on the faqir resid- 
ing here to permit us to lift up the copper cap, by removing the plaister 
which connects it with the flooring below, in order to gain a view of 
the stone pillar which it now conceals ; but so great is the reputed 
sanctity of this object, that our united efforts were entirely fruitless, 
and had we persisted in them, a disturbance might have been occasion- 
ed. The original stone column, of which the concealed pillar is 
doubtless a small fragment, was about forty feet high, and, it is re- 
ported, was covered with ancient carvings, which were most probably 
inscriptions. This was thrown down by the Mahommedans during a 
terrible conflict with the Hindu population in the early part of the 
present century, when Mr. Bird was magistrate of the city. The 
natives say, that the pillar was thrown into the Ganges, but as that 
stream is half a mile off or more, this must have been done piecemeal. 
In all likelihood it was destroyed by fire, the action of which on 
sandstone soon causes it to crumble to pieces. As there is strong 
reason for believing that this was one of Asoka's pillars, it would be 
exceedingly interesting to inspect the remaining fragment, which we 
may fairly suppose to belong to the original column, and in that case 
to possess a portion of an inscription sufficient to verify its connexion 
with Asoka, or with the Guptas, or with the monarchs of any other 
era by whom the column was erected. 

It is important in our present investigations to know that the 
pillar once stood in the midst of a temple, that is, in its courtyard, 
which temple was destroyed by Aurungzebe, and on its site a mosque 
was erected, the courtyard of which enclosed the pillar. On examin- 
ing the terrace where the Lat stands, it is exceedingly manifest that 
the upper portion has been thrown up in modern times, and that the 
ancient level of the ground was some six or eight feet lower than 






74 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

what it now is, and indeed was even with the soil of the Mahomme- 
dan cemetery close by, in the midst of which are a few Buddhist 
remains in the shape of pillars and architraves made up into a 
Mahommedan sepulchre. What this so-called temple was, admits of 
very little question, inasmuch as the boundary walls of the terrace 
and of the neighbouring cemetery and garden exhibit a considerable 
variety of isolated carved remains, sufficient to afford abundant attes- 
tation to the supposition that formerly a large Buddhist structure, 
most probably a monastery with a temple connected with it, stood on 
this site, covering the whole extent of the ground elevated above the 
tank on its northern side. Some of the carvings are in excellent pre- 
servation, and are worthy of being removed to the archaeological 
collection in the Government college grounds in Benares. There are 
several pillars embedded in the brickwork, and also a stone seven feet 
in length and one and a half in depth, which is deserving of special 
remark, as on its face are projected four magnificent bosses, each ten 
inches in diameter, with a projection of two inches from the surface 
of the stone. These bosses must have formed part of the decoration 
over the main entrance to the monastery. 

Below the upper terrace on which the Lat stands, is, as already 
observed, a Mohammedan cemetery with a Rauza or tomb in the 
middle. This building rests upon sixteen pillars, each being eight 
feet two inches in height, and the architraves between their capitals 
being one foot two inches in thickness. In addition, there are five 
pillars in the verandah to the south. Some of the pillars are orna- 
mented with scroll-work and the lotus plant, while their four corners 
are deeply cut with representations of the lotus seed-pod. One pillar 
has eight sides in its lowest division and sixteen in its upper, and has 
also a band of four grinning faces connected together, and under them 
a row of beaded garlands. The pillar is crowned with a round stone 
projecting two inches, on the face of which is a curious assemblage 
of thirty-two grotesque faces all round the edge of the stone, with 
beaded garlands and tassels depending, issuing from their mouths. 

It should be mentioned, that if our conjecture, that the upper ter- 
race has been only recently thrown up, be correct, then on the suppo- 
sition that the fragmentary pillar on its summit is part of the original 
pillar which in ancient times stood here, it would follow that the 






18G6.] Buddhist Monasteries and Temples. 75 

length of the existing fragment is equal to the depth of the terrace 
above the foundations of the neighbouring cemetery, in addition to 
its present elevation above the terrace, and to the extent of insertion 
of its lower extremity in the primitive but now subjacent soil. In 
this case, it would be not less than from fourteen to sixteen feet in 
length. 

Buddhist Chaitya — No. III. 

Battis Khamhha. 

About a third of a mile to the east of the Bakarya Kund Remains, 
is a beautiful little structure called by the natives Battis Khambha or 
thirty-two pillars. It is a very picturesque object as seen from the 
Raj Ghat road, from which it is some four hundred yards distant. It 
consists of a dome sustained by twenty-four square pillars, standing 
in pairs at intervals all round. Formerly each corner had four pillars, 
thus increasing the present number by eight, and then, of course, the 
entire number was thirty-two ; but two from each corner have been 
removed, leaving the spaces occupied by them empty. All the upper 
part of the building is Mohammedan, while all the lower part is 
indisputably Buddhist in its style of architecture. On the western 
side is an abutment for the Singhasan of Buddha, similar to that 
which exists in the Chaitya at Bakarya Kund, and indeed, so far as 
our knowledge extends, in all bond fide Buddhist temples. The 
pillars stand upon a platform raised above the ground, and in the 
interior of the building is a Mohammedan tomb. 

It is remarkable that there should be so many ancient remains lying 
almost in a straight line from Bakarya Kund to the Raj Grhat fort, 
yet most of the remains hitherto referred to, lie in this line. "We 
have no doubt that formerly a large number of Buddhist buildings 
existed between these two extremes, and that the foundations of some 
of them might be discovered, if a keen search were instituted, in addi- 
tion to the more prominent remains already brought to notice. It 
seems evident therefore that there was a road here during the Bud- 
dhist period, not far removed from the track of the present one. 
This road was at right angles to another proceeding from Bakarya 
Kund in the direction of Sarnath, which still exists. Search might 
be made along this road for the foundations of ancient buildings and 



76 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

for Buddhist relics, as there can be no doubt that constant commu- 
nication was kept up by the monks of Sarnath with Bakarya Kund, 
in both which places there were vast monastic edifices and numerous 
temples.' 

Near this Ghaitya and between it and Bakarya Kund is a small 
building standing by the road side, in which are several pillars of the 
most ancient type inserted into the containing walls. They have been 
very probably brought from Bakarya Kund. The building has an 
unpretending appearance, and is kept whitewashed by the Moham- 
medans, its proprietors. 

Buddhist Vihar — No. IV. 

Arhai Kangura Mosque. 

It is not our purpose thoroughly to describe this handsome struc- 
ture, which is one of the finest mosques in the whole city, and is 
situated in the Mahalla bearing its own name. Its magnificent and 
lofty dome, as well as various parts of the mosque itself, unquestion- 
ably exhibit a Mohammedan style of architecture, but we have no 
hesitation in saying that by far the greater portion of the building, 
and certainly five-sixths of its materials, belong to an epoch far more 
distant than the Mahommedan invasion. The numerous square 
columns with their cruciform capitals, and also the screens between 
some of them in the upper story, are of Buddhist workmanship ; but 
we are inclined to think that both Buddhists and Hindus have made 
use of the same materials in different eras, and that in fact the mosque 
is a mixture of three styles, namely Buddhist, Hindu, and Moham- 
medan. The first edifice was, we believe, a monastery, with (most 
probably) one or more temples attached ; but it is hard to say whether 
any portion of the original building exists in situ, and we have not 
sufficiently examined it to be able to pronounce a decided opinion on 
the point. Our conviction, however, is that certain leading character- 
istics of the first structure were perpetuated by the Hindus in that 
which they raised on the departure, or rather expulsion, of the Bud- 
dhists from Benares. It is not easy to determine accurately what 
this Hindu building was, but perhaps it is more likely to have been 
a math or a sort of monastery or religious house for Hindu ascetics, 
such as exist in the land at the present day, than a temple. In the 



1866.] Buddhist Monasteries and Temples. 77 

roof of the second story of- the mosque a slab was discovered bearing 
a long Sanscrit inscription, towards the end of which is the date 1248, 
which, regarded as Sambat, is equivalent to A. D. 1190. The inscrip- 
tion itself is of no particular importance, except that it abounds with 
references to the Hindu religion, showing that it belonged to a build- 
ing erected by a Hindu, and therefore subsequent to the Buddhist 
period. It alludes also to certain tanks, temples, and maths, erected 
and embellished in and about Benares, which of course were all in 
honour of Hinduism. It is not unlikely indeed that these structures 
were erected and this inscription was written with somewhat of a 
religio-political object, to testify to the triumph which Hinduism had 
then recently gained over Buddhism ; for there is good ground for 
believing that the buildings at Sarnath were not burnt, and the monks 
were not expelled therefrom, till about the twelfth century of our era. 
We have obtained a copy of the inscription in Sanscrit, with a trans- 
lation into Hindi, through the kindness of Babu Shio Parshad, Joint 
Inspector of Schools, whose intelligence, enterprise, and extensive 
knowledge place him in the front rank of native gentlemen in these 
provinces. 

"We would direct especial attention to the small side door or postern 
with its massive wall, to the right of the building, which has a great 
appearance of originality, and also to two noble capitals of gigantic 
dimensions, lying in the court-yard in front of the mosque and turned 
I into small cisterns. They are the largest carved capitals we have 
found anywhere. 

Hindu Temple of Kirt Bisheshwar. 
Alamgiri Mosque. 

Near the temple of Briddhkal, one of the very few Hindu temples 
of the earlier Mohammedan period still standing in Benares not 
appropriated by the Mussalmans, and a few paces from the well- 
known shrine of Rattaneshwar, is a mosque spoken of in the neigh- 
bourhood as the Alamgiri Masjid, which was erected during the reign 
of Aurungzebe or A'lamgir, and was designated after that emperor. 
Upon it may be read the following inscription in Arabic : — 

11 



78 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2 



The translation of which is, " Turn your face towards the sacred 
mosquQ. 1077 Higira," or A. D. 1659. 

The mosque is built, tradition states, from the materials of the Hindu 
temple of Kirt Bisheshwar, and has three rows of lofty stone pillars, 
eight in each row ; but the pillars at both extremities are not single, 
but three-fold. The capitals are large and massive, and are cruciform 
in shape. In the centre of each shaft, upon all the four sides, is the 
boss ornamentation, each boss being fully a foot in diameter. The 
pillars have a double base, a false and a true, the one consisting of the 
lower end of the shaft, the other, the true base, of a separate stone. 
Both are covered with carvings. Some of the architraves also bear 
upon them the boss pattern ; but it is possible that these were 
formerly shafts of pillars. The inner wall of the mosque is likewise 
of stone. Viewed from behind, many of the blocks display various 
mason marks inscribed upon them. 

From an examination of the marks or symbols, and of the archi- 
tecture represented by the remains now briefly described, there is no 
reason for supposing that the temple which once stood here, and 
which was levelled to the ground by Aurungzebe, was of great 
antiquity. The style of architecture has a Buddhist basis, yet is not 
purely Buddhist, and the symbols are not necessarily Buddhist at all. 
"We should be inclined to fix the date of the Hindu temple at some 
five or six centuries ago. It must have been a place of great sanctity, 
as many Hindus still visit the spot on pilgrimage, and instead of an 
image (which we suppose the Mohammedans would not allow them 
to put up) worship the spout of a fountain rising up in the centre of 
a small tank in the court-yard of the mosque. It is not improbable 
that the tank is the site of the old temple ; but if the temple was a 
large one, as is likely, it must have occupied not only a considerable 
portion of the present courtyard but also some ground in addition 
on either side. A few persons perform their devotions in the tank 
daily, but the grand festival is at the Shio rat mela, for one day in 
March, when crowds throng reverently around the sacred spout, and 
present it (or perhaps regarding it as a god, they would say him, or 
her,) with abundant offerings, all of which, down to the last rupee, 
are received by the Mullah of the mosque, who thinks, we suppose, 
that if he winks at the idolatry, which in fact he cannot put down, 
he may as well be paid handsomely for it. 



18G6.] Buddhist Monasteries and Tenyrfes. 79 

Attached to the mosque is a corridor, built a few years later, on, 
the inner wall of which is the following inscription : — 

In noticing the remains of the Kirt Bisheshwar temple, we are 
aware that they do not come under the designation of " old" or 
" ancient," as applied to other remains described in this paper, and 
yet, as they are not without interest, we have given them a place in it. 

Buddhist Chaitya — No. IV. 
ChauJchambha Mosque. 

The long Chaukhambha street in the city of Benares, in or about 
which most of the great bankers have their houses of business, takes 
its name from four low massive pillars of modern erection, standing 
in the lowermost story of a lofty building, the weight of which they 
entirely sustain, situated towards its north-eastern extremity. There 
is a narrow court running out of this street, which terminates in a 
small enclosure, on the further side of which is a mosque. The 
entire enclosure has a very remarkable appearance, and, for the 
archaeologist, is a place of considerable interest. The entrance is by a 
doorway let into a huge breastwork or wall formed of blocks of stone, 
which is twenty feet long, thirteen feet high, and four feet thick, 
and is constructed for the most part systematically, as is evident 
from the ornamentation on one stone answering to that on the stone 
contiguous to it. Over the doorway is an inscription in Arabic. 
But with the exception of this doorway and the castellated appear- 
ance crowning the wall, there is nothing Mohammedan in its archi- 
tecture. 

The mosque and corridor adjoining it are supported by twenty-four 
pillars, of which six are double. The capitals are of the simple 
cruciform pattern, and their outer limbs are decorated with the dwarf 
bell ornamentation. To the south of this building is a staircase 



80 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

leading up to the roof, built of heavy stones ; and along the south side 
of the enclosure, for the space of about twenty-five feet, is a low 
stone wall six feet in height, and, attached to it, a peculiar ledge three 
feet from the ground. It is known that a similar wall exists on the 
north side also, but hidden from view. 

In our judgment most of the pillars are in situ, and originally 
formed part of a Buddhist structure, but whether of a temple or of a 
monastery, it is difficult to say. Our opinions are divided 6n the 
subject, and the former has been assigned to the building by way of 
a heading to this chapter. The wall with the projecting bench is 
very curious. The latter may have been used by the priests or 
monks for reclining upon. 

Buddhist Vihar — No. V. 
Aurungzebe 's Mosque near Bisheshivar Temple. 
The mosque built by the emperor Aurungzebe on the foundations 
of what is commonly regarded, though erroneously, as the old or 
original Bisheshwar temple, is of interest not for its own sake — for 
notwithstanding its lofty appearance, it is a a structure without any 
striking beauty in its own right — but for the sake of the ancient 
buildings with which it is associated, and with the materials of which 
it has been largely constructed. The courtyard consists of a terrace 
raised some five feet above the level of the temple quadrangle, in the 
centre of which it is situated, and occupying a large portion of the area. 
On walking round the quadrangle and examining the retaining wall 
of the terrace, one's attention is arrested by peculiar openings or 
niches in the wall, in which architraves, and capitals, and parts of 
pillars on which they rest, are visible, but in some places the openings 
are filled with earth almost up to the level of the capitals. Proceed- 
ing from west to east, the ground gradually declines, until, after 
descending four steps and arriving opposite a large stone bull or Nandi, 
the opening in the terrace becomes clear, and a cloister, such as 
surrounds a Buddhist vihar, comes into view, and reveals the character 
of the entire series. It consists of a small chamber sustained by 
genuine Buddhist pillars, severely simple in their type, and without 
doubt of great antiquity. Formerly a succession of such cloisters 
encompassed not less than three sides of the existing terrace, which 



1866.] Buddhist Monasteries ami Temples. 81 

must consequently date from the same epoch. It would be desirable, 
if the consent of the Mohammedans could be obtained, to remove the 
external wall by which these cloisters have become almost completely 
hidden, in order to ascertain what is their extent and condition. 

This series of cloisters formed the lowermost story of a large 
Buddhist monastery, which once enclosed the entire space occupied 
by the terrace, and rose to the height of probably two or three stories 
above it. On the southern side stood the chief chaitya or temple, 
which, on the suppression of Buddhism, passed into the hands of the 
advocates of another religion, who transformed it according to their 
own tastes. The mosque on this side is altogether composed of the 
remains of an ancient temple of large dimensions, and of very 
elaborate workmanship. The high pillars, moreover, on its northern 
face have been abstracted from the same spacious building. These 
remains are partly Hindu, and it is unquestionable that the edifice 
which was destroyed in order to make way for the mosque, was an 
old temple of Bisheshwar. An excellent ground plan of this temple, 
prepared from a minute examination of the existing remains, was 
drawn by Mr. James Prinsep, and published by him in his " Views 
of Benares." These remains, however, are only partially Hindu. 
Some portions, judging from the elaborate ornamentation of certain 
details which it was the custom of the Buddhist architects to leave 
plain, seem to be of Jain origin, and to have been appropriated by 
the builders of the Hindu temple. If this supposition be correct, 
the mosque with its terrace exhibits a singular architectural ano- 
maly, and presents us with no less than four styles, namely Bud- 
dhist, Jain, Hindu and Mohammedan. Indeed it would not be 
wrong to add a fifth style, for the square terrace pillars with their 
cruciform capitals are so simple in structure, that, compared with the 
highly carved and decorated pillars of mediaeval and later Buddhist 
history, they belong to another style, which may be called early 
Buddhist or Hindu, according to which of these two ancient religious 
communities is supposed to have invented it. It is not our object to 
discuss the interesting and also important topic, who were the first 
Indian sculptors and builders of permanent works, yet it is one which 
must one day, when materials have been sufficiently accumulated, 
which they have not been at present, be thoroughly investigated. 






82 Descrption of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

When this is settled, the antiquity and origin of these terrace pillars 
will be settled likewise. 

Buddhist Vihar— No. VI. 

Ad-Bislieshwar Temple and neighbouring Mosque. 

Ad-Bisheshwar is the name of a lofty temple situated a short 
distance from Aurungzebe's mosque just referred to, and in sight of 
it, and is held to be, by some persons, the original or most ancient 
temple of this deity. The derivation of its name only bears out 
this supposition, for the temple itself, from the pinnacle to the base, 
has nothing really ancient about it. On the eastern side of the 
enclosure the ground takes a sudden rise of eighteen feet, forming a 
terrace manifestly of artificial construction. On this side there is a 
retaining wall of stone masonry, which is wanting on the southern 
side of the terrace, where there is only an earthen bank. The other 
two sides of the terrace are covered with • buildings, which prevent 
the exact ascertainment of its boundary in these directions. On that 
flank which is contiguous to the Ad-Bisheshwar enclosures, stands a 
mosque erected some eighty years ago or less, but not finished then, 
for want of money. It was built of stones found on the spot, with 
new Chunar slabs added. The terrace existed before with the but- 
tress, and is evidently of ancient construction. 

The building is in two divisions, each of which is 23J feet in 
length, connected together by a massive wall 5 J feet thick, composed 
of large blocks of stone. This wall projects considerably beyond the 
building into the courtyard to the east, and has the appearance of a 
huge buttress ; but what its object is, seeing that the mosque, which 
is entirely of stone, is amply sustained by its columns and walls, and 
requires no such additional support, it is hard to say. Possibly the 
buttress is pierced with a staircase, leading formerly to an upper story 
which the buttress supported, and the Mohammedan architects, not 
caring to remove the massive prop, have retained it in the mosque. 
They appear, moreover, to have confined themselves chiefly to mate- 
rials lying upon the spot, as in three places carved pillars, similar to 
those sustaining the centre aisle, have been adopted as architraves. 
There are fourteen columns in the interior of the mosque, which are 
peculiarly but not extensively carved, and are crowned with orna- 






1866.] Buddhist Monasteries and Temples. 83 

mcntecl capitals. The western wall is strengthened externally by 
three rounded buttresses, which are of the Pathan dynasty, like those 
found at Jaunpore, and were built at the same time. They did not 
exist in the Buddhist period, and were added as much for ornament 
as strength. All the mosques about old Delhi have them. 

There is no doubt in our minds that the Ad-Bisheshwar temple 
stood on this site, and was destroyed by the Mohammedans, who, as 
usual, transferred its stones to their own mosque. The neighbouring 
temple bearing this name, the Hindus built, with the kind permission 
of their friends, the Mohammedans, of course, for the purpose of 
perpetuating the worship and the honour of their old idol, Ad-Bish- 
eshwar. Yet, while allowing that the edifice standing on the site of 
the present mosque when the Mohammedans took possession of it, 
was the temple of Ad-Bisheshwar, we are nevertheless equally certain 
that the primitive building was of a Buddhist character. We were 
inclined at one time to imagine that, from its proximity to the 
Buddhist Vihar No. V., it must have been a part of that monastery, 
but two reasons have led us to abandon that idea. One is, that a 
separate terrace of extensive dimensions was appropriated to this 
structure, whatever it was, and that between this terrace and that of 
No. V., the ground is depressed corresponding to the depression of all 
the neighbouring soil ; and the second is, that the style of architecture 
of the ancient buildings upon or around the two terraces, differs 
exceedingly. We are led to conjecture, therefore, that the original 
structure was a Buddhist monastery, but later in date by several 
hundred years than the first monastery erected on the terrace No. V. 
It was of course a quadrangle, encompassing the four sides of the 
terrace. Nothing remains of it except the massive transverse wall 
with the buttress, and the lower portion of the retaining wall. The 
mosque has been erected perhaps on the site of the principal cloister 
of the monastery, its second division occupying the position of a 
smaller cloister. The amount of stone material expended on the 
present comparatively small building is preposterously great, and in 
itself is a proof that an edifice of much larger dimensions formerly 
stood here. 



84 Description of Ancient Remains of [No. 2, 

Stone Pillar. 

Soyid-hd-Talao. 

Before closing this paper, we would direct attention to a stone 
pillar standing in the midst of a tank between the city of Benares 
and the Buddhist remains at Sarnath. The tank is called Sona-ka- 
Talao, or the Grolden Tank, and is situated on the opposite side of 
the river Burna, near the road which branches off from the high road 
leading to Ghazeepore, and almost close to the point of its junction 
with several other roads. The road is a portion of the Panch-kosi 
or sacred boundary of Benares. Proceeding along it for somewhat 
less than a mile, you arrive at the tank, which is to the right of it, 
and is approached by a strong and well built ghaut, on which are 
several Buddhist figures, brought most probably from Sarnath. It 
is three hundred yards in length, and one hundred and forty in 
breadth. In the midst of it is a round pillar, eighteen feet high and 
upwards of nine in circumference, composed of great blocks of stone 
cut in quadrants and put together without cement or mortar. There 
is no inscription on the pillar, and no mason marks, so that we have 
been totally unable to assign any date, even approximately, to its 
erection. Its base is always, we believe, surrounded by water ; yet it 
would be worth while to ascertain whether any inscription exists 
below. We probed it to its foundations, but found no face for an in- 
scription. It is likely that both the pillar has somewhat sunk, and that 
formerly the tank was less choked with mud than it is now. In 
appearance therefore the pillar was once higher than at the present 
time. It was probably surmounted formerly by a lion or some other 
figure, and on close examination bears marks of extreme old age. 

Besides allusions to a few other ancient structures, we have in 
this paper traced out remains, more or less abundant, of six 
Buddhist vihars or monasteries and four Buddhist chaityas or tem- 
ples, still existing in Benares, and have pointed out the sites 
on which they stood or are still standing. Add to these the 
remains at Bakarya Kund already described in a former paper, and 
we have the remains of seven monasteries and at the least seven 
chaityas. The monasteries are doubtless a portion of the thirty 
monasteries and upwards which Hwan Thsang, the Chinese traveller 



1866.] Buddhist Monasteries and Temples. 85 

of the seventh century, said existed in Benares in his day. In con- 
clusion, we may remark that we are much inclined to believe that 
many of the ancient Buddhist monasteries, and of the temples also, 
were on a line of road leading from Bakarya Kund to Raj Ghaut 
Fort in one direction ; on a second line> at right angles to this, running 
from Bakarya Kund to Sarnath ; and on a third, proceeding from the 
site of Aurungzebe's mosque and joining one or both the others, possi- 
bly, at Bakarya Kund, and that hereabouts most of other remains of 
such buildings, if found at all, will be discovered. 

Note by the Rev. M. A. Sherring. 

Since the above was written, I have visited and examined the 
country lying on the banks of the Ganges to the north of the river 
Burna. To my utter astonishment, though I must confess, not con- 
trary to my anticipation, I found brick and stone debris scattered 
over the fields for, as far as I could conjecture, five miles or there- 
abouts. In many places the rubbish lies thick upon the ground, chok- 
ing up the soil, and to a large extent the deposit can be traced con- 
tinuously. Here and there small bits of sculptured stone are visible, 
and occasionally, where the broken bricks and stones are in very great 
abundance, they have been collected into ridges or small mounds. 
This is especially manifest at the termination of the deposit at a spot 
called Patharaka Siwau, where, in ancient times, doubtless stood a 
large fort, of which the foundations may even now be partially traced. 
Although the fields beyond this point seem to be clear of rubbish, yet 
further on, at Muskabad, at the distance of a mile, it recommences and 
becomes as thick as in any other place. Perhaps this latter was the 
site of an outlying town. 

But what are we to say of these remains ? They lie immediately 
on the great river's bank, and never retreat from it more than- three 
quarters of a mile. It is, I think, very evident that all the way from 
the mouth of the Burna this bank has been, with the lapse of cen- 
turies, considerably cut away. Indeed, I believe, that as much as a 
quarter of a mile may have gone into the river. In all probability 
therefore the space covered by debris was much broader than it is at 
present. There can be no question, however, that here a great city 
once stood. I have no hesitation in expressing my belief that in the 
12 



86 Description of Ancient Buddhist Remains. [No. 2, 

entire absence of any bond fide Hindu remains in the present city of 
Benares, dating from even the Buddhist period, not to speak of the 
pre-Buddhist epoch, when we know from historical records that 
Benares was in existence, the ancient city of the pre-Buddhist and 
early Buddhist eras must have occupied this site. Beyond the north- 
ern extremity of the remains of the ancient city is a series of mounds 
also covered with debris, tending in a north-westerly direction, where 
formerly forts or towns existed. I think it not unlikely that in a far 
distant age the connexion of the ancient city of Benares with Sarnath 
was along the course of these mounds. Sarnath is spoken of in the 
Ceylon records as though it may have been a city of itself ; and there 
is no doubt that it is referred to in ancient documents as a part of 
Benares. Now, modern Benares is at least one-thud of a mile to the 
south of the Burna, whereas Sarnath is out in the country about three 
miles to the north of that stream. If we suppose, however, that 
Benares, in its most ancient period, was mainly on the north side of 
the Burna likewise, and if such supposition is corroborated by exten- 
sive remains of ancient buildings in the shape of brick and stone 
debris stretching over several miles of country, as already shown, and 
terminating in mounds lying in the direction of Sarnath, the proof 
approaches to demonstration that in that early epoch a union, more or 
less intimate, existed between Sarnath and Benares, as stated by histo- 
rical records. I had no opportunity to examine thoroughly the coun- 
try lying between these remains and Sarnath, but I feel satisfied that 
at some point in these remains a line of debris would be found con- 
necting the two spots, with only a few breaks in its course, the debris 
indicating the former existence of solid buildings and being the 
broken remains of the same. This point must not be searched for at 
the southern extremity of the ancient city, but at the northern extre- 
mity ; and perhaps the line of junction may be the line of the mounds 
just now referred to ; but of this I am not able to speak positively. 

If these observations respecting the site of the early city be correct, 
it would follow that the derivation of the word Benares, as the city 
lying between the Burna and the Assi, is utterly absurd, as applied to 
the most ancient city. That it is a correct derivation of the word, as 
denoting the city of modern times even as far back as the Gupta 
dynasty, and perhaps somewhat further, I have not the smallest 



1866.] Assyo-Pseudo-Sesostris. 87 

doubt. But Bamir-assi has nothing whatever to do with ancient 
Benares, and as applied to it would he a ludicrous misnomer. It 
seems, indeed, probable that the Buddhists were the first people to 
occupy to any extent the southern side of the Burna, and such a 
notion is remarkably substantiated by the existence of various Bud- 
dhist remains there, as described in this paper ; but none of them, so 
far I know, date from earlier than the Gupta period. The Panch- 
kosi road or sacred boundary of modern Benares, nearly fifty miles in 
extent, and regarded by many natives as of immense antiquity, is no 
older than the city which it encompasses, and must also be assigned 
to a comparatively recent date. Many pleasant and perhaps hallowed 
associations connected with Benares, as it now stands, will in the 
jninds of multitudes be in danger of being snapped asunder, when 
they discover that the Benares of to-day was not the Benares which 
their forefathers knew. 



Assyro-Pseudo-Sesostris. — By Hyde Clarke, Esq. Member of the Ger- 
man Oriental Society, of the Society of Nortlieru Antiquaries of 
Copenhagen, of the Academy of Anatolia, of the Institution of 
Engineers of Vienna, Local Secretary of the Anthropological Society. 

[Received 13th July, 1865. Read 2nd August, 1865.] 

As the monument near Ninfi (the ancient Nymphceum), and 
twenty miles from Smyrna, has of late years become a subject of some 
controversy, I have been very desirous of getting it photographed, 
and at length this has been effected (Plate XXI.) by the zeal and 
ability of Mr. Alexander Svoboda, an artist doubtless remembered 
by many members of the Society for his paintings of Indian scenes, 
and his having first photographed the caves of Elephanta and the 
monument of Ctesiphon, as he has latterly those of Ephesus. 

Herodotus, in his second book, as is well known, speaks of the foreign 
wars and expeditions of Sesostris, and says that he erected various 
monuments of his victories, of which Herodotus had seen one in Syria, 
and there were two others in Ionia, one on the road from Sardis to 
Smyrna, and the other on the road from Ephesus to Phoctea, and that 



88 Assyro-Pseudo- Sesostris. [No. 2, 

the figures, four cubits and a spathamus high, held a bow in one hand 
and a lance in the other. . 

The words of Herodotus are : — 

" The pillars which Sesostris erected in the conquered countries, 
have for the most part disappeared, but in the part of Syria called 
Palestine, I myself saw them still standing, with the writing above- 
mentioned, and the emblem distinctly visible. In Ionia also, there 
are two representations of this prince engraved upon rocks, one on the 
road from Ephesus to Phocaea, the other between Sardis and Smyrna. 
In each case the figure is that of a man, four cubits and a span high, 
with a spear in his right hand and a bow in his left, the rest of his 
costume being likewise half Egyptian, half Ethiopian. There is an 
inscription across the breast from shoulder to shoulder, in the sacred 
character of Egypt, which says, " With my own shoulders I conquered 
this land." The conqueror does not tell who he is, or whence he 
comes, though elsewhere Sesostris records these facts. Hence it has 
been imagined by some of those who have seen these forms, that they 
are figures of Memnon, but such, as I think so, err very widely from 
the truth." 

Diodorus Siculus repeats the like, and says there was an inscription 
ill hieroglyphics on the monument,, of which he gives the trans- 
lation. 

As the monument near Ninfi agrees with the description of Hero- 
dotus, it is generally believed to be Egyptian, to bear a hieroglyphic 
inscription, and to be the Sesostris. As will be seen, there arer traces of 
characters on the right hand corner, though what, cannot be made out. 
They are exceedingly unlike any hieroglyphic inscription, which will 
carry the meaning of Diodorus, and the rock is too soft for the minute 
characters of the hieroglyphic ever to have been carved upon it. It 
would not bear even the ring of the cartouche. 

Who first doubted its Egyptian character, we have not the means 
here of knowing, but at any rate the geographers Kiepert and Carl 
Bitter have done so, and in their works the monument is figured as 
" Pseudo-Sesostris," and is placed with the Assyrian class. 

Unaware of this, some years ago, I visited the monument and 
arrived at the same conclusions, and I have since endeavoured to 
obtain the opinions of competent authorities in Europe. This corre- 




^ 











■ 



1866.] Assyro-Pseudo-Sesostris. 89 

spondence made mc more urgent to get it correctly reproduced, and it 
is satisfactory that at length it can be examined by all interested in 
the subject, instead of the very few who could reach Ninfi. 

It is reasonably to be doubted whether Herodotus ever saw this 
monument, because he has not described it with absolute accuracy. 

The monument is quite off the road or any liigh road, and is a very 
unlikely place for a public monument of Sesostris. It is on a friable 
rock, and it is a miracle it has been preserved so many centuries. It 
was perhaps attached to the country palace of some king or satrap, 
or it may commemorate a battle fought in the glen. It does not bear 
the appearance of having been an object of adoration. 

Its class is not distinctly Assyrian, for it wants the sharp touch 
of those workmen, and it must always have been of rude appearance. 

It is allied to the Assyrian, and is the production of some people of 
Assyrian character. 

The question arises, whether this monument and the neighbouring 
Niobe, and the other rock-cut pictures, are the works of settled inhabi- 
tants, or of an invading or conquering race. The latter seems to be 
the preferable hypothesis, because in this district, even in the time of 
Herodotus, there cannot have been more than three, and there are few 
scattered over the country. Those in this district most probably 
belonged to some petty kingdom. 

With regard to their epoch, they are certainly as old as the Egyp- 
tian cities in their neighbourhood. These cities there form a close 
group, Smyrna, Tantalus, Sipylus and Nymphseum, attesting at one 
time a population of large and strong cities and a relative civilization. 

These cities, as well from identity of remains with those in the 
South of Europe, as well from the identity of names with those of the 
Iberian nations, as well as from the fact of their population having 
endured beyond the Hellenic invasion, I place as anterior to that 
epoch, and as Iberian in character. This subject I have treated at 
length in a detailed memoir read before the Academy of Anatolia, the 
Ethnological Society, and the British Association. 

The rock-cut monuments must, to some extent, have preceded the 
Iberian occupation, or may have been the result of an invasion during 
that period, proceeding from Cilicia and the south east, that is, from 
the Semitic district. 



90 Assyro-Pseudo-Sesostris. [No. 2, 

As yet the elements for the determination of these pre-historical 
questions are very few. They are indeed hardly known, and we are 
not yet in a situation to judge of the ethnology, the monuments, or 
the mythology either of an earlier or a later age. 

There are two elements in particular that exercised a great influence 
over this region, that have not been adequately studied, the Iberian 
and the Caucaso-Tibetan. The remarkable discovery of Mr. B. H- 
Hodgson, communicated to your Society, of a connection between the 
tribes of the Caucasus and those of the Himalaya and its valleys, 
opens up new views as to the history of Central and Western Asia, 
and will in time afford one of the keys for unlocking their secrets, not 
less valuable perhaps than those applied to hieroglyphics or cuneiform. 

I was led by a like train of investigations with Mr. Hodgson to the 
like results, and I am glad to find that what I have done, has been in 
confirmation of such an authority. I lately communicated a paper on 
this subject to the Asiatic Society of London, with the hope of 
inviting other inquiries. 

It is perhaps by means of the Caucaso-Tibetan, that we shall 
obtain a knowledge of the early history of Iranistan, of the influences 
which have affected so peculiarly the early Indo-Europeans, the 
Armenians, the Ossetes and the Koords, of the third arrow-headed, 
and the Lycian. 

It is here we shall perhaps find another element in the determin- 
ation of mythology, though so far as the mythology of these regions is 
concerned, and particularly its local character, Iberian sources must be 
searched. It is there we must seek for the explanation of much of 
the mythology, and not in Sanskrit sources, however plausible such 
explanations may appear. 

The Hellenes found a mythology ready made for them in the 
Iberian countries, in which they settled, and they adopted Iberian 
terms. To a certain extent, they brought with them Indo-European 
dogmas, and here Sanskrit philology will help us ; but the local 
colony is Iberian. This western country of Asia Minor was, in fact, 
the seat of mythology and the land of the gods, before the Hellenes 
appeared. In some cases an Indo-European legend may have been 
attached to a local site, but the Hellenes borrowed more than they gave. 

The Sesostris I propose to designate Assyro-Pseudo-Sesostris, 



18GC] Notes on some of the temples of Kashmir. 91 

Notes on some of the temples of Kashmir, especially those not de- 
scribed by General A. Cunningham, in his Essay published in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for September, 1848. — 
By W. G. Cowie, M. A., Chaplain on duty in Kashmir, during 
the summer of 1865. 

[Beceived 1st December, 1865.] 

In these notes I have followed as nearly as possible the wording of 
General Cunningham, in his description of the different temples, 
which he visited in Kashmir. 

The temples of Bhaniyar, Waugat, Manusbal, Narayan Thai, 
Futtehghur, Dyamun, and Lidar do not seem to have been described 
before. What I have said about those of Pandrethan, the Takht, 
Pathan, Avantiswami, and Marttand, is meant to be supplementary 
to General Cunningham's accounts of those temples. 

Bhaniyar. 

The buildings at Bhaniyar consist of a lofty central edifice, standing 
in a large quadrangle, surrounded by a colonnade of fluted pillars 
with intervening trefoil-headed recesses.* The ground plan of the 
temple is a square of 26J feet with pilasters at the corners, 4 feet in 
thickness. The interior is a square of 13 J feet, and the walls are 
therefore 6J feet thick, which proportion may be considered a strong 
proof, according to General Cunningham'sf theory, of the antiquity 
of the building. 

The roof was pyramidal, and the total height of the temple, 
estimated at twice its breadth, would be 53 feet. The lowest stones 
of the pyramid remain in some places, and their external slope is 
parallel to that of the sides of the pediments over the doorways. The 
only entrance to the temple is gained by a broad and lofty flight of 
steps to the N. N. W. On each of the other sides there is a porch 
containing a closed doorway. 

These porches are just the same as that of the entrance, each being 
16f feet wide, with a projection of one foot in advance of the corner 
pilasters. 

* See Photograph, No. I.* f See Cunningham, p. 249, para. 6. 

* The photographs referred to in this paper are by Messrs. Sheppard and Bourne of Simlah — Ed. 



92 Notes on some of the temples of Kashmir. [No. 2, 

The doorways are surmounted by trefoiled arches, 23 feet high ; 
and the latter are covered by pyramidal pediments, resting on in- 
dependent pilasters. Within the large trefoiled arches, there are 
smaller pyramidal pediments, of which the tympanum is occupied 
with the trefoiled decoration, like that at Bhaumajo,* resting on the 
architrave covering the pilasters of the doorway. 

The pilasters at the corners of the building sustain the entablature, 
and give a look of strength and solidity to the walls, which was 
absolutely required for the vast and massive roof. 

In the interior the walls are plain, except that (as at Narayan 
Thalf) a sort of string-course projects all round, about 12f feet from 
the floor. It is about a foot high, flat above, and rounded below. 

Over the string-course and resting on it, there is, on each side, a 
semicircular headed recess, about 3 feet high, 2 feet wide, and 1 j- feet 
deep. Only the one at the back of the building, that is, towards the 
S. S. E., is pierced for a window, the opening being rectangular, and 
about 2 feet high by 1 foot in width. The roof is hollowed out 
into a hemispherical dome, of which the centre is decorated with an 
expanded lotus flower, as in the PayachJ temple. The spandrels of 
the dome are too much injured to show any trace of figures, if any 
ever existed; but the dome looks as if it were a modern restoration, 
and the whole is overlaid with thick whitewash, concealing the 
material of which it is constructed. There were, however, no figures 
in any other part of the building, except the tympanum of each 
smaller pediment over the architraves of the doorways ; and there the 
remains of heads (for such I took one of them to be) are now so much 
worn away, that it is impossible to say exactly what they represented. 
The colonnade had no such ornaments. § (Plate XX.) 

The basement of the temple is very fine. It is divided into two 
portions, each having the same style of moulding as that of the 
Bhaumajo|| basement ; but they differ from it in being further pro- 
jected beyond the face of the wall. 

The lower portion is 47 feet square and 5f feet high ; and the 
upper portion 34J feet square and 6 feet high, with a projection of 4 
feet. Each division of the basement has a massive filleted torus as 

* See Cunningham, plate X. 
f See below. § See photograph, No. II. 

j See Cunningham, plate XI. || See Cunningham, plate VIII, 



1866.] Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 93 

the crowning member, with a straight fillet above and below. Under 
this is a dado, or plain straight face, which is a little higher than the 
torus itself. Beneath the dado, is a quirked ovolo of bold projection 
surmounted by a straight fillet, and under this is the plinth, of which 
(as at Bhaumajo) the lower stone projects beyond the upper one. As 
at Payach too, there is a stone drain or water-spout, open at the top, 
for carrying off the water used for the service of the temple. It 
emerges from the budding on the W. S. W. side, and projects slightly 
beyond the upper basement ; the termination of the drain or spout 
being made to represent the open mouth of a large snake or some 
other animal. 

The temple is approached by a flight of twelve steps,* the lower 
six being 11 feet in width, and the upper six 10 feet, enclosed between 
sloping walls one foot in thickness. Besides the sloping walls, the 
lower 6 steps are further supported by flanking wallsf (as at Avantis- 
wara,) nearly 6 feet high and 3 T 5 T feet thick. 

The temple is enclosed by a pillared quadrangle (Plate IX.) measur- 
ing inside 145 feet by 119 j 5 ¥ feet, the longer sides being to the W. S. W. 
and E. N. E., containing 54 fluted columns. In the middle of the longer 
sides of the colonnade, and of that in rear of the temple, there is a 
pair of large fluted pillars, 12 feet in height and 15 inches in diameter, 
and 10 feet apart, advanced beyond the line of the peristyle a little 
more than the corresponding pillars at Marttand. On all these columns 
the transverse architraves, connecting them with the walls of the 
peristyle, are still standing. The central porticoes, to which these 
large pillars belong, are not gateways, but lead only to small chambered 
recesses, similar to, but a little deeper than, those between the other 
pairs of pillars. There is, however, one flank entrance to the 
quadrangle, viz., between the third pair of pillars on the E N. E. side, 
to the south of the central porch. This has always been, as it is now, 
closed with a wooden door. 

The quadrangle itself originally contained 48 round fluted pillars 
(of which all but three are still in their places) and six square parallel 
pillars (disposed in the corners, and on each flank of the gateway) ; 
which, together with the six pillars of the central porches and the 
two of the gateway, made up 56 in all. None of the pillars now 

* See Photograph, No. I. f See Photograph, No. I. 

la 



94 Notes on some of tlie Temples of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

standing seem to have been injured otherwise than by the wear of 
time and the elements ; but from these causes, many of them have 
now lost all trace of fluting. Each pillar of the peristyle is 10 feet 
in height and 13 inches in diameter, with an intercol animation of 7£ 
feet. Immediately behind each pillar there is a square pilaster J 
engaged, of the same height as, and with mouldings similar to those 
of, the square corner pillars. The pilasters are 9J inches distant from 
the pillars. Between every pair of pillars there is a chambered recess 
7 T 5 T feet by 4 feet, with a trefoil -headed arch covered by a pedi- 
ment, (which pediment) is supported on small pilasters, or rather 
upon half* engaged pillars, as at Avantiswami. The general style of 
the pillars is similar to that of the Marttand colonnade ; but it is 
impossible to say whether the pedimental pilasters of the intervening 
recesses were ornamented or not. The trefoiled heads of the recesses 
are joined to the side mouldings of the openings by short horizontal 
returnsf (as at Avantiswami). Each pillar is connected with its 
pilaster and with the main wall by a transverse stone beam, which, 
being broader at top than at bottom, bears the appearance of an upper 
capital to the pillar. £ " The greatest and most characteristic distinc- 
tion," therefore, as General Cunningham says, " between the Arian 
and Classic orders, lies in the disposition of the architrave. In the 
latter it lies immediately over the line of pillars, whilst in the former 
it is placed over the transverse beams." Nearly all of this entablature 
still exists, but the building has been so much injured by the weather, 
that its character can only be conjectured. It seems to have been 
much the same as the upper part of that given in No. 2, plate VIII. of 
General Cunningham's Essay. The upper part of the roof of the 
quadrangle has entirely disappeared, but there can be little doubt that 
it was triangular in section. 

The outer walls of the quadrangle are ornamented by fine deep 
horizontal bands, § the intervals being occupied by rectangular figures 
18 inches high, 13 inches wide, and 4 T ' T feet apart, the whole being 
surmounted by an entablature of the same design as that of the 
peristyle. The base of the wall is buried deep in accumulated earth 

* See Cunningham, plate XVIII. 

f See Cunningham, plate XVIII, and ante Plate IX. p. 92. 
X See Photograph, (of Marttand colonnade), No. XXIV. 
§ See Photograph, No. Ill 



18G6.] Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir, 95 

and rubbish ; but to the S. W. of the gateway, and on a level with 
the bottom of the fluted torus which crowns its basement, is part of a 
similar torus,* or string-course, projecting from, and running hori- 
zontally along, the face of the wall. This torus no doubt ran along 
the exterior face of the whole quadrangle, and is probably still in good 
preservation below the ground. Lastly, the front wall is ornamented 
at each extremity with a trefoil-headedf recess covered by a pediment, 
the latter resting on half engaged pillars, which are flanked by square 
pilasters J- (one-eighth) engaged, in every way like those of the 
interior. The quadrangle has had two large wells in the W. S. "VV. 
and E. N. E. corners, probably to supply water for flooding the 
enclosure ; and half way between the steps of the gateway inside and 
the steps of the temple there is a square structure of stone, cut away 
in the centre as if to receive the end of a prop to a raised pathway,! 
such as that suggested by General Cunningham as the probable con- 
nection between the gateway and the temple at Marttand. The object 
of erecting temples in the midst of water appears to him to have been 
" to place them more immediately under the protection of the Nagas, 
or human-bodied and snake-tailed gods, who were zealously worshipped 
for ages throughout Kashmir." 

The entrance or gateway§ stands in the middle of the N. N. W. 
side of the quadrangle, and is 25J feet in width, nearly that of the 
temple itself. Outwardly the gateway somewhat resembles the 
temple, in the disposition of its parts and in the decorations of its 
pediments and pilasters. It is open to the N. N. W. and S. S. E., 
and is divided into two distinct portions by a cross wall 3f feet thick, 
with a doorway in the centre closed by a wooden door. These inner 
and outer porticoes of the doorway are each 16 J feet wide and 6 J feet 
deep. Their side walls are decorated each with a miniature temple 
having a square-headed doorway, surmounted by a pyramidal pedi- 
ment representing a double roof. The tympanum of each compartment 
of these roofs is occupied with the trefoiled decoration, common to 
the Kashmirian buildings, resting on the architrave, as in the door- 
way pediments of the temple itself. The pediment of the gateway, 

* See Photograph, No. III. 

f See Cunning-ham, p. 270, para. 25 and Photograph, No. III. 
% See Cunningham, page 273, para. 31, and page 287, para. 8. 
§ See Photopraph, No. III. 



96 Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. [No. 2 



outside and in, is supported on half .engaged fluted pillars, 16 T 5 ¥ feet 
high, and 14 inches in diameter. As at Bhaumajo, the base of the 
tympanum* is reduced to two short returns of the horizontal mouldings 
of the pediment, each of which serves as a sort of upper abacus to the 
pedimental pilasters. The doorway pilasters, supporting the archi- 
trave (2J feet high, and broken through as usual in the temples of 
Kashmir), are as high as the base of the main pilaster capitals, and 
4£ feet higher than those of the quadrangle. Besides the doorway 
pilasters, there are two fluted columns of the same height (including 
a sort of second capital) and 18 J inches in diameter, one on each side 
of the entrance, 7§ feet apart, supporting the architrave. The second 
capital corresponds to the transverse beam of the peristyle connecting 
the pillar with its pilaster ; but here it is detached on all sides. It 
is cruciform,t and so projects on each side of the capital proper. 
These columns are distant from the square doorway pilasters respec- 
tively about one diameter. The roof of the gateway, like that of 
the temple, has perished ; but it was evidently pyramidal, for the 
corners of the base of the great pediments (outside and in) remain, 
and their angles are equal to those at the base of the doorway 
pediments. 

The basement of the gateway is approached on either side by a 
flight of six steps J 7-f- feet wide, supported by flank walls 7f feet in 
length, and terminating in upright stones, § each separated by an 
interval from the main wall, and ornamented with a standing figure, 
said by the pundits to represent a servant of Siva. 

The material of which the buildings are constructed, is a pale, 

coarse granite, of which there seems to be no quarry within reach on 

the left bank of the Jhelum. This circumstance is remarkable, 

considering the enormous size and weight of some of the stones 

employed. Mr. Drew, a geologist in the service of H. H. the 

Maharajah, thinks that the blocks of granite must have been carried 

down some of the valleys on the opposite side into the river bed, 

whence they were brought for the construction of the temple. Mortar 

has been used in all parts of the buildings. Opposite the gateway, 

* See Photograph, No. III. 

f See Photograph, No. III. and Cunningham, pp. 269-70, para. 24. 

X See Photograph, No. III. 

§ See Photograph, No. III. 



18G6.] Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 97 

across the road, there is a large cistern, (like that attached to the 
central temple of the second group of buildings beyond Wangat*), cut 
out of a single block of granite. It is 6 T 7 T feet long, 5 feet wide, and 
2^ feet high. There is another cisternf of the same kind, but of smaller 
dimensions, close by. 

The Hindoos residing on the spot say that the temple was built by 
one Bonadutt (hence the name Boonyar), whose brother built or 
began a temple at Venapoora beyond Sopur. The situation is very 
fine, in a deodar forest on the left bank of the Jhelum, which roars 
below as it descends in foaming cataracts. Immediately behind, the 
pine-clad hills rise precipitously to a great height. About one-third 
up, there is a strange formation of rock, resembling a human figure, 
which is said by the pundits to be the petre faction of an evil spirit, 
who formerly devoured men and women passing that way. A very 
holy fakir, they say, fixed the man-eater for ever where the figure is 
now seen. 

After carefully examining every part of the Bhaniyar buildings, I 
am inclined to think that they arc older than the quadrangle at 
MarttandJ, and of about the same age as the temples beyond Wangat. 

They probably owe their escape from the hand of the destroyer to 
their secluded situation, which is quite off all the old thoroughfares 
leading from the Punjab to Kashmir, about three miles lower down 
the Jhelum than Nowshera, on its left bank. 

I found no trace of an inscription on any of the buildings. 

Temples at Lidar. 

About half a mile beyond Ladoo, and two miles to the left of the 
road leading from Pampur to Awantipore, there are two temples, one 
surrounded by water, (Plate XIV.) and a smaller one, close by, a little 
higher up the hill side. 

The ground plan of the former is a square of 24 feet, with corner 
pilasters 3J feet thick and 6 inches projected. There is only one 
doorway, to the W. S. W. Its head is semicircular, with a pyramidal 
pediment slightly projected and divided into two portions, of which 
the upper one is plain, and the other is occupied by a semicircular 

* See below, p. 106. f See Photograph, No. III. 

% See Cunningham; p. 263, para. 10* 



98 Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. [No. 2, 

ornament. The apex of the pediment reaches to the top of the cornice, 
which runs round the top of the walls on the outside. The roof is 
entirely gone. 

The interior is a circle, the diameter of which diminishes from the 
ground upwards. Four feet from the floor it is lT/g- feet. There 
is a cornice 20 inches high, 9 T V feet above the floor. Its mouldings 
are the same as those of the lowest course of the cefling of the small 
temple,* viz. three fillets, like those of the Payach dome,f but that 
the edge of the middle one is round instead of square. 

The diameter of the circle formed by the projecting edge of the 
cornice is 15 feet. The thickness of the wall at the doorway is 3| 
feet. The wall on the inside shows signs of fire having been used, 
perhaps to destroy the roof, which may have been of wood. The top 
of the doorway inside is formed by the underside of the course from 
which the cornice of the interior is projected. 

There is a drain on the south side, as at Payach, for carrying off 
the water used in the services of the temple. The height of the 
wall outside from the top of the cornice is 10J feet. The corner 
pilasters stand on a basement 2 T 5 2 feet high, and are 6J inches pro- 
jected beyond the face of the wall (See Plate XIV.) This basement is 
carried all round the building, except where it is broken by the door- 
way ; the bottom of the basement being on a level with that of the 
doorway. 

The uppermost course of the basement is nearly flush with the 
corner pilasters, but the next two courses project 5 J inches beyond 
the uppermost one. 

The basement of the temple stands on a platform 48 feet square, 
faced with stone walls, forming a sort of lower basement, as at 
Bhaniyar.J 

The whole stands in the middle of a tank of very clear water' 
which issues from two springs in the N. E. corner. The tank is 
now 3 feet deep, but I could not ascertain whether there was a stone 
bottom below the accumulated mud. The tank has been a square of 
about 70 feet, with stone walls supporting the bank, now 2 feet above 

* See below, p. 100. 

f See Cunningham, Plate XI. and page 258, para. 10. 
. % See Photograph, No. I, and ante, p. 92. 



XXXV. t> 



■ '■■;•. 















Pkte.XIV 






M 








tra^ayM.BurjieyEsq^ C.S. Cfo. stone iyKriotoHaxiU^sSivoLeiii Govt,: School unirt Catania 

TEMPLE AT LIDAR (lIM WATER ) 



ITH: 6V H NIVFM SURVEYOR GENERIS OFFICE CALCUTTA JULY 18 



1866.] Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir, 99 

the water line, but much injured. Round the tank there are the 
foundations of walls,* which seem to have formed a square of 100 feet. 

There is an ancient looking lingam 4£ feet high, 1J feet in diameter, 
with 8 flat faces, of dark limestone, standing in the water near the 
springs which supply the tank. It probably once stood in the centre 
of the temple, like that at the Takht. 

The round head of the doorway outside has a sort of keystone 
(Plate XIV.), being a projection from the lower face of a stone of the 
course next above, as in the entrance to the temple at Marttand,f 
and other Kashmirian arches. 

The smaller of the Lidar temples stands a little above and behind 
(*'. e. to the north of) the first. Its ground plan is a square of 10^ feet. 
It has only one doorway, viz., to the west. All the walls have corner 
pilasters 15 inches thick. 

The doorway has a square top covered by a pediment, which rests 
upon the jambs of the door, the tympanum being occupied by the 
trefoiled ornament. The trefoil contains a niche which once held 
a figure. This pediment is covered by another, having a trefoiled 
tympanum. The trefoiled arch rests, as usual, upon small pilasters 
on each side of the door, but the pediment is supported upon bold 
square pillars, which are attached to the building by walls of less 
breadth and 8 inches long. The temple in front is a plain copy of 
that at Pandrethan,| or perhaps the original from which it was taken. 
The capitals of the corner pilasters are ornamented with two animals 
(I think Bulls) standing back to back ; and those of the square 
pillars, supporting the principal pediment, are decorated with a bold 
flowered ornament. The roof of the building is pyramidal, but its 
outer facing of stone has disappeared. The walls are 2^ feet thick. 
The basement is buried. The interior forms a square of 6 feet, the 
walls being 7 feet high and plain. 

The ceiling is formed of 9 blocks, four of which rest over the 

angles of the walls. The same process is again repeated with an 

upper course of four stones, by which the opening is still further 

narrowed to a square of 2 T 7 2- feet ; and lastly, the opening is closed by 

* See Cunningham, p. 288, para. 11. 
t See Photograph, No. XXIII. 
% See Photograph, No. V. 



<4* 



100 Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. [No. 2, 

a single stone without ornament. The edges of the lowest course have 
a plain moulding of three straight edged fillets, 
(Vide woodcuts) and the upper course a similar 
one, except that the central fillet is rounded. 

To the east and west of the temple are rec- 
tangular foundations, of the same width as, and 
continuous with, that of the temple itself ; but 
there is no trace of surrounding walls. There 
are, however, numberless hewn stones lying about 

^ in all directions. From the position of the 

I building, the ground being high on three sidess 

it may once have stood in water, like the other temple. The pedestal 
of a llngam remains in the centre of the interior. 

Bhaumajo.* 

At Bhaumajo (pronounced Bhoomzoo by the natives} there are 
two temples, besides that described by General Cunningham. The 
larger of the two has been appropriated by the Mahomedans for 
a tomb, and disguised as much as possible ; so much so, indeed, 
that when first I visited the cave temple, I did not think it worth 
while examining this other close by, on account of its new and 
plastered, appearance. It is, however, in a very perfect state of preser- 
vation, but its details cannot, at present, be seen on account of the 
thick plaster with which the building is in most parts overlaid. The 
pyramidal roof is probably uninjured, but it is buried in a mound 
of earth surmounting the square Mahomedan roof, which now disguises 
the nature of the building. With some difficulty, I obtained admission 
to the interior, which I found to be a square of 8 feet. The ceiling 
is like that of the smaller temple at Lidar.f There is a door on the 
north side, but the other walls are covered with plaster, rendering it 
impossible to see whether they once had doors or not. The third 
temple, however, on the west of the tomb, has only one door, viz., 
to the north. 

The exterior is a square of 16£ feet, with corner pilasters 2 feet 
1J inches thick. There are porches with high trefoiled arches on 

* See Cunningham, page 251, and the Bishop's letter to the Asiatic Society, 
1865. 

f See ante, p. 99. 



1866.] Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 101 

all the sides. I could not find out how far the porches project beyond 
the walls, owing to the plaster ; but the one on the river side (where 
the door is) projects 3 feet beyond the small pilasters which support 
the doorway pediment. 

The intervening spaces between the sides of the porches and the 
corner pilasters are filled in with mortar. 

The small pediment of the doorway within the trefoiled arch is 
like that of the cave temple,* but is supported on independent 
pilasters of its own. The porches are 11 feet one inch wide. 

To the west of the temple above described, also on the bank of 
the river, are the remains of a smaller temple of the same kind. Its 
interior is a square of 7 feet, with a roof like that of the smaller 
temple at Lidar.f Below the roof is a cornice of three square edged 
fillets, like those of both courses of the ceiling. 

The building has, I think, had no corner pilasters. It has porches 
on all four sides, 5 inches projected. The only opening is on the north 
side : the other porches containing closed doorways, which, like the 
porch pediments, are an exact copy of those of the cave temple.} 
The exterior of the roof has been destroyed. 

Temples near Wan gat. 

About 3 miles above Wangat, on the right bank of the river 
Kanknai, are two groups of temples of all sizes, more or less in 
a state of ruin. 

The first group, viz., that nearest to Wangat, consists of six tem- 
ples,! with a gateway and an enclosing wall. (See woodcut, p. 102 ) 
The ground plan of the principal building is a square of 25 feet, with 
pilasters at the corners 3| feet in thickness, and having a projection 
of two inches beyond the temple walls. There are four porches 14J 
feet wide, with a projection of 2£ feet beyond the corner pilasters. On 
two sides they contain closed doorways, the recesses of which (like 
those at Pathan||) once held Unga, whose pedestals are still in their 
places. 

The porches were all surmounted by pediments of high pitch, covering 
trefoiled arches, which rest on \ engaged square pilasters. Over each 

* See Cunningham, plate X. f See ante, page 99. % See Cunningham, plate X. 
§ See Cunningham, p. 273, para. 31. || See Cunningham, p. 283, para. 1. 

14 



102 



Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir, 



[No. 2, 




jn 



R 

References. 



A. Massive wall forming facing to hill. 
B.B. Foundation of original wall of 
enclosure. 

C. Gateway. 

D. Base of lingam. 

E. Boad to second group. 
H. Temple to west. 



J. (On top). Steep mountain side co- 
vered with jungle. 
J.J. (On sides). Dense jungle. 
K. Temple to west. 
L. Temple to east. 
N. Road to Wangat. 
R.R.R. Kanknai river. 



doorway, within the large trefoil arch, is a pyramidal pediment, of which 
the tympanum is occupied with the trefoil ornament, resting on the 
architrave which covers the pilasters of the doorways. The base of the 
great pediment of the porches is on a level with that of the capital of the 
corner pilasters, but the upper portions of these pediments have 
disappeared. There were two entrances, to the E. N. E. and W. S. 
W. respectively. The former has the remains of short flanking walls 
(afterwards added, it would seem) projecting 2~j feet beyond the 
porch. They do not appear to have risen higher than the base of 
the capitals of the porch pilasters. The roof is still standing, and is 
pyramidal, but its outer facing of stone has fallen, forced out, probably, 
by the expansion of the roots of a tall fir and other trees, which grew 
out of the pyramid. The interior, which has been much injured by 
fire, is a square of 17 feet, the walls below the cornice being 13 J feet 
high, and plain ; but the roof forms a hemispherical dome, 17 feet 
in diameter, of which the centre has been decorated by a large 
expanded lotus flower. The cornice is one foot high, with a moulding 
of three bands ; the upper two projecting each beyond the one below it. 



1866.] 



Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 



103 



The stones of the interior of the dome diminish in size, from about 
1 J feet long and 6 inches wide in the lower courses, to squares of about 
six inches near the centre. The foundation of the dome is formed of 
large blocks of stone, about 2 feet high, decorated with three straight 
edged fillets as at Payach,* the two upper ones broad and projecting 
each beyond that immediately below it, and the lowest narrowest. 
The spandrels of the dome are plain and horizontal. 

Within a few yards of the principal temple, to the north, there are 
the remains, more or less ruined, of five small temples, three to the 
east (L), and two to the west (H and K). All but one of them are 
built on the same general plan as the temple already described, but 
have only one door each. The two to the west have their doors to 
the east and south respectively. The doorway of the latter (II) is 
like that of the temple A of the second group, described below. The 
other three sides of H are decorated each with a miniature double- 
roofed temple, but without an enclosing porch like those of A. It has a 
water-spout on the north-west side. The other temple on the west(K) 
has been a copy of the principal building, without the second doorway. 
Of the other three small temples, (hat corresponding in position 
to the one nearest the central building on the west, has its door to 
the south east, and is built on the same plan as H. So has the next 
one to it" (almost touching it) on its north-east side. Its Avails have 
been plain on three sides, and there is a waterspout on the west. The 
third of these temples, almost touching the first (on its north side), has 
four doorways ; that on the east being larger than the others, with 

(I think) a flight of steps to the east. 
(L). It has a stone water-spout 
projecting on the N. W. W. side. 
In the interior the walls are plain. 
The ceiling (as in the Pandrethan 
temple,f Plate XVIII.) is formed 



of 9 blocks, four of which rest over 
the angles of the walls and reduce 
the opening to a square. The same 
process is again repeated with an 
upper course of four stones, by which the opening is still further nar- 
* See Cunningham, p. 258, para. 10. f See Cunningham, p. 288, para. 10. 




104 Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. [No. 2, 

rowed to a square of 2J feet ; and lastly this opening is covered by a 
single stone, decorated with a large expanded lotus surrounded by a nar- 
row square moulding, whose angles bisect the sides of the upper open- 
ing of the ceiling. All the angles are occupied by a flowered ornament 
of three leaves, something like that of the upper part of the tympa- 
num in the niche of the upper roof at Payach.* 

The gateway, about 22J feet wide, is to the N. N. E. of the 
principal temple, almost in the N. E. corner of the enclosing wall, 
and about 30 feet from the nearest of the smaller temples. It was 
divided into two chambers, and had two columns on each front ; one 
on either side of the entrance and supporting the architrave, as in 
the Bhaniyar gateway .f The surrounding wall formed on two sides 
a facing and support to the platform, on which the temples stand. 
On one of these sides, viz. that to the east, the wall is over 20 feet 
high in some places, and is built of small thin dark -coloured stone 
without mortar. On another side, viz. that on which the gateway is, 
and the furthest from the river, only the foundation remains ; but 
14 feet beyond it there is a second wall, very massive, built of rough 
blocks of stone, and forming a facing to the hill. It has evidently 
been erected at a later date, to protect the temples and the gateway 
from a landslip (probably), which threatened to bury them all in its 
descent towards the river. 

There is built up in this wall a fragment of the pediment of one of 
the smaller temples. At the S. W. corner of the enclosure there is 
the base of an enormous lingam, 5J- feet in diameter. 

From the N. E. corner of the first group of temples there was a 
road-way flanked with large stones, leading down to the second group, 
a few hundred yards distant. Half way down, a little to the right 
of the road, are the ruins of a small solitary temple, but so much 
injured that it is impossible to make out the original form of the 
building. Close to it is a block of granite (measuring 10 feet in 
length, 16 inches in height, and 26 inches in thickness) which seems 
to have formed part of the facing wall of a resting-place just above it, 
where the base of a small column is still in its place, at one corner of 
a rectangular platform. A little further down the road, on the same 
side, is another rectangular platform, which seems to have been the 

* See Cunningham, plate No. XII. 

f See ante, p. 96, and Photograph, No. III. 



1866.] 



Notes on some of the Temples of Kash 



ashmir. 



105 



basement of a bara durree, or some such structure, 100 feet long and 
67 feet wide. It must have had a broad open verandah all round. 
The bases of the pillars on one of the longer sides (viz. that to the 
east), eight in number, are all but one still in their places. The 
pillars were fluted and two feet in diameter, with an intercolumniation 
of nearly 12£ feet. Numerous fragments of them are lying about in 
all directions. 

The uppermost course of the basement stones (on which the pillars 
stood) are 15 inches high, and project about 5 inches over those of the 
second course (which is almost entirely buried in the ground). In the 
centre of the platform there are the remains of what appear to have been 
the walls of an apartment. 

About 20 yards to the N. E. of the platform there are the ruins of the 
enclosing wall of the second group of temples eleven in number, (see 
woodcut below), with the remains of a gateway in the centre, about 
22 T 7 2 feet wide, similar to that belonging to the first group.* Like 









m 



'%£$W 




A. to G. Temples. 

H. Oistern. 

I. Road to first group of temples. 

J.J.J. Jungle. 



K. Small temple on hill side. 
R.R.R. Kanknai river. 
S. Spring. 
T. Tank. 



the latter, it was divided into two chambers, and had flanking 
pillars to the front and rear, like those at Bhaniyar.f Their 
# See ante, p. 104. f See Photograph, No. III. 



106 Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. . [No. 2, 



on the river side are still in their places. Immediately 
inside the gateway, to the left, are the ruins of a small temple A, like 
those of the first group. Its only entrance, a tref oiled arch covered 
by a pediment resting on independent pilasters, looks to the N. E. 
i. e. in the direction of the central building. Over the doorway 
pediment, and resting on square pilasters, is another trefoiled arch, 
occupying the tympanum of the porch pediment. The square pilasters 
project 15 inches, and are attached to the building by short walls, as 
at Pandrethan.* The other three walls are ornamented with similar 
porches, projecting about 6 inches, and containing each the front of a 
miniature temple with two roofs. The recesses once held linga.\ The 
interior is blocked up with the debris of the roof. 

Between A and the principal temple, and a little to the north of 
them, are the ruins of another temple (B), of which the basement 
alone remains, amid a heap of huge stones, earth, and jungle. The 
ground plan of this building was a square of about 18 feet with corner 
pilasters 2f feet thick, and four porches projecting about 14 inches 
beyond the pilasters. 

Close to the central and principal temple, at its N. W. corner, is a 
huge cistern (like those at BhaniyarJ), cut out of a single block of 
granite, 15 feet long, 7^ feet wide, and 3 feet high, with a projecting 
spout on the W. S. W., one of the shorter sides. 

The central building here is much more injured than that of the 
former group, and is buried half way up the porches on two sides. 
It appears, however, to have been very much like the corresponding 
temple of the first group, but it had only one entrance, viz. towards 
the W. S. W. facing the gateway. 

The interior is a square of 17 feet. The lowest course of the dome, 
consisting of 8 stones, each 22 inches high, has not the mouldings 
which the other dome has in this place, but seems to have had one 
narrow plain moulding at the edge, and above it there is a concave 
course, about 18 inches high, with a moulding resembling the frieze 
of entablature No. 2, (of Marttand), given by General Cunningham 
on plate VIII accompanying his Essay. The entrance has the remains 
of projecting walls§, like those of the large temple in the first group, 

* See Cunningham, plate XXI. f See Cunningham, p. 283, and plate No. XX. 
% See ante, p. 97. § See ante, p. 102. 



1866.] Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 107 

The corner pilasters of this temple are 4 feet thick, the ground plan 
"being a square of 25 feet, as in the other case. A few yards to the 
S. S. E. of the central temple is a small one (C), seven feet square, 
with one round-headed doorway 3f feet wide, having mouldings the 
same as those of G, and looking in the same direction as that of 
the principal building. On the other three sides, there are similar 
porches with closed square headed doorways. The basement (of 
which part only is above the ground) seems to have been like that of 
Bhaumajo.* The entablature over the doorways, beneath the base 
of the pyramidal pediment, like the entablature over the corners of 
the building (on each feide of the pediment) is decorated like frieze 
No. 2, of the Marttand entablature, shewn by General Cunningham. 
The porches project 4>, inches. The interior is a square of 4| feet. 
The roof is constructed of horizontal courses, like these of L. (Wood- 
cut on p. 102.) The nppermosl stone is decorated with an ex- 
panded lotus (lower. The two lower courses are ornaniented eaeli with a 
moulding of three Bquare-edged fillets, like those of the Payach dome.f 

To the N. N. E. and S. S. W. of this Bniall temple arc the ruins of 
two others. That in the former direction (1>). a mere heap of ruins 
had its oidy entrance on the same side as that of the central temple. 
The other (E) is a heap of huge stones, scarcely one of which is in 
its original place. Eight feet behind the S. S. W. temple is a fourth 
small one (F), with a square headed doorway which has plain 
perpendicular and horizontal mouldings. There are similar doorways 
on the other sides, but only that on the N. N. W. has an opening. 
The interior is a square of 5^ feet.- The roof has been formed of 
horizontal courses, of which the lowest alone remains, forming a 
square opening of about 4 feet. The walls are 20 inches thick. 

There has been another small temple to the S. S. W. of that last 
described, but it is now only a heap of stones ; and on its N. W. side 
I think there are the foundations of one, if not two, more temples. 

To the N. N. E. of the central building are the ruins of a very elegant 
temple (G), the interior of which formed a square of about 9 
feet. The walls were plain, with a cornice of 3 horizontal bands, 
the centre one having a rounded edge. The walls arc 2^ feet thick. 

# See Cunningham, plate No. X. f See Cunningham, plate No. XI. 



108 Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. [No. 2, 

The only entrance is to the S. S. W. The head of the doorway is 
round, and has a few parallel and perfectly plain mouldings, which are 
joined to the similar mouldings of the sides by short horizontal returns. 
To the N. E. of the last, and a few feet only distant, are the ruins of 
another small temple, the ground plan of which was a square of 6 J feet* 

The wall enclosing all of these buildings, has been plain and very 
massive. Many of the stones are still in their places on the N. N. W. 
side, some of them being 7 feet long, 22 inches high, and 22 inches 
thick. The wall measures 161 feet by 118 feet, the longer sides 
being towards the river and the hill respectively. On the former 
side the wall forms a support to the platform on which the temples 
stand ; and on the latter, a facing to the hill side, which has either 
been cut away to form the quadrangle, or has subsequently come 
down in a landslip, threatening to bury all the buildings in its descent 
towards the river. Wherever the lower part of the wall remains and 
is visible on the outside (as it is near the gateway), there is a string 
course, like that at Bhaniyar.* 

Immediately beyond the enclosing wall, at its N. N. W. corner, is 
a tank (T) of most delicious water, very cold and clear. The bottom of 
the tank is considerably above the level of the quadrangle, which 
might therefore have been kept flooded from the tank. The water 
issues from the hill on the N. W. W. side of the tank, through the 
stones of the wall, and was probably the cause of this site being 
selected for all these buildings. Not only the temples, but the 
neighbourhood is now forsaken by all human beings, and there is not 
a resident Hindu for many miles. But the spring (S) still runs on the 
same as ever, affording another instance of the temporary nature of 
man's greatest devices compared with that of things not human. 

To the west of the tank, and the north of the second group of 
temples, on the hill side, and almost buried in the ground, are the 
ruins of a small solitary temple. The roof is broken into two portions 
(like that of the Payach tempi ef ), of which the upper one, a pyramid 
formed of a single stone 2f feet square, is still in its place. 

The situation of the two groups of buildings is very wild and 
secluded, but not grand like that of the Bhaniyar temple. 

* See ante, p. 94, and Photograph, No. III. 
f See Cunningham, plate No. XII. 



1866.] Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 109 

They are on the right bank of the Kanknai river, about 3 miles 
above Wangat, and not on the Brahimsitr stream, where the latter 
plaee is incorrectly marked in the trigonometrical survey map. The 
Kanknai is nearer to the temples than the Jhelum is to that of 
Bhaniyar, and is quite as noisy as the latter river, but its dimensions 
are much less. The mountains on both sides of the stream above the 
temples rise to a great height and are very steep. They are covered 
with forests of pine and fir ; and, not far distant to the N. N. E., 
the head of the valley is closed by a bare, dark green hill, with the 
snow still remaining in its clefts on the 27th of July. The temples 
are built of a coarse, pale granite, like that used at Bhaniyar, and 
mortar is found in most of the buildings. There are tall firs growing 
out of the roof of the principal temple of each group, and many of 
the smaller temples have been much injured by other trees forcing 
their way through the walls. 

The best way to the temples from Srinagar is by Gundurbul, 
Kuchnungul, and Wangat. 

Dyamun, between Nowsiiera and Uri. 

On the left bank of the Jhclnm, between Nowshera and Uri, and 
about 3 J miles from the latter place, are the ruins of a fine temple and 
gateway, similar to those of Bhaniyar.* There has been also a sur- 
rounding quadrangle, but very little of it remains. 

The ground plan of the temple is a square of 23 feet, with corner 
pilasters 2j! feet thick and six inches projected beyond the walls of 
the building. The porches, of which three contain closed doorways, 
are each 16 feet wide, with a projection of If feet. The doorways 
have square heads with plain straight mouldings, and are surmounted 
by pediments containing the trefoil ornament. The pediments are 
supported on half engaged fluted pillars. The only entrance, viz. to 
the W. N. W., is approached by a flight of steps like that of 
Bhaniyar. f 

The interior is a square of 12 feet, but is nearly filled up with the 

debris of the pyramidal roof. The interior walls had a cornice of 

three plain mouldings, like those of one of the larger temples at 

Wangat .J Part of the pyramidal roof is still standing. It has been 

* See ante, p. 91, and Photoglyphs, Nos. I. II. III. and XIII. 
t See Photograph, No. I. % See ante, p, 102. 

15 



110 Netes on some of the Temples of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

very massive, but bollow. The basement of the temple is like that 
of Bhaniyar,* but a good deal of it is concealed by earth and jungle. 

The steps of the temple are about 19| feet from those of the 
gateway, but the latter are covered with earth and fragments of stone. 

The exterior face of the surrounding wall has been ornamented 
like that at Bhaniyar, f and there were two recesses in the corners of 
the front wall, like those at Marttand and Bhaniyar. The colonnade 
of the interior has entirely disappeared, if any ever existed. I found 
no fragments of small columns, like those of the Bhaniyar peristyle ; 
but the quadrangle is so filled up with earth, fragments of stone, 
trees and jungle, that whole pillars may be concealed from view. 
I think there was a peristyle ; because behind the temple I found 
part of a basement, like that on which the columns of the peristyle 
stand at Bhaniyar. J 

The gateway is built on the same plan as that at Bhaniyar, § and 
is 23 J feet wide. It is divided into two compartments, each 17 feet 
by 5£ feet. The short side walls of each compartment are decorated 
with two trefoil headed niches, one above the other, with pyramidal 
pediments. The upper part of the gateway has disappeared, but 
fragments of the four large fluted columns which supported the 
architrave, are lying about in the neighbourhood, and also the capital 
of one of these columns, elaborately carved with small figures and 
flowered ornaments. Nearly the whole of the outer wall of the 
quadrangle is still standing, but its character is concealed, in most 
parts, by the earth which on three sides is up to the top of the wall. 
The whole of the ruins are so buried in jungle that I passed along 
the road, on my way to Kashmir, without noticing them at all. The 
material is black stone (I think limestone), streaked with veins of 
white marble. 

The situation is wild, like that of the Bhaniyar temple, the hill 
rising to a great height immediately behind the ruin. 

Manus Bal. 

At the S. E. corner of the lake of Manus Bal, there is a small 
temple, of which the roof only was above the water on the 9th of 

* See Photograph, No. I. J See Photograph, No. II. 

| See Photograph, No. III. § See Photograph, No. III. 






Journal As: Soc; XXXV P. I. 



Plate .XIX 







On stone hj Kcisto Hari Das Student Govt: School of Art Calcutta.. 
TEMPLE IN LAKE AT M0NUSBAL 



ITH: BY H. MIVF.N, SUBV6YOB SEN £* OFFICE CM-CU TI> J u L 



I860.] Notes on sortie of the Temples of Kashmir. Ill 

August. (Plate XIX.) In the winter, I was told, the building 
stands on dry ground. At other seasons the whole is sometimes below 
the surface of the lake. 

The roof is very like that of the Payach temple,* being broken into 
two distinct portions by an ornamental band ; each portion being 
formed of a single stone. The upper stone is 5 feet square at its 
base, and is plain on all sides. The ornamental bandf is like that of 
Payach, divided into spaces alternately projecting and retiring. The 
latter are square and occupied by the lotus ; but the projecting ends 
are carved into upright mouldings, slightly rounded at top and 
bottom, and surmounted by a straight and horizontal band. The 
north, south, and east sides of the lower portion of the roof are 
plain. The top seems to have been crowned by a melon-like 
ornament, of winch the base only remains. 

The temple appears to be a square of about 6 feet, and has only 
one doorway, to the west, covered by a pyramidal pediment, which 
is divided into two portions by a horizontal return of the side 
mouldings, as in the case of the Marttand colonnade. J The upper 
portion is occupied by the head and shoulders of a figure holding a 
sort of staff in the left hand, and with something, which I could not make 
out, under the left arm. (See Plate XIX.) In the niche (like those at 
Payach§) formed by the trefoil over the doorway, there is a sitting 
figure, holding a sort of club in the left hand. The angles of the lower 
portion of the doorway pediment, below the horizontal moulding and 
above the trefoil, are occupied each with a naked figure leaning against 
the head of the trefoil, and holding up over the arch a sort of waving 
scarf, which is passed on through their other hands. 

Lanka. 

On Lanka island there are the ruins of a very fine temple. Its 
ground plan appears to have been a square of 34J- feet, with a sort of 
antechamber to the S. E. E., which is 11 feet wide, including the 
walls. The latter are 2 T 5 T feet thick. This antechamber projects 
5f feet beyond the walls of the Naos. The exterior walls of the 
temple are ornamented with two rows of deep niches with cinq-foiled 

* See Cunningham, plate No. XII. J See Cunningham, plate No. XVI. 
f See Cunningham, plate No. XII, § See Cunningham, plate No. XII.. 



112 Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. [No. 2, 

heads, flanked by half engaged fluted columns. The wall on each 
side of the antechamber has three of these niches in each row, i. e, 
12 niches in all. 

There are many small pillars lying about, almost uninjured, and 
more fragments of similar pillars. The columns measure 8 feet 6J 
inches, including base and capital, the latter being like that of the 
small pillars of the Marttand* peristyle, but with beading between 
the egg-shaped ornaments. The capital of these pillars is 14| inches 
in height. They have 6 flutes, and their diameter is 16J- inches. 
The exterior face of the walls of the antechamber have only one of the 
niches in each row. 

The doorway is to the S S. E., but I did not feel sure that there 
had not been doors on the other sides also. 

On the S. S. E. side of the island there is a flight of steps with 
flanking walls ; and close by, in the water, a large 
lingam. There are heaps of hewn stone on all sides 
of the island at the water's edge, including frag- 



ments of square headed doorways, pyramidal pedi- 



leiin ments, &c, and I think the island must all have 

been surrounded by a quadrangular wall, with a 
peristyle and recesses on the interior, as at Mart- 
ial rijv tand. 

Near the steps are the remains of a cistern like 
the smaller onef at Bhauiyar. The building stands 

dli in, . 

on a basement, of which a woodcut is given m the 
margin. 

Narayan Thal. 
This temple stands in a small tank J on the right hand side of the 
road, going from Baramula to Moziitferabad, and about 2J miles to 
the S. W. of the former place. It is situated in a hollow at the foot of 
the hills, and is buried in trees ; and it may, therefore, easily escape 
the notice of travellers who are not looking out for it. The temple 
is a square of 13 J feet, with plain walls. There is only one doorway 
3_5_ feet high, and 3 feet wide, on the east side, its top being formed 

* See Cunningham, plate No. XV, and plate No. VII, fig. 6. 
f See cmte, p. 97. X See photograph, No. XVII. 



1866.] Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 113 

by the ends of two stones, whose lower corners are rounded off, 
forming an arch one foot high. The walls are formed of eight courses, 
of which two are below the surface of the water. 

The roof of the temple is a low pyramid, also formed of eight 
courses, of which the lowest projects a few inches beyond the face of 
the walls. The second course from the top of the roof is formed of 
one stone, 4J feet square at the bottom, and \\ feet high. Over it 
are three small stones, forming the uppermost course, of which the 
centre is pierced with a hole, 6 inches in diameter, apparently made 
to receive the end of a finial that is wanted to complete the pyramid. 

The interior is a square of 7J feet, and is 9 r 5 2 feet high. The floor 
was in July more than a foot below the surface of the water. The 
inside walls are formed of horizontal courses, each consisting of four 
stones only, one on each side of the building. The course over the 
doorway is slightly projected and rounded, forming a sort of string 
course along the walls. Above it are eighl courses; the sides of Un- 
building diminishing in length as they near the top, and the slope of 
the walls being straight. 

The uppermost course of the interior walls, forming a small square 
opening, is crowned by a single Hat stone. 

There are a great many stones lying about the tank, but I could 
not find the foundation of an enclosing Avail,* and, owing to the rushes 
and other weeds which abound in the water, I could not ascertain 
whether the bottom of the tank had been flagged or not. I did not 
find any part of the pedestal of a lingam in the temple. 

The tank is fed by a running stream, which comes from a spring 
in the side of the hill immediately behind. 

Some of the stones of the temple walls are 9^ feet long and 13 
inches high. 

FcTTEIIGHUR, KASHMIR. 

After crossing the hill at the end of the valley, about two miles 
from Baramula, on the way to Nowshcra, a short distance off the 
road, to the left, towards Gul-murg, there are the ruins of a grand 
temple, in a village called (since Runjeet Sing's conquest of the 
country) Futtehghur. Runjeet had a fort built round the temple, 
# See Cunningham, p. 288, para. 11. 



114 Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. [No. 2, 

using the stone of its pyramidal roof, and probably of its enclosing 
quadrangle, for the construction of his walls of defence. The ground 
plan of the temple is a square of 46f feet. There were four porches, 
each 27^ feet wide, with a projection 3^ feet beyond the temple walls. 
The only door was on the W. N. W. side, the other three porches con- 
taining closed doorways, like those at Bhaniyar. # The doorways had 
pyramidal pediments, the tympanum being occupied by the trefoil 
ornament, and were supported on half engaged fluted columns, with 
capitals decorated with the egg-shaped ornament. f The doorway 
pediments were surmounted by those of the porches, with noble trefoiled 
arches occupying the tympanum ; the principal pediments being sup- 
ported on fine square pilasters, and the arches resting, as usual, on 
half engaged square pillars of their own. The corner pilasters are 7J 
feet thick, and 4 J inches projected. The capitals of the square pilasters, 
like the entablature of the exterior walls, were ornamented with small 
trefoil-headed niches, containing naked human figures standing ; and 
over them was a row of lotus flowers in small square panels. The 
interior measures 29 feet across, and seems to have been octagonal, 
the four principal sides measuring each 18 J feet, and the other four 
each 9 feet ; but the whole building is buried in earth and the debris 
of the roof nearly up to the top of the doorways, and it. is consequently 
not possible to take all the measurements accurately. Some of the 
stones (black limestone ?) are very large, measuring 10 T 7 ¥ feet in length 
3f feet in height, and 3^- feet in thickness. From the exterior face 
of the porch to the back of the recess formed by the closed doorway is 
8£ feet. 

Tewan. 

About a mile to the left of the road beyond Bimbaga, at a village called 
Tewan, near the foot of the hills, there are the ruins of a temple built 
after the plan of the principal temples beyond Wangat, but of smaller 
dimensions. It has only one door, viz. to the south ; but there are por- 
ches, similar to that on the south, on the other three sides, containing 
closed door-ways. The roof is entirely gone, and the walls look as if 
they would very soon topple over. The basement is buried. The 

* See photograph, No. I. 

f See Cunningham, plate VIII. fig. 6, 



1866.] Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 115 

interior is a square of about 11 feet. The temple seems to have stood 
in a tank, and to have had an enclosing wall. Immediately behind 
is the steep hill side, covered with fine spreading cedars. 

Temples at Pathan Sugandheswara.* 

The inner chamber of this, the smaller of the two Pathan temples, 
is, as Cunningham says, " quite plain," except that in the west wall 
there are four small niches in a line, 5J feet from the floor, two with 
trefoiled heads and two square-headed. To the right of the gateway 
ruins there is a fragment of a fluted column, one foot in diameter, like 
those of the Avantiswami peristyle, and, a little further to the front, 
a fragment of a larger fluted column (having 20 flutes) If feet in diameter. 
Down each flute there is a flat band, one inch 
wide, slightly projected. Near the latter frag- 
ment there are pieces of two trefoil-headed 
arches, and the capitals (with parts of the 
shafts) of two of the colonnade pilasters. 
There is also, on the same spot, the base (22 
inches square) of a small column, cut on three 

, SANKARA GrAURESWARA. 

Nearly opposite this, the larger of the two Pathan temples, on the 
left hand side of the road in a bagh of cherry trees, there is a fragment 
of a small fluted columnf (having 16 flutes), one foot in diameter, 
similar to that of the Pampur peristyle. The fragment measures about 
3 feet in length, and is standing up out of the ground, marking the 
site of a Mahomedan grave. And in a field to the east of the temple, there 
is another fragment of the same or a similar pillar. In the village of 
Pathan, I found the base of a small column like that described near 
Sugandheswara, and another of a larger column. In and about the 
village, there are numberless huge stones, squared and otherwise carved, 
which probably belonged to the enclosure of one or both of the temples. 
To the east of the entrance porch of the larger temple, at 90 feet 
distance, there is the foundation of a wall of squared stones, and I 
thought I could trace the foundation of a gateway. 

* See Cunningham, page 281. f See Cunningham, page 283, 



1 




lilt 
ivrv 

3uv 








i- 


r 


i 


i 


l- 




10-un 


22irv 

sides only. 







116 



Notes 



of the Temples of Kashmir. 



[No. 2, 




2 i/i 3 in 



KOHIL. 

At Kohil, between Awantipore and Payach, there is a miniature 

temple, cut out of one stone, 
standing near a Mahomedan 
tomb, within an enclosing 
wall of recent construction. 
(See woodcut.) The interior 
of the temple is a cube of 
15 inches, with the centre 
of the roof hollowed out into 
a dome ; and the walls are 
5 inches thick. 

The exterior walls are 2 
feet long without corner 
pilasters, and there is only 
one entrance. On three sides there are closed doorways, with pe- 
diments like that of the entrance. The apex of the doorway pedi- 
ment is on a level with the top of the lower division of the roof, as 
at Payach,* and projects 5 inches beyond the roof at the same level. 
As at Payach, also, the pediment is unbroken, and contains the trefoil 
ornament. The doorway pilasters project one inch beyond the face of 
the wall. The basement of the temple, and the upper division of the 
roof are missing. 

At the same place there are the bases of 3 small columns, whose 
diameter has been 8 inches. Of their bases, the plinth is 7 inches high 
and 11 J inches wide. The upper member also is square, and somewhat 
like that of the Marttand peristyle columns, f 3 inches high. 

Drubgama. 

Between Kamoo and Shapuyon, a few yards from the road, on high 
ground, near Drubgama, is a miniature temple, like that at Kohil, cut 
out of a single block of stone 2 feet 8 J inches square, and 4 feet 5 J 
inches high. 

It has one door to the south, with a horse shoe-shaped arch, covered 
by a pyramidal pediment, broken into two portions by a return of the 

* See Cunningham, plate XII. 
t Ibid, plate XV. 



1866.] Notes on some of the Temples 'of Kashmir. 117 

side mouldings. The upper portion is occupied by a small trefoil 
ornament, and the lower one contains a small round ornament, resting 
on the base, thus : 




The width of the porch on the south side is 2 feet. On the north 
side there is a recess like those of the Pathan temples,* with a cinq- 
foiled head, covered by a pyramidal pediment broken into two portions 
of which the lower one is occupied by a flowered ornament. A larger 
pediment supported on half engaged pillars surmounts the former one. 
The east and west walls have porches very slightly projected, with 
pyramidal pediments resting on the jambs of square-headed doorways. 
The tympanum of the pediment is occupied by a large trefoil ornament. 

The roof of the temple has been formed of two stones, of which the 
upper one has disappeared, as is the case in the Kohil model. 

The temple seems to have stood in a very small tank faced with 
stone walls. I could not find any trace of a basement. In front of 
the temple there are stones which I took for the foundation of a small 
rectangular building. 

PANDRETHAN.f 

The floor of this temple on the 7th of August was 3 T 5 T feet below the 
surface of the water, and above it there were 5f^ feet of wall. The 
opening on the south J (differing from those on the other three sides) 
appears to have been made subsequently. Its sides are not splayed 
like those of the other doorways, and seem not to have been regularly 
cut, but rudely broken away. In fact, one stone on the west side of 



* See Cunningham, p. 283, para. 1. 

f Idem, page 283. 

% Idem, p. 287, para. 9. 

X6 



118 Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. [No. 2, 

the opening is not flush with the rest, but projects a couple of inches 
or so beyond the general level of the face of the wall. I think there 
had been originally a closed doorway outside on the south, like those 
at Bhaniyar* and that the interior of the wall on that side was originally 
built up and plain. 

General Cunningham's drawing of the ceiling of the temple is not quite 
complete. From the accompanying very accurate sketch made by Mr. 
R. T. Burney of the Civil Service, (Plate XVIII.), it will be seen that 
the angles of the square in which the beaded circle is, are occupied by 
naked human figures, as well as the angles of the other squares. These 
innermost figures have both arms outstretched, like those at Payachf 
seeming to hold up the circle. They have drapery about their shoulders, 
resembling light scarfs. The brackets supporting the cornice were 
once ornamented, and show marks of great violence having been used 
to destroy the carving. Each appears to have represented a human 
head ; for on several of them there still remains on both sides what looks 
like plaited hair. The pediment pilasters project 5 inches beyond 
those supporting the trefoiled arches. The corner pilasters of the 
building are 1 foot 10J inches thick. I found what I took for mortar 
in all parts of the building. 

Marttand.J: 

The middle chamber of the centre edifice is 14 feet by 6£ feet ; 
and the innermost one, the naos of the Greeks, is 18 feet by 13 J feet, 
having the remains of a cornice, about 18 inches high, in the S. E. corner. 
I could find no trace of trefoil-headed panels or any other ornament on 
the outer walls of the quadrangle. 

The large pillars at the extremities of the wall (in which the 
gateway is) outside, have, I think, supported the pediments of cells 
like those in the front wall at Bhaniyar.§ 

The leading feature of the entablature of the middle chamber is 
the cinqfoiled headed arch, resting upon small half engaged hexagonal 
pillars. See woodcut on next page. 

* See ante, p. 92. 

f Cunningham, plate No. XII. 

X Ibid, page 258. 

§ Ibid, p. 270, para. 25, and Photograph, No. XXIII. 




ROOF OF PANDRETHAN TEMPLE 



1806.] 



Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 



119 



The soffits of the arch, leading from the arddhamandapa or porch, 
to the antarala or mid-temples, is highly decorated. (See Cunningham, 
plate XVI. and woodcut overleaf.) 



n n n n n n 



f 




Takiit-i-Suliman.* 

With all deference to General Cunningham, I should call the ground 
plan of this temple a square^ of 14f feet, with projections on each side. 

The diameter of the interior of the temple is 15£. The thickness of 
the wall on each side of the door is 5f feet, and the doorway is projected 
2 feet. 

Only one side of the enclosing wall is perfect ; and it contains 14 
rectangular recesses. The wall on another side is partly standing, and 
seems to have contained 13 recesses. These walls each measure 22 

The outside of the wall is quite plain. J 



feet in length on the inside. 



* Cunningham, page 247. 

f Ibid, p. 270, para. 25, and Photograph, No. XXI. 

% Ibid, p. 250, para. 18. 



120 



Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir, 



[No. 2, 



The basement of the wall is 2^ feet thick, projecting on the inside one 
foot beyond the wall itself. The height of the basement is 10 inches. 



i „IV.^ u \\^y l 




(Soffits of entrance arch of Temple. MarttancL) 

The sloping walls, flanking the steps leading from the entrance, are 
2f feet thick. The surrounding walls and the entrance are in much 
better preservation than the temple itself. The entrance has a round 
top (like those of the arched recesses in the rectangular panels*), whereas 
the doorway of the temple is narrow and pointed. For these and other 
reasons, I believe the surrounding wall and the steps to be much more 
recent in date than the temple. 

* See Cunningham, p. 250, para, 8, 



1866.] 



Notes on some of the Temples of Kashmir. 



121 



I was assisted in taking the above measurement by W. Elmslie, Esq., 
M. D. 

To the north of the temple, a few feet distant, there is a small 
rectangular building. Its interior is 11 feet by lOf feet, and the 

walls are %X feet thick. The 



174 



iliiv 



\ 



Srif* 



-i„. roof is formed of large plain 
f slabs, supported on four hori- 

H Jt zontal stone beams, 15 inches 
wide, and 6J inches high. 
Each of these beams is formed 
of two stones. These beams 
again rest, in the centre, on 



another stone beam (formed of 

2 pieces) lOf feet long, 11 

inches high and 16 inches wide, 

and supported on two stone pillars (of 8 flat faces each) without 

bases. Including the capitals, the pillars are 4 feet 1(H inches high 

and 23J inches thick. (See woodcut.) The capitals are not alike. 

There is one entrance to the east, as in the temple close by. It is 
round headed, with plain mouldings parallel to the sides and top. 
The walls outside and inside are plain. The exterior of the roof is 
gone. 



Avantiswami.* 

Though the Dewan at Srinagar readily consented to my opening 
up the ruins of Avantiswami, I experienced great difficulty in 
obtaining bildars and coolies for the work. For some weeks I could 
not get any at all, and most of the work was done by very old men 
and children. 

I excavated the whole of the peristyle on the south side of the 
quadrangle and the part of it between the S. W. corner and the 
gateway. At first I hoped that the displacement of the entablature 
over the colonnade was only local ; but, on continuing the excavation, 



* See General Cunningham's Essay, p. 276, and the Bishop's letter to the 
Asiatic Society, 1865. 



122 



Notes on some of the Temples at Kashmir. [No. 2, 





1866.] Notes on some of the Temples at Kashmir. 123 

I found that the whole of the entablature on the south side had been 
thrown down before the silting up of the quadrangle. Notwith- 
standing this circumstance, the pedimental pilasters of the recesses 
have scarcely been injured at all. This is specially remarkable in the 
case of one pair of pilasters, which are ornamented with figures 
representing Siva or some other divinity. The woodcuts on page 122, 
from a drawing by Mr. H. Wilson of the Civil Service, give a very 
faithful representation of four of these pilasters. 

KuNAMon, &c. 

At Kunamoh and Kroo, beyond Pampur, to the left of the Islama- 
bad road, there have been temples in the middle of small tanks, which 
(latter) still remain. At Tapur also, between Pathan and Baramula, 
there are the foundations, if not the entire basements, of two fine 
temples ; and near Woossun, on the right bank of the Sind, there 
are likewise extensive ruins of similar buildings. 

About one mile from Baramula, on the left bank of the Jhelum, are 
the foundations of a wall 90 yards square, enclosing a small tope. 
This is probably the ancient Jayendra Vihar. .Near the wall there 
are the foundations of a large village or city. Stones of all shapes 
are strewn over the ground to the extent of some acres. In one place 
there is a heap of huge blocks, which are evidently the debris of a 
temple long ago overturned. There is also a small mound resembling^ 
a Buddhist tope, also covered with loose stones. Near its top is a 
very large liny am. A few hundred yards from this mound, in an 
orchard, there is another and larger lingam, measuring 17 feet in 
circumference near the base, and 9 feet in height. 



124 MeynanVs Ibn Khordadbeh. [No. 2, 



Remarks on Earlier de Meynard's edition of Ion Kliordddheh and on 
the Land-tax of the empire of the Khalyfs. — By Dr. A. Sprenger. 

[Received 23rd February, 1866.] 
Le livre des routes et des provinces d' Ion Khordadbeh, texte arabe 
publie, traduitj et unnote par C. Barbier de Meynard. Paris, 1865. 

Monsieur Barbier de Meynard is known to us as the author of the 
Dictionnaire G-e'ographique de la Perse, and as the editor and translator 
of the Travels of Ibn Batuta and of the Golden Meadows (or more 
correctly, as Grildemeister explains this book title, " the gold washings) 
of Masudy. To these important publications he has lately added that 
of Ibn Khordadbeh, and at present he is engaged with Moqaddasy. 
As soon as he has completed this work, we may say that he has done 
more for oriental geography, than all Arabists past and living together. 
Barbier de Meynard has visited the East, and he is an 'Alamdyda and 
a man of vast erudition. His way of working differs essentially from 
that of his confreres of the old rotten school. He gives us good texts 
and close yet elegant, translations, and does not waste his time in 
puerile notes, replete with philological subtleties and nonsensical ex- 
planations, in which men whose ideas do not extend beyond the 
narrow limits of the school, delight so much, 

9 The most ancient MS. of the geography of Ibn Khordadbeh is that 
of Oxford, which has hitherto been considered as unique. To the 
zeal of Monsieur Barbier de Meynard and to his knowledge of the 
East we owe the discovery of another copy, which was found at Con- 
stantinople. Notwithstanding this important discovery, it was an 
extremely difficult task to establish a good text of Ibn Khordadbeh^ 
I do not maintain Barbier de Meynard has succeeded in every in- 
stance to fix the correct reading, but I assert, without fear of contra- 
diction, that no Orientalist could have done more for amending the 
text than he, for no man has a better knowledge oifcE astern geography. 
The editor suffered under one great disadvantage : he could not con- 
sult the MS. of Oxford, whilst the work went through the press, and 
the transcript which he made use of was not taken by himself. The 
Oxonians are as jealous of their literary treasures as an eastern prince 
of the hundreds of ladies in his harem, and as they have no particular 



1866.] MeynanVs Ibn KlwrcUdbeTi . 125 

predelection for Eastern lore (they have in fact better things to do), 
they derive abont as mnch advantage from them. I copied the 
Oxford MS. for my own use, and in some instances I prefer my own 
reading. Baron de Slane published in the " Journal Asiatique" an 
account of Qodama's work on the Kharaj, a book which I shall fre- 
quently quote in this paper. I might probably have avoided many 
mistakes arising from the incorrectness of my extracts from Qodama, 
if I had had the good fortune to consult the Baron's remarks, but 
unfortunately I do not possess the Journal. 

Ibn Khordadbeh wrote about A. H. 250 (A. D. 864.) His geography 
is small, and fills only 127 pages octavo, but it is of immense importance, 
inasmuch as it consists almost exclusively of official documents, and 
contains the caravan and dawk stations of the whole empire of the 
Khalyfs, and the amount of revenue of every district. I have inserted 
his itineraries in my " Post-und Reiserouten des Orients," and some of 
them will be taken from that compilation and embodied, as Mr. Hyde 
Clark writes to me, in Murray's Guide for the East. 1 therefore give 
here a short account of the revenue of the Khalyfs, extracted from 
Ibn Khordadbeh. 

I must premise a few remarks on the weights and measures of the 
Arabs, making use of the researches which I made on the weights in 
my Lebenund Lehre des Mohammad, Vol. III. p. 141, and in an essay 
on the Wegmasse und Gradmessung der Aegypter, Griechen und 
Araber, which is not yet published. 

The standard of the Musulman weights is the Aureus of Constan- 
tine: 72 Aurei = 1 Roman pound = 5256 English grains Troy accord- 
ing to Gibbon, = 6165 grains de Paris according to Bockh. The 
Aureus, considered as the unit of weight, is called Mithqal, and may be 
taken = 4.6 Grammes or somewhat more. This weight of pure gold 
is according to the present value of the precious metals = 15.97 
Francs. The Musulman Dirham is in weight = T 7 ^- Mithqal, and if 
consisting of pure silver, its value is = 72 Centimes. 1 Baghdadian 
ro/1 pound (the one mentioned in law-books) = I28f Dirhams = 
90 Mithqals = 1J Roman pounds = 409.536 Grammes = 1.1 pound 
Troy (nearly). 

All other Musulman weights we must reduce, if possible, to the 
Mithqal (= Dynar = Aureus) ; for there existed various systems : 
17 



12G 



Meynard's Ibn Khordcidheh. 



[No. 2, 



the grain and the weights, calculated by the number of grains which 
they contain, had, in some parts of the empire, and at one time, a 
greater or lesser value than in other parts and at other periods. 
There is a grain of which 72 make a Mithqal, there is a grain (^fc*-*) 
of which 100 make a Mithqal, one of which 96 make a Mithqal, one 
of which 68f make a Mithqal, and one of which 60 make a Mithqal, 
but this grain is called ifabba and not Shayra. The fact seems to 
be that the Persians, and after them the Mohommedans, found that 
the Roman Aurei are more equal in weight than any other coin, and 
for this reason they used it as standard, calculating the value of their 
own weight by Aurei. In some cases, slight alterations in the value 
of their own weights seem to have been made in order to adapt them 
better to this foreign standard. The apothecaries' weight, as we learn 
from Avicenna, was Greek, but not without some alteration, 

According to the Dictionaiy of Techn. Terms, p. 176, there existed 
in the early ages of the Islam the same system as was in later times 
preserved at Samarqand. It may be expressed as follows : 

Mithqal. Daneq. STassuj. iZabba. Grain (Shayra.) 

1 6 24 48 96 

14 8 16 

12 4 

1 2 

1 

Another system or ^anja we find in the Qamus under Makkdk, it 
Hiay be expressed as follows : 



ithqa! 


Dirhem. 


Daneq. 


Qyrat. 


Tassiij. 


JTabba 
(grain.) 


1 


n 


H 


17| 


34f 


68 f 




i 


6 


12 


24 


48 






1 


2 


4 


8 








1 


2 
1 


4 

2 
1 



This system is in the Qamus continued beyond the Mithqal, as 
follows J 



1866.] MeijnanVs Ihn Khordddbeh. 127 



akkuk. 


Kaylaja. 


Mana. 


Bod 

(pound.) 


Ounce. 


Istar. 


Mithqal. 


1 


3 


H 


11* 


135 


225 


1012J 




1 


n 


3| 


45 


75 


3371 






i 


2 


24 


40 


180 








1 


12 

1 


20 
If 

1 


90 

n 



1 

In this table three systems of weight are brought together : the 
Roman monetary, the Greek apothecary, and the Persian heavy 
weights. I ought to observe that the grain of i^*-£ in Herat was, 
even in later times, so small, that 100 such grains were required to 
make up a Mithqal. In some places 3 i/abba made a Tassuj. 

I now insert an abstract of the calculations of 'Alyy iTasany, who 
wrote at Murshidabad in A. II. 1164, transcribed from his autograph. 

1 grain of barley =z 2 grains of riye = 4 grains of mustard. 

1 Masha = 8 Raty = 36 grains of barley = 72 grains of riye. 

1 Tola = 12 Mashas = 96 Raties = 9 Dirhams of the law-books 
=r 6fV Mithqals. 

A Paysa (copper coin) of 'Alamgyr has exactly the weight of one 
Tola, but the Paysa of Bengal, current in 1164, weighs 10J Raties. 

1 Ser of 'Alamgyr = 60 Tolas. 

1 Man of 'Alamgyr = 40 Sers. 

1 Bengal Rupee = 10 Mash as and 2 Raties. 

1 Delhi Rupee = 10 Mashas. 

1 Ashrafy = 9 Mashas and 6 Raties. 

1 Qyrat = -^ of a Mithqal of the traditions = 3f grains of 
barley = § Raty and f grain. 

1 Daneq = £ Dirhem = 8 grains = 1 Raty and 3 J grains 

1 Dirhem = 6 Daneq = 48 grains = T ^ Mithqal = lOf Raties. 

1 Mithqal == 68f grains = 20 Qyrat = If Dirhams = 14 Raties 
and 1 T V grains. 

1 Rod of 'Iraq = 130 Dirhems = 91 Mithqals = 6240 grains = 
| Rofl of Madyna = 1380| Raties. 

1 Rofl of Makka = 2 Iraqy Rods = 182 Mithqals == 260 Dir- 
hems = 12480 grains = 2773J Raties. 



128 Meynard's Ibn Khordddbeh. [No. 2, 

1 Modd = 292J Dirhems = 204f Mithqals = 14040 grains = 
2 J Iraqy or Baghdadian Rods = 1J Rod of Madyna = 3120 Raties. 

According to some, one Modd= 257| Dirhems. 

1 ga' = 4 Modd = 1170 Dirhems = 819 Mithqals = 56108 
grains = 12480 Raties. 

1 Korr = 1200 'Iraqy Rods = 533J Modd = 133J Qtf = 
156000 Dirhems = 109201 Mithqals = 7488000 grains = 2070f| 
Sers. 

1 Wisq = 60 g a \ 

The values of Arabic weights reduced to Indian weights in this 
table, is certainly wrong. It is incomprehensible, how a man in his 
senses could believe that one Paysa is as heavy as 6^ Dynars or 9 
Dirhems. This error seems to arise from the supposition that an 
Indian grain is exactly equal to the largest Arabic grain, of which 68^ 
are sufficient to make a Mithqal, and 4937 \ one Roman pound. Some 
other data of this table are probably equally incorrect, yet it contains 
some information which may be useful. 

The value of cubic measures for grain is expressed by the Arabs in 
the weight of the quantity of barley which they contain. At this 
moment I have no book in which they are explained, and I must refer 
to dictionaries. Their explanations unfortunately do not square, 
because the Qa' and the Mana have different values in different 
authors. According to Abu. i7anyfa 1 £a' of Barley ±± 8 Rods ; ac- 
cording to Shafi'y ■=. 5J Rod ; according to the Shy'ites = 9 Rods ; 
and according to Kolyug = 1170 Dirhams = 9~ Rods. On the 
Mana Meninsky says : apud Arabes Hispanos duas libras, apud Asiatas 
260 Drachmas appendebat. Mana segyptiaca, pondus sedecim uncia- 
rum ; mana grasca, pondus 20 unciarum ; mana alexandrina pondus 30 
unciarum. (Casiri Bib. ar-hisp.) 

The measures of importance for our present purpose are the Qafyz, 
the Korr and the Jaryb. 

1 Qafyz = 8 Makkuk (which is not the name of a weight, but of 
a cubic measure). Consequently 1 Qafyz = 8100 Mithqals == 90 
Rods. According to G-olius, 1 Qafyz = 12 (^a's ; or if we take the 
5a', with Abd Hanyfa, to 8 Rods == 96 Rods. 

We find in the Qamtis also the following explanation of the 
Qafyz, 0.-&U ^iJi ±+i 4* j^ j ^^ [ i j$ ) °«*# *XjJ *&J (*& 



18G6] Meynard's lln Khorchidheh. 129 

" 1 Makkuk = \ Wayba ; and 1 Wayba = 22 or 24 Modds, that is 
to say Modds of the prophet." And under Modd he says : " Accord- 
ing to the people of 'Iraq, the Modd is equal to two Rods, and accord- 
ing to the people of jSijaz to 1J- Rod; " and lower down he states 
the value of the Modd of the prophet at one-fourth of a £a\ Now if 
we take the £a', with Abu iZanyfa, at 8 Rods, the Modd has as in 
'Iraq 2 Rods, and if we take the £a', with Shafiy, at 5J Rods, the Modd 
holds as in Bijaz 5J : 4 = 1 J Rods ; and I therefore suspect that in 
one place two Rods, in another place 1J Rods, were called Modd of 
the prophet. If we take the Modd at two Rods, we have for the 
value of the Qafyz | 4 X 2 — 24 Rods." It is impossible to reconcile 
this statement with the preceding one. 

There are in the Qamus two other definitions of the Makkuk, 
eight of which make one Qafyz. According to the one, a Makkuk 
weighs from six to eight ounces, that is to say, half a Rod or § 
Rods. It is impossible that this be the value of the Makkuk in 
question. According to the other statement, 1 Makkuk = 1 J Qa' or 
12 Rods, if we give to the £a the value of 8 Rods. 

From a passage of Qodama, it appears that any small measure of 
corn was called Makkuk-bushel, and that the Makkuk was dif- 
ferent in different countries. In the definition of the value of the 
Qafyz, I think the large Makkuk is meant, and I therefore assume 1 
Qafyz = 96 Rods or Arabian pounds. 

The Korr. At this moment I have no access to the Arabic text 
of the Qamus, but to judge from the Persian translation and from 
the extracts found in Golius and Freytag, it seems that the Qamus 
contradicts itself. Freytag, without stating the authority, says, 1 Korr 
= 12 Wasq (camel-loads) and every Wasq = 60 (^a'. The value 
of the Wasq or Camel load depends upon the value of the £a' ; it 
may therefore be 320 or 480 or 540 Rods. A camel may carry 
rather more than two hundred weights on either side, and I therefore 
take 480 to be nearest to truth. A Korr would therefore be equal to 
5760 Rods. 

According to the Persian translation of the Qamus, 1 Korr = 6 
ass-loads, and one ass-load = 60 Qafyz. Now a donkey carries 
about half as much as a camel or less, but according to the above 
statement, 6 ass-loads are = 12 camel-loads. Moreover 60 Qafyz 



130 Meynard's Ibn Khordddbeh. [No. 2, 

weigh 5760 Rods, a burden which no beast is able to carry. It is 
therefore clear that one Korr contains 60 Qafyz or 12 camel loads 
of 480 Rods each. Another statement of the Qamus says, 1 Korr 
ri= 40 Irdabb. The Korr is an 'Iraqian (Babylonian), and the Irdabb 
an Egyptian measure. One Irdabb = 24 £a' or 6 Wayba. If the 
Wayba is taken at 24 Modd, and the Modd at 1J Rods, these two 
valuations agree ; for 24 X 8 = 24 X 6 X H = 192 Rods = 1 
Irdabb. Consequently the weight of a Korr = 7680 Rods. We 
must bear in mind that this is a reduction of the largest Iraqian 
measure of grain to Egyptian measure, and it is very likely that the 
value of the Irdabb is stated in Egyptian Rods, the weight of which 
I do not know ; we can therefore make no use of this definition of 
the Korr. Grolius gives the value of the Korr, on the authority of the 
Destur alloghat, at 7100 Rods. This approaches to the result which 
we have just found ; the question is only, what kind of Rod is meant, 
and by what means did the author arrive at this result. 

The Jaryb is defined in the Qamus as follows : 1 Jaryb = 4 
Qafyz ; 1 Qafyz = 8 Makkuk ; 1 Makkuk = 3 Kaylaja ; and 1 
Kaylaja = 1| Mana. "We see that this statement is a continuation 
of the one given above in a tabular form ; and it seems to be an 
abstract of a systematical comparison of 'Iraqian weights and mea- 
sures ; and we therefore keep to it. Consequently 15 Jaryb = 1 
Korr. I now continue the above table taken from the Qamus. 

Makkuk. 
480 
32 
8 
1 

Consequently one Korr is equal in weight to 486080 Mithqals or 
6750 Roman pounds. I ought to observe that Abu Yusuf mentions 
a Jaryb of 7 Qafyz, and that he as well as Ibn Sad say that a man 
may live on a Jaryb of grain one month. I should think that fifty 
or sixty Roman pounds would be sufficient for the support of a man ; 
and as the Jaryb of 7 Qafyz contains 78 7 J Roman pounds, I am 
at a loss, how to explain this statement. 

The linear measures of the Arabs are probably not essentially 
different from those of the Greeks. 1 Haschimite or Royal cubit = 



Corr. 


Jaryb. 


Qafyz. 


1 


15 


60 




1 


4 
1 



1866.] MeynarcVs Ibn Khordadbeh. 131 

2 Greek feet = 32 Arabic inches = 273.32 lignes de Paris. The 
Arabs have besides a cubit of 24 inches (the ^Iflji), and one (the 
black cubit) of 27 inches ; the proportion of the former to the Haschi- 
mite cubit is as 3 : 4. 

Regarding the square measures I am in the dark. According to 
an extract from the Akhwanalcafa, inserted by Dieterici in the Zeitsch. 
d. D.M.G-., 1 Jaryb of 10 Qafyz = 3600 Haschimite square 
cubits. I suspect that there must have existed a Jaryb of J of this 
value or = 6300 Haschimite square cubits = 22700 □ Pieds de 
Paris. This is, however, a question which ought to be further inves- 
tigated by those who have better sources. 

The history of the finances of the East, as handed down by the 
Arabs, begins with the Susanians, but the two accounts which we 
have of their revenue, are extremely difficult to be reconciled with each 
other. Ibn Khordadbeh, p. 42, says : ^ly^ \&°yi»jft c5>—^' c**^ ^ 3 
«JJf &JJ&C j Jliii/o tJJ| ,JVj **{;> AxLc (j--* *ji*£ i*)UJ <&*• ^s Alxl+xj 
I^jjuJ j &~+2l. j «JU| jJiJi AjU £\~» +<*>j<yJ\ &)yi lSJ& WJ&& Jl^o •-a-' I 

jti&o \Jkh »JU| &U*** <Uxl+/o AjU&. O.AJU *J v_ftJ| vJJ| 

Qodama, in my incorrect extracts from the corrupted text, says : 
j a£Lo ^k ij&s. &\+i &„ ^9 «&UJ| AJj^lJ ^^t j^yj L£s~$ u>' J^i 
&J& ^lyJi jA** ) jyJj , v /o aJU-c/ ta**> j *li/£ U »JJ ^3 &\£ Uif 

There is no doubt that both accounts refer to the same fact, yet 
there is only one figure " 600 millions of Dirhams" in .both identical. 
This figure appears to me to express the amount of revenue in Musul- 
man Dirhams. Ten Musulman Dirhams are in weight equal to 7 
Mithqals, consequently 600 millions Dirhams = 420 millions Mithqals 
or 5,833,333J Roman pounds. The first figure of Ibn Khordadbeh is 
consequently to be read 420 millions instead of 24 millions. At the 
time of Qodama 15 Dirhams (silver) had the value of one Dynar or 
Mithqal (of gold) ; consequently gold was only 9J times more valuable 
than silver. It seems, however, that gold had at times a higher rate, 
and that a pound of gold was equal in value to 10 pounds of silver. 
420 Mithqals of silver were therefore equal to 42 Mithqals or Dynars 
of gold in value, I consequently propose to read in Qodama 42 mil- 



132 Meynard's Ibn Khordadbeh. [No. 2, 

lions instead of 720,000 a Dynars. The'only difficulty is caused by the 
figure of Ibn Khordadbeh, 795 millions Mithqals (of silver). It is clear 
that the author wants to say, that after the eighteenth year of Perwyz 
the revenue increased, and as 795 is a higher sum than 600, 1 take that 
this is the highest figure to which the revenue rose during his reign. 
After these observations I change the figures, and translate the passage 
of Ibn Khordadbeh as follows : " The Kheraj of the whole kingdom 
which was gathered for the Chosroes Parwyz in the year 18 of his 
reign amounts to 420 millions Mithqals (of silver, read ^J &U*fjl 
»»ftj| <Ji)\ &jj&e j cftJf). This makes, reduced to the weight of Musul- 
man Dirhems, 600 millions of Dirhems. Subsequently the revenue of 
his kingdom rose to 795 Mithqals." 

The passage of Qodama I translate : " It is asserted that Chosroes 
Parwyz counted in the year 18 of his reign the revenue (for *J^» 
read <3 ^^) of his kingdom. He possessed all the provinces which I 
have enumerated, the Sawad and the other districts, with the excep- 
tion of the western part of the Musulman empire ; for the frontier of 
his kingdom was Hyt, and the country west of it belonged to the 
Greeks. He found that the revenue amounted to 42 millions Mith- 
qals (of gold), this makes 600 millions of Musulman Dirhams (of 
silver J." 

The Musulman Dirham was not known to the Persians, they count- 
ed the revenue, as it seems, in Dirhams which had exactly the weight 
of a Mithqal or of an aureus of Constantine of which 72 made a 
Roman pound, and for this reason, in the original account which was 
used both by Ibn Khordadbeh and Qodama, the sum was stated in 
Mithqals. The money was weighed, and of course, if it contained alloy, 
deduction was made. We are therefore able to calculate the income 
with great accuracy, it is equal to 172,800,000 Rupees in value. If 
we reduce it to English money, we must bear in mind that the pro- 
portion of the value of gold to that of silver was not the same as in 
our days. In the Greek empire, it was fixed by law as 14f : 1, and 
gold was the standard. In the Persian empire, the proportion was 
probably as 10 : 1, and I am inclined to believe that in the document 
which Qodama and Ibn Kordadbeh used, the amount of the revenue 
was stated both in gold and in silver. I have already observed that 
at Qodama's time the proportion was 9 J : 1, and I have shown (das 



1866.] MeyncwVs Ibn Khordadbeh . 133 

Leben cles Moh., Vol. 3, p. 136) that in Mahommedan law, it is as 8| 
: 1 and even as 7:1. 

In Persia silver was the standard, in the Byzantian empire gold. 
The Musulmana made no change : in the provinces which had belong- 
ed to the kingdom of the Sasanians, silver remained the standard, and 
in Syria, Egypt and other provinces which they took from the Greeks, 
gold continued as the standard. In Makka and Madyna, silver became 
the standard as early as Omar I., but in southern Arabia the revenue 
was calculated by Dynars (Aurci.) The great difference of the value 
which gold had at Constantinople under Constantino, and which it 
had in the Sasanian and later in the Arabic empire, throws an unex- 
pected light upon the relative prosperity of the two countries. The 
fact requires no comment for those who know the elements of Political 
Economy. 

Ibn Khordadbeh begins his geography with a description of the 
Sawad — Babylonia. Immediately after the Musulmans had conquered 
that country, 'Omar I. sent 'Othman b. i/6nayf to survey it for the 
sake of assessment. It appears that he measured the cultivated land 
of every district, and also for the sake of control the whole country 
en bloc. He found that it is from ZZadytha in the north to 'Abbadan 
in the south 125 farsangs long, and from i/olwan in the east to 
'Odzoyb in the west 85 farsangs wide. The whole surface of culti- 
vated and waste land (t*[* jji*^) amounts therefore to 10625 D far- 
sangs or 136607143 Jaryb. Ibn Khordadbeh (MS. of Oxford) and 
Qodama calculate the surface in round figures at 136 millions of 
Jaryb. 

Under the Sasanian king, Qobad b. Fyrdz, the revenue of the Sawad 
amounted to 150 millions Mithqals (of silver or Persian Dirhams) = 
more than 2 millions Roman pounds of silver — more than 214 
millions of Musulman Dirhams. After the Musulman conquest, 
'Omar I. derived a revenue of 120 millions Dirhams from it. This 
sum is named by Ibn Khordadbeh and Qodama. Ibn Sad includes 
the revenue of Jebel and mentions a higher sum, but as two figures 
are wanting in his text, we cannot make out what he means, his words 
are «-a^ *&> :d (<Jl/f) 6'^b (^1 o'j^l *Jd\ &j>j&*j «-^( <JJ\ &U 

I shall speak on the assessment of 'Omar lower down. Here I will 
only observe that the 120 millions are made up by the land-tax and 
18 



134 Meynard's Ibn Khordddbeh. [No. 2, 

capitation. The latter may have amounted to 7 millions : the male 
population of full age consisted of 500 7 000 souls, and the poorer classes 
had to pay 12, the middling classes 24, and the rich 48 Dirhams ; 
supposing one in a thousand paid the Jhighest, and one in a hundred 
the middling rate of capitation, this tax yielded 7,000,000 Dirhems 
and the land tax 113,000,000 Dirhems. 

We see that the total income which 'Omar I. derived from the land 
of the Sawad is little more than half of that which it yielded under 
Qobad. It is not unlikely that 'Omar assessed it somewhat lighter, 
but the main cause of the diminution of revenue was the decay of the 
country. Babylonia has some resemblance with Holland, and the 
Sunderbunds, being the Delta of the Euphrates and Tigris; audit appears 
that great efforts have been made in former times to drain it and to 
protect it from inundation by dykes, and in measure as they were neg- 
lected, the land was converted into swamps. We find paludes in the 
map of Ptolemy, but they seem to have been of no great extent. 
The Tigris carries much silt, which is partly deposited in its bed, 
where it slackens its course, and consequently in the progress of time 
the bed became higher and threatened to inundate the country. To 
prevent this calamity, it was dammed in below Bacra, and the course 
was regulated : it was made straight, so that the water might carry off 
the deposit. During the reign of Qobad ("probably after the time at 
which he derived so high a revenue from the Sawad) the dyke was 
broken through below Kaskar, and the neighbouring country was 
inundated, but the government took no notice. Anushyrwan had the 
dykes restored and much of the land was recovered. In the year 6 
of the Hijra (A. D. 628) both the Euphrates and the Tigris swoll 
amazingly, and destroyed many of the dykes. King Parwyz showed 
great energy, and it is asserted that in one day no less than 40 gaps 
were filled up ; yet though he granted great sums from the public 
treasury for the repairs, he was unable to remedy the evil. A few 
years later, the Arabs waged war against the Persians. The dykes 
were in consequence completely neglected, and the swamps gained in 
extent. The Musulmans, after they had conquered the country, seem 
not to have paid any attention to the matter, and the Dihqans — heads 
of districts — were unable to repair the dykes. Mo'awiya I. sent his 
client 'Abel Allah b. Darraj to Babylonia as collector, and he seems 



1866.] MeynarcVs lhn Khordddheh. 135 

to have been the first Mahommcdan who recovered some land. Much 
greater efforts were made by the Nabathean i/assan, who was collector 
under the reigns of Walyd and Hischam b. Abd al-Malik, and cut two 
canals to carry off the water. In A. H. 75, Hajjaj was appointed 
governor of Babylonia. He represented to Walyd II., that the drain- 
age of the country would cost three millions of Dirhams. The Khalyf 
thought he could spend the money more pleasantly on eunuchs and 
singers, and refused to grant so large a sum. Moslima b. 'Abd al- 
Malik, a relation of the Khalyf, proposed to him to drain part of the 
swamps, under the condition that he should draw the revenue of the 
recovered land. The Khalyf accepted the offer, and Moslima cut the 
two canals called Saylaya, and raised dykes. He succeeded in recover- 
ing a great extent of land, and the peasantry flocked to him to culti- 
vate it. His family continued to derive the revenue from it up to the 
time of the overthrow of the Omayide Dynasty. The 'Abbaside 
Khalyf granted it to one of his relations, Dawud b. 'Alyy b. 'Abd 
Allah b. 'Abbas. His heirs remained for some time in possession of it, 
but eventually it was considered as one of the crown-lands e l £*aJf 
ftjJUaJLJl 

In A. H. 75 Hajjaj was appointed governor of Babylonia, and he 
ruled 20 years over that country. Ibn Khordadbeh says of the finan- 
cial condition of the country during his sway : " The revenue gathered 
by Hajjaj did not amount to more than 18 millions Dirhams, and there 
was consequently a diminution of one hundred (and two) millions. This 
was owing to his burning down villages, and to his oppression. More- 
over he was obliged to give advances to the cultivators to the amount 
of two millions, so that only 16 millions reached the public treasury." 
It seems that the peasantry fled, for under the just 'Omar II. who 
ruled in A.H. 99, the revenue of the Sawad suddenly rose to 124 
millions. 

It is a very unexpected fact that at the time of Ibn Khordadbeh 
not only the limits, but also the names of the districts were in the 
official language precisely the same which had been in use among the 
SAsanians, nay some of them seem to be even more ancient than the 
Sasanians ; for we neither find a district called Baghdad, nor one called 
Madayin (Ctesiphon). The province in which these two cities lie, is 
called Shad-Hormuz and the district Kalwadza, from an ancient town 
half way between Baghdad and Madayin. 



136 Meynard's Ibn Khordddbeh. [No. 2, 

The Sawad is divided into 12 Kur, provinces, and originally it con- 
tained 60 Tasasyj, districts, but at the time of Ibn Khordadbeh only 
forty-eight. The whole province of IZolwan, containing five districts, 
was added to Jebel. "We have seen that Ibn Sad includes in refer- 
ence to the time of 'Omar I. the revenue of Jebel in that of the 
Sawad. He probably means that of i/olwan only, which at the time 
of 'Omar and of the Omayyids may have belonged to the Sawad. 
The province of the Tigris, containing 4 districts, was given to the 
Government of Bacra ; and it is very likely that the crops which it had 
to supply to the State, were destined for the support of the troops 
stationed there. This, however, can only apply to the time of the 
'Abbasides, for in former days they received their supply from Mah- 
Bacra in Persia, which under the Abbasides was placed under another 
Government. One whole district had become a swamp and disappear- 
ed altogether. Two districts (one of them is lower Behqobad) had 
been converted into crown lands after the system of Khorasan. In 
this manner, the Sawad was shortened by 12 districts and reduced to for- 
ty-eight. 

I insert here a detailed account of the revenue of the Sawad, according 
to Qodama, and also (distinguished oy asterisks) one according to Ibn 
Khordadbeh. In a very few instances I deviate from Barbier de Mey- 
nard's text, and follow my own copy of the MS. of Oxford. Qodama 
says of his account, it contains the income as it stands at present. I 
take the mean since the year 184, this being the first year of which 
documents are found in the public offices at Baghdad ; for the earlier re- 
cords were destroyed by fire during the disturbances which took place 
in 183 under Amyn, known under the name of Ibn Zobayda. 

Western side of the Sawdd ivatered No. of No. of 

by the Tigris and Euphrates. Villages. Bams. Wheat. Barley. Dirhams. 

Anbar and Nahr-Ma'ruf, ... — _118,000(?)6,400 4,000,000 

*Anbar (alone), ... ... 5 250 2,300 1,400 150,000 

Qotrobbol, ... — — 2,000 1,000 3,000,000 

*Ditto, ... ... ... 10 220 2,000 1,000 300 (sic !) 

Maskan, ... — — 3,000 1,000 150,000 

*Ditto, ... ... ... 6 105 3,000 1,000 300,000 

Baduryya, , — _ 3 ; 5Q0 1,000 1,000,000 



1866.] 



MeynanVs lbn Khordddheh. 



137 





No. of 


No. o) 


f 








Villages, 


Barns. 


Wheat 


Barley. 


Dirhams. 


♦Baduryya, 


... 14 


420 


3,500 


1,000 1,000,000 


Nahr-Shyr, 


... — 


— 


1,700 


1,700 


150,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 10 


240 


1,700 


1,700 5 


.,000(s:c) 


Rumayan, 


... — 


— 


3,300 


3,300 


150,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 10 


220 


3,300 


3,050 


350,000 


Kutha, 


... — 


— 


3,000 


2,000 


350,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 9 


220 


3,000 


2,000 


350,000 


Darqy£, 


... — 


— 


2,000 


2,000 


200,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 9 


125 


2,000 


2,000 


200,000 


Jubara, 


... — 


— 


1,500 


6,000 1,500,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 10 


227 


1,700 


6,000 


150,000 


The three Zabs, 


... — 


— 


1,400 


7,200 


250,000 


*Ditto, ... 


... 12 


244 


1,400 


7,200 


250,000 


Babel and Khaternyya, 


... — 


— 


3,000 


5,000 


350,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 16 


378 


— 


— 


350,000 


Upper-Falilja, 


... — 


— 


500 


500 


70,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 15 


240 


1,500 


500 


70,000 


Lower- Faluja, 


... — 


— 


2,000 


30,000 


280,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 6 


72 


1,000 


3,000 


280,000 


The two Canals, 


... — 


— 


300 


400 


45,000 


♦Ditto, ., 


... 3 


81 


300 


400 


45,000 


'Ayn-Tamr, ... 


... — 


— 


300 


400 


45,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 3 


14 


300 


400 


51,000 


Jenna and Bedat, 


... — 


— 


1,500 


1,600 


150,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 8 


71 


1,200 


1,600 


150,000 


Sura and Barbysiya, 


... — 


— 


1,500 


4,500 


250,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 10 


265 


700 


2,400 
(rice) 


100,000 


Banyama and King's Canal 


, ... ■ 


— 


3,500 


4,000 


112,000 


♦Ditto, ... 


... 10 


664 


1,500 


4,500 


250,000 


Upper and lower Bus, . . . 


... — 


— 


500 


5,500 


150,000 



♦Tithes of lands belonging to the 
church or charities and from 
lands called Sanyn situated in 
various districts, ■ 

Forat-Badaoja, ... „, - 



500 
2,000 



5,500 250,000 
2,500 62,000 



138 



Meynard's Ibn Khordddbeh. 



[No. 2, 



No. of 


No. of 








Villages, 


, Bams. 


Wlieat. 


Barley. 


Dirhams. 


Forat-Badaqla, 10 


271 


2,000 


2,500* 


900,000 


Sil/zayn, ... ... ... — 


— 


1,000 


1,500 


140,000 


*Ditto, ... — 


34 


1,000 


1,500 


140,000 


Riimistan and Hormuzjerd, ... — 


— 


500 


500 


20,000 


*Ditto, ... — 


— 


500 


500 


10,000 


Nister, ... ... ... — 


— 


2,200 


2,000 


300,0) ; 


•Ditto, ... 7 


163 


1,250 


2,000* 


300,000 


Ighar of Yaqtyn, ... ... — 


— 


2,200 


2,000 


204,800 


•Ditto, ... — 


— 


— 


— 


200,840 


At the junction of the hvo rivers. 










The provinces of Kesker : it is said 










the revenue formerly amounted 










to 90000 Dirhams, — 


— 


30,000 20,000 


270,000 


*Kesker and canal of £JiUah, Riq- 










qat and Reyan, the Kheraj and 










all other taxes yield, — 


— 


3,000 20,000 70,000,000 






( 


[and rice) 


i 


Nahrgilla, — 


— 


1,000 


3,121 


59,000 


Eastern side of the Saivdd. 










Buzurg-Sabrir,... — 


— 


2,500 


2,200 


300,000 


*Ditto, ... ... ... 9 


260 


2,500 


2,200 


300,000 


The two Radan, — 


— 


4,800 


4,800 


120,000 


•Ditto, ... ... ... 19 


362 


4,800 


1,800 


120,000 


Canal of Buq, ... — 


— 


200 


1,000 


100,000 


*Ditto, ... ... ... — 


— 


200 


1,000 


100,000 


Kalwadza and Canal of Byn, ... — 


— 


1,600 


1,500 


330,000 


*Ditto, ... ... ... 3 


34 


1,600 


1,500 


330,000 


Jadzer, old town &Sji*J| &j<xJ| — 


— 


1,000 


1,500 


240,000 


*Ditto, ... ... ... 9 


116 


1,000 


1,400 


250,000 


Gal ula and ZZalula, — 


— 


1,000 


1,000 


100,000 


*Ditto, ... ... ... 5 


76 


1,0j0 


1,000 


100,000 


Desyn, ... — 


— 


1,900 


1,300 


40,000 


*Ditto, ... ... ... 4 


230 


700 


1,300 


40,000 


Deskere, ... — . 


— 


1,800 


1,400 


60,000 


*Ditto, ... ... ... 7 


44(?) 


1,000 


1,000 


70,000 


* Barley and rice. 









1866.] 



MeynarcVs Tbn Khordddbeh. 

No. of No. of 
Villages. Barns. Wheat. 

... — — 3,000 



139 



6 26(?) 



5 
21 



54 

380 



3,000 
600 
600 

1,700 
2,700 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
4,700 
4,700 
1,000 
2,000 



Barley. 

5,100 

2,000 

500 

500 



Birliams. 

120,000 

120,000 

35,000 

100,000 



1,300 
1,800 
500 
500 
1,200 
5,000 
5,000 
1,400 
1,500 



9,000 4,000 



53,000 
350,000 
100,000 
100,000 
150,000 

33,000 
330,000 
246,000 
150,000 

430,000 

,500,000 



Beraz alrdd, ... 
*Ditto, ... 
Bandanjayn, ... 
*Ditto, ... 

* The three Nahrawan, ... 

Upper Nahrawan, ... ... — 

*Ditto, ... — 

Middle Nahrawan, — 

*Ditto, ... ... ... — 

Lower Nahrawan, — 

Baduraya and Baksaya, ... — 

*Ditto ditto, ... 7 

Rustuqbad, ... ... — 

Silsyl and Mahrud, — 

The Kara (provinces) of the Tigris 

yielded in A.H. 260 (266 ?), — 
Land-tax of the Kura (provinces) 

of the Tigris, — 

In reference to the Ighar of Yaqtyn, mentioned in the preceding 
list, Qodama says, no mention was made of it in the days of the 
Persians, nor was there such an Ighar existing in their times. 
Yaqtyn had claims on the government, and he received as payment 
lands in various districts, subsequently they lapsed to the government, 
and they were called Ighar of Yaqfyn. The canal of £illa was dug 
by order of Mahdiy in the districts of Wasit, and thereby a good deal 
of waste land was reclaimed. The produce (of the Ighar and of the 
reclaimed land) was destined for prayers and defraying other expenses 
in the two holy places (Makka and Madyna). It is said the arrange- 
ment was made that two-fifths of the crops w T ere to be given up by the 
cultivators for this purpose. This settlement was to last fifty years, 
after the lapse of which a new settlement was to be made. 

Ighar (j^*J| ) is correctly explained by Barbier de Meynard, 
diet, geogr. de la Perse, p. 65, " II s' applique a une ville ou a une 
propriete qui, moyennant une certaine somme stipulee une fois pour 
toutes, et payee chaque annee directement au soulthan, est exemptee 
de la visite et du control e des percepteurs du flsc." Qodama defines it 



140 MeynarcVs Ibn KhordddbeJi. [No. 2, 

in the same mannerr «^l W^«^ cd' w° **^^l t^-*^ e>! j A j^jVl 
U| au^Jf^s e50>J W p ^^ £•=> U"' A - r*^' J-*^ *♦• v^**' a jU.*Jie>* 

" Ighar (protection against danger) means, that a landed tenure is 
exempt from the visits of the collectors and from what is connected 
with them (rapacity and oppression), in consequence of an order of 
the head of the State which fixes a certain annual quit-rent to he 
paid either into the public treasury, or into the treasury for the support 
of a military cantonment." The principal advantage of an Ighar 
consisted in being free from those harpies, the Omlas. 

The provinces of the Tigris which form the last and largest item, 
may be those Avhich were ceded to the Bacra government, and they 
seem to answer to those enumerated by Barbier de Meynard, p. 133, 
under Nos. V. and VI. 

Some of the figures in the preceding table, taken from the very 
incorrect copy of Qodama, are certainly erroneous, and may be corrected 
by comparing them with those of Ibn Khordadbeh. It must, however, 
be borne in mind that the data reported by the two authors are not in 
all instances the same. At the time of Ibn Khordadbeh, for instance, 
the whole of the revenue of the Tigris provinces seems to have been 
levied in cash, at the time of Qodama partly in cash and partly in 
kind. For us the sum total alone is of some interest, and this is given 
by Qodama, who says, AkWf ^/o 'ij*&d\ o^'<**e| <^«» &\y~l\ Glft3)| u£fSj 

&J& p*j& a • 1 6 a ♦ ♦ &^\ w° 3 y m v r i j**^\ w° j y 1 1 vr • • 

fksy %jad\ &**> oof£ j (•APdV'ja* (3 ; yi J\ i2X)& ^s^jjj 

&*ixj\ j^\ ^U ^x*£)\ (^x) ^aj U ^J Aklj £X*s^ 1« &-Jf<^S 

p*j* I I \c\*6 v 1 d • 

" The revenue of the Sawad, exclusive the poor rates of Bacra, 
consists of 117,600 Korrs of wheat, 99,721 Korrs of barley, and 
8,095,800 Dirhams of silver. The grain at the mean market price, 
that is to say at the rate of two Korrs, one of wheat and one of bar- 
ley at 60 Dynars, taking one Dynar at the present rate of exchange 
equal to 15 Dirhams, is worth 100,361,850 Dirhams. Adding this sum 
to the cash payments, there results a total of 108,457,650 Dirhams. 
The poor rates of Bacra amount annually to six million Dirhams, the 



1866.] MeynanVs Ibn Khordadbeh. 141 

average revenue is therefore (some words unintelligible) 114,457,650 
Dirhams." 

These data enable us to calculate the price of grain at the time of 
Qodama. We convert the 100,361,850 Dirhams into Dynars, by 
dividing the number by 15, and we obtain 6,690,790 Dynars. With 
this money we purchase all the barley, and as many Korrs of wheat 
as there are Korrs of barley. Our expenditure amounts to 99,721 X 
60 = 5,983,260 Dynars to spend and 17,879 Korrs of wheat to buy. 
If we divide the former number by the latter, we find that the Korr 
of wheat costs 19J (i. e. 39 Dynars and 10 Kirats), and consequently 
the Korr of barley 20J Dynars. The result cannot be far from the 
truth ; for at the time of MoAammad wheat was at Madyna twice as dear 
as barley (comp. my Leben des Moh., Vol. 3, p. 140), and consequently, 
if one Korr of wheat and one Korr of barley together cost 60 Dynars, 
the price of wheat ought to be 40 and that of barley 20 Dynars. 
But there remains much too great a cost in the division than that 
Qodama should have neglected it. I therefore propose to read 117,691 
Korrs of wheat instead of 117,600. If we adopt this reading, a Korr of 
wheat cost 39 Dynars and 7J Kirats (20 Kirats = 1 Dynar) and a 
Korr of barley 20 Dynars 12J Kirats. A pound of bread (English 
weight) may have cost about 3 farthings. 

In Qodama occurs the following passage regarding the assessment of 
'Omar 1. ±&&* &> c^U^ »£**j w^^I ttfj** cj' f^** cH /**•&-' I J^> 
(JS i Js £*cji uj^ «-aJ| *J*.J\ ^ajJj j &„, g*A.y &\j~)\ *••*** ^Lai^ 

Qasim b. Sallarn asserts that 'Omar, the son of Khattab, sent 
'Othman b. i/onayf of Madyna, and that this 'Othman measured the 
Sawad, and found that it contained 36 (sic) millions Jarybs, and he 
imposed upon every Jaryb of land, cultivated or fallow, provided it 
could be irrigated, a tax of one Qafyz and one Dirhain. Qasim 
says, I have heard that this Qafyz was a cubic measure then in use in 
the Sawad, and that it was called Shabirqany. YaAya b. Adam says 
it is identical with the Makhtum of -Sajjdj. 

This account differs from that of other authors, who record that 
? Omar I. assessed the Sawad as follows : — 
19 



142 Meynard's Ihn Khordddbeh. [No. 2, 

Every Jaryb of Barley, 2 Dirhams. 

» ii Wheat > •••• 4 

„ j, ,, Vineyards and orchards, 6 „ 

„ „ „ Date plantations, 8 „ 

The assessment of Omar was according to a tradition of Jabir by 
himself called Tasq (J^k Freytag considers this term cognate with 
the expression of the Arabic Christians Taqs <j*£-k, and it is perhaps 
also related with qist. No doubt it is derived from the same Greek 
word from which our tax comes. I believe, but am not sure, it was 
a permanent settlement, though owing to the disposition of the rulers 
and to circumstances, changes have taken place. The term tasq is 
applicable only to taxes levied from conquered land. 

It is pretty certain that the land-tax amounted to about one- 
half of the value of the produce. Qodama speaks of the tithes, and 
then he continues £^y e»U*» 13*^1 *-e~^ ls^ ^ x *h M* Oj~M Uf j 
ail t£Ui ^ic JUJaJlj ULcVxJ.) ib'UU &j& Lo ^^ ^ &&*»)}\ £**& 

The taxes on conquered land have been fixed in cl^Vl^*** «-»*a J\ 
accordance to the annual produce (of several years) ; consequently 
the tax of a district has been fixed agreeably to justice. In proof 
thereof we may mention that in case it be necessary to convert £asq- 
land into tithe-land, one-fifth of the original tfasq of the district is 

taken, because x : 5 = _? (x. in the original d^/| means in this case 

7 2 10 v J ° 

the value of the produce.) 

I believe we may safely infer from this passage that in the assess- 
ment of conquered lands, the same rules prevailed as in fixing the 
amount of tithe, with the only difference that one-half instead of one- 
tenth was levied. The general rule was that land which was watered 
without the expense of labour, paid the whole tithe. 

If labour was expended, one-half of the tithe or more was taken. 
Thus, if land was watered twice by a canal running through it, or if it 
was three times irrigated by means of a bucket by which water is 
raised from a canal, the tithe amounted not to ten, but to seven per 
cent., viz. 4 per cent, for the canal and 3 per cent, for the bucket. 

The 'Abbasides changed the system of revenue in the Sawad. 
Qodama says : Abu 'Obayd Allah Mo'awiyya b. 'Abd Allah, the 



I860.] MeynanVs Ibn Khordddbeh. 143 

secretary (Katib) of the Khalyf Mahdiy reported on the inconve- 
niences which arose, if the iasq-payers were obliged to pay a fixed 
sum of money, or to supply a certain quantity of grain, and he proposed 
that the taxes should be calculated (annually) by the Jaryb, as there 
was no telling whether the prices would sink or rise. In the one 
case the cultivator, in the other the government were in the disadvan- 
tage. The best thing, he thought, would be to introduce the same 
rule which the prophet adopted with regard to Khanghar : he left to 
the inhabitants the land under the condition that they were to give up 
to him one-half of the produce (as much the cultivators ought to 
give up from irrigated land) ; but if the labour of irrigation was very 
hard, they ought to give up only one-fourth ; and if it was less hard, 
one-third. The choice was to be left to the farmers to give up as 
much straw* to government as was due to it (i. e. £ or J or % accord- 
ing to circumstances), or to sell it and pay the tax according to the 
market price of grain. In fixing the amount of revenue on vineyards, 
trees of every description, vegetables and every kind of produce, 
agreeably to the dictates of justice, the nett price which would be 
realized by the sale was to be calculated, taking into consideration 
what distance the land was from the market or harbour, and how 
great the expense and loss of time would be for bringing it there. 
After all these deductions one-half was to be charged as revenue. 

This system of revenue, which was eventually introduced, and by 
which the above detailed statements of Ibn Khordadbch and Qodama 
are to be explained, is called Moqasima, a term which is used up to 
this day in India very nearly in the same signification as it was used 
at the time of our author : " partition of the actual crop between the 
cultivator and the State, either in kind or in value." 

Certain it is that one-half of the produce was taken from the 
cultivators by the 'Abbasides; but it is not certain whether j 'Omar 
made so high a settlement as to deprive the farmers of the value of 
one-half, and whether the above passage of Qodama is applicable to 
the time previous to the Abbaside dynasty. But we may safely 
assume that even at the time of 'Omar I. the revenue amounted to 
two-fifths. Now if a Jaryb of wheat paid 4 Dirhams to Government, 
the value of the whole produce of a jaryb could not be more than 
* In the original ^"> 



144 MeynarcVs Ibn Khordddheh. [No. 2, 

10 Dirhams. This does not square either with the prices of grain in 
those days, nor with the size of the Jaryb which I have found. There 
must be something wrong in my calculations, and I therefore would 
call the attention of men in India, who take an interest in such 
matters, to the subject. They have means of ascertaining facts con- 
nected with revenue and agriculture, which are wanting in Europe. 

I now insert a statement of the revenue of the other provinces of 
the empire of the Khalyfs^ according to Qodama.* He usually gives 
the numbers and names of the districts into which every province 
was divided for the sake of administration , and states the totals of the 
revenue. As the MS. is very incorrect, I omit the names of districts- 
and confine myself to the provinces : 

Dirhams. 

Ahwaz, 18,000,000 

Faris, .. 24,000,000 

Kerman, ., 6,000,000 

Mekran, the Moqatea amounted, 1,000,000 

Ispahan, 10,500,000 

Sijistan, the Irtifa' revenue, according to agree- 
ment, amounted to, ... .. 1,000,000 



60,500,000 



Khorasan. If I understand right, this immense 
province was leased to Abd Allah b. Tahir, that 
is to say, he received the whole revenue, defray- 
ed the expenses of administration, and kept the 
surplus after having sent the tax to the treasury 
of the Khalyf in cash including the value of a cer- 
tain number of horses and slaves furnished to him, 38,000,000 

Mah-Kiifa, i. e. Daynawar, 1,000,000 

Mah-Bacra, i. e, Nohawand, 800,000 

Hamadan, 1,700,000 

Masibzan, 1,100,000 

Mahrjan-Qazaq, 1,200,000 

Qomm and Qoshan, , , 3,000,000 

* Which may be compared with that of Ibn Khordadbeh. 



1866.] Meynard's Ibn Khordddbeh. 145 

Azerbyjan, Ardebyl, Marand, &c, 4,500,000 

Rayy, 20,000,000 

Qazwyn in A. H. 237, 2,628,000 

Qumis, 1,105,000 

Jorjan, 4,000,000 

Taberistdn and A'mol in A. H. 234, 200,163,070 (?) 

Tikryt, Sonn and Bawazij (on the Tigris), 700,000 

Mosul pays into the treasury of the Khalyf, ... 2,750,000 

But the revenue of Mosul amounts to, 6,800,000 

Jazyra Ibn 'Omar (close by Mosul), 4,635,000 

Arzen, 4,100,000 

Tarun in Armenia, the Moqate'a amounts to, ... 100,000 

Armenia, the Irtifa' revenue amounts to, 400,000 

Diyar Momiur (northern Mesopotadha), 6,000,000 

Taryq Forat (west bank of Euphrates), 2,700,000 



17,935,000 



Dynars. 

Aleppo and Qinnesryn, 360,000 

27omc, 118,000 

Damascus, 110,000 

Jordan, 195,000 

Egypt and the coast of the Mediterranean as 

far as Barqa, 2,500,000 

JETaramayn, i. e. Northern Arabia, 100,000 

Southern Arabia (Yaman), 600,000 

BaAraynin A. H. 237, 510,000 

'Oman, 300,000 

The author concludes : " These are the provinces, as we have enumer- 
ated them, and this is the amount of revenue which they yield. We 
stated the average ; sometimes it is in some places larger, sometimes 
less. We pay no attention to these fluctuations, they are due to the 
want of good administration. The reader will find that the whole 
revenue which we have enumerated amounts to about 4,920,000 Dy- 
nars, which make, at the present rate of exchange, the Dynar at 15 
Dirhams, 73,800,000 Dirhams." 



146 Meynard's Ibn Khordddbeh. [No. 2, 

This sum represents 68,347 Roman pounds of gold, and does not 
amount to much more than two millions sterling, but this is only the 
revenue of the western provinces where the Dynar was the currency. 
It is true, if we cast up the above items, we obtain a sum which falls 
short by 127,000 Dynars of the sum stated by Qodama. This, how- 
ever, is evidently owing to an omission or a mistake in the text. 

If we omit in the item Tabaristan, the two hundred millions as 
being evidently too large, the revenue of the eastern provinces includ- 
ing the Sawad amounts to 223,487,320 Dirhams, or 2,171,404 Roman 
pounds of pure silver, or about 162 millions of francs. The income 
of the whole empire, as it was at the time of Qodama, did not there- 
fore amount quite to 8J million pounds sterling. But we must 
recollect that a great proportion of it was the nett income, after all 
expenses of administration had been defrayed, and may be considered 
as the civil list of the Khalyf. 

The study of the finances of the glorious Khalyfs would be edifying 
for discontented Musulmans in India. The Khalyfs, like Indian princes, 
squandered away the money in debauchery, ground down the people 
to the dust, surrounded themselves with Tartar mercenaries, who soon 
became a pretorian guard, full of insolence and insubordination. These 
deposed or put to death the Khalyf at pleasure, and no longer content 
with putting on the screw as tightly as possible, they plundered the 
provinces ; and nx>w those countries are so completely depopulated, 
that many a district, which at the time of Qodama yielded a revenue 
of more than a million of Dirhams, cannot pay as many cowries. 

There is much .good in the Islam and in the Musulmans, but 
they have a great deal to learn, before they will be able to administer 
their own affairs. 



1866.] Literary Intelligence. 147 

Literary Intelligence. 

The learned Professor Mahes'achandra Nyayaratna, of the Calcutta 
Sanskrit College, has just brought out a new edition of the Kdvya 
Prakds'a, a treatise on Sanskrit Rhetoric by Mammata Bhatta. It is 
illustrated by a number of explanatory notes by the editor, and has 
an excellent introductory essay. The last is a new feature in a 
Sanskrit book edited by a modern Pundit. It gives a summary of the 
principal works on Rhetoric in Sanskrit, their ages and characteristics, 
the relation which the work of Mammata Bhatta bears to them, the 
number of manuscripts used in printing it, its contents and age, and a 
variety of other interesting literary and critical notices. 

The Professors of the Benares Sanskrit College have started a 
monthly journal devoted to Sanskrit Literature. It is named The 
Pundit, and is intended to serve as a vehicle for the " publication 
of rare Sanskrit works which appear worthy of careful editing here- 
after ; to offer a field for the discussion of controverted points in old 
Indian Philosophy, Philology, History and Literature ; to commu- 
nicate ideas between the Arian scholars of the East and the West ; 
between the Pundits of Benares and Calcutta and the Sanskritists of 
the Universities of Europe." The first three numbers, already 
published, contain, among other articles, two cantos of the second half 
of the Kumdra Samlhava, short notices of topics on Indian Astronomy 
and Logic, and a reprint of the late Dr. Ballantyne's essay on the 
Nyaya. 

Pundit Rangachari Swami, of Brindabun, has published, for gra- 
tuitous distribution, a Sanskrit pamphlet entitled Durjana-hari-pan- 
chdnana. Its object is to prove the authenticity of the present form 
of Vaishnava worship, and to refute the opinion of the court pundits 
of Jaipur, who maintain that there is no ordinance in the shasters to 
justify the worship of Grovindaji, the great idol of that place, and 
accordingly recommend that it should be cast out of its temple. The 
author, in his little book, displays consummate polemical powers, and 
a thorough knowledge of the literature of the Vaishnavas. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 



VOL. XXXV. 

PAKT II. 

Nos. I. to III.— 1866. 

AND A 

SPECIAL NUMBER ON INDIAN ETHNOLOGY, 

EDITED BY 

THE NATURAL HISTORY SECRETARY. 



*' It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men 
of science in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such 
communications shall be long intermitted : and it will die away, if they shall 
entirely cease." 

Sir Wm. Jones. 



CALCUTTA : 

PRINTED BY J. WENGER, BAPTIST MISSION PRESS. 

1867. 



CONTENTS. 

No. I. 
(Published 15th June, 1866.) 

Page 

Physical Characters of the Karens. — By the Rev. F. Mason, D. D., 1 

Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. VI. Descriptions of new 
land shells from the Nilgiri and Anamullay Hills, and other 
places in the Peninsula of India. — By W. T. Blanford, 
Esq. A. R. S. M., F. G. S., ... 31 

Catalogue of the Specimens of Meteoric Stones and Meteoric 
Irons in the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Cal- 
cutta, corrected up to January, 1866. — By Dr. F. Stoliczka 
and H. F. Blanford, Esq. F. G. S., ... ... ... 43 

Observations on the Astronomical points determined by the 
brothers Schlagintweit in Central Asia. — By Captain Golu- 
bief, ... ... ... ... 46 

Comparative hypsometrical and physical Tableau of High Asia, 
the Andes, and the Alps. —By Robert de Schlagintweit, 
Professor at the University of Giessen, ... ... 51 

Notes and Queries, ... ... ... ... ... 73 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, in 
the month of August, 1865, ... ... ... -.. lvii 

Meteorological observations taken at Gangaroowa near Kandy, 

Ceylon, in the month of May, 1864, ... ... lxii 



No. II. 

(Published 14th November, 1866.) 
Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. — Communicated by 

Lieut.-Col. J. T. Walker, R. E., ... 77 

Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains, a 
geological paper by Albert M. Verchere, Esq., M.D. Bengal 
Medical Service ; with a note on the fosssils by M. Edouard de 
Verneuil, Membre de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, Pt. I., 89 
Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. VII. List of species 
of Unio and Anodonta described as occurring in India, Ceylon 
and Burma. — By William T. Blanford, Esq. A. R. S. M., 

F. G. S., 134 

Scientific Intelligence, ... ... ... 156 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, in 
the months of September, October, November and De- 
cember, 1865, ... ... ... ... ... i 



iv Contents, 

Page 
No. III. 

(Published 22nd February, 1867.) 

Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains, a 
geological paper by Albert M. Verchere, Esq., M.D.Bengal 
Medical Service ; with a note on the fossils by M. Edouard 
de Verneuil, Membre de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, 
Part II. continued from page 133, ... ... ... 159 

Experimental investigations connected with the supply of 
water from the Hooghly to Calcutta, by David Waldie, 
Esq., F. C. 8. &c. Pt. I., ... 203 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the months of January and February, 1866, ... i 



SPECIAL NUMBER. 

Ethnology. 

(Published 22nd November, 1866.). 

The Ethnology of India.— By Mr. Justice Campbell,... ... 1 

The " Kols" of Chota-Nagpore — By Lt.-Col. E. T. Dalton, 

Commissioner of Chota-Nagpore, ... ... ... 153 

Appendix A. — List of words and phrases to be noted and used as 
test words for the discovery of the radical affinities of lan- 
guages, and 'for easy comparison, by Mr. Justice Campbell, 201 
Appendix B. — Comparative Table of Aboriginal words, do., ... 204 
Appendix C. — Comparative Table of Northern and Arian Words, do. 207 
Appendix D. — Kashmiri Vocabulary and Grammatical Forms, 

by L. Bowring, Esq., ... ... ... ... 225 

Appendix E. — Language of Dravidian Aborigines. Notes on the 

Oraon Language. — By the Rev. F. Batsch, ... ... 251 

Appendix F. — Brief Vocabulary of the Moondah and cognate 
Languages of the Kolarian type. — By Lieut. -Col. E. T. 
Dalton, ... ... ... ... ... 266 

Appendix G. — Grammar of the Ho Language. (Kolarian Abo- 
rigines.) — By Lieut. -Col. Tickell, &c, ... ... 268 






INDEX TO PART II. 



The numbers with an asterisk belong- to the Special Number on Indian 
Ethnology. 

Page 
Acanthocladia, , .. ... .'.. ... 130 

Achatina anamidlica, n s., ... ... 37 

beddomei, n. s., ... ... ... 41 



testudo, n. s., ... ... ... 169 

textilis, ... ... ... 41 

Aconcagua peak, ... ... ... 55 

JEgialites ruficapittUs, (Gould), ... ... ... 156 

Agricultural tribes, ... ... ... *19 

Aha Tung Limestone quarry, ... ... ... 193 

Alexandrowskaia chain, ... ... ... 79 

Alto de Toledo Pass, ... ... ... 54 

Ammonia in the Hooghly water, ... ... 224 

Analysis of tank water, ... ... ... 232 

of the river water, ... ... ... 219 

Anamully land shells, ... ... ... 31 

Andiia and Ariana, ... ... ... *127 

Animal life in Central Asia, ... ... 70 

Animal life in High Asia, ... ... ... 70 

Anodonta soleniformis i (Bens.), ... ... 150 

Arckbal peak, ... ... ... ... 185 

Arrah River, the, ... ... ... 162 

Artisans, ... ... ... ... *120 

Athyris roissyi f Yernl., ... ... 133 

Sp. (subtilita, Ball), ... ... ... 133 

Augite of the Kaj Nag, ... ... ... 101 

Avicido-Pecten dissimilis, (Flemming), ... ... 169 

« n. s. (allied to A. circularise Yerchere), ... 169 

n. s. (allied A. testildo, Yerch.), ... 169 

■ n. s. ? (A. gibbosus, Yerch,), ... 169 

Awans, ... ... ... ... *95 

Axinus, n. s. (allied to A, obscurus^) ... ... 169 

Bag' dees, ... ... ... ... *125 

Baidyas, ... ... ... ... ' *119 



vi Index, 

__ Page 

Bainjagas, .7* ... 7.. ... *127 

Baloon ascents, •*. ... ... 67 

Balteers, ... ... ... ... *147 

Banteng, Domestication of the, ... ... 74 

Bara Lacha Pass, ... ... ... 54 

Baramoola the extremity of the Kaj Nag Range, ... ... 93 

Barhuis of Khelat, ... ... ... *54 

Barhui and Panjabi examined, ... ... ... *55 

Barns Speers, ... ... ... 173 

Bashia, Longitude of the Village of, ... ... 49 

Batgool and Boorwag summits, ... ... 104 

Batsch (The Rev. P.) On the Oraon language, ... ... *25l 

Bedars or Beders, ... ... ... *2l 

Bedas or Beders,... ... ... ... *21 

Beloochees, ... ... ... *141 

Bengali Brahmans, ... ... ... *69 

Bghai or Pieya, ... ... ... 3 

Bhandari, or the Collector of rents, ... ... *173 

Bheels, ' ... ... ... *21 

Bhoomiz, ... ... ... ... # 26 

Bhoonhars or bastard Brahmins, ... ... *67 

Bhooteas, ... ... ... ... *147 

Bhooyas of Bengal, ... ... ... *51 

Bhurs and Cheroos of Oudh, ... ... ... *21 

Black tribes of the Hills, ... ... ... *13 

Blanford and Stoliczka's Catalogue of meteoric stones, ... 43 
Blanford's (W. T.) Contributions to Indian Malacology, 

Nos. VI and VII., ... ... 31, 134 

Bodos, ... ... ... ... *149 

Bokhara, Routes across the Tian Shan to Little, ... ... 49 

Boksas, Dr. Stewart on the, ... ... *47 

Borahs, ... ... ... ... *140 

Borderers, ... ... ... *136 

Buddhist ruin at Buniar and Ori,.., ... ... 97 

Buis and Bustars, ... ... ... *130 

Bulimus nilagaricus, (Pfr.), ... ... ... 38 

- physalis, (Bens.), ... ... 38 

, ,. „--„ — bengalensiSj ... ... ... 42 

— ' trutta, n. s., ... ... ... 42 

Buniar Buddhist ruins, ... ... ... 99 

Bunneahs, ... ... ... ... *113 

Burghers, ... ... ... ... *25 

Campbell's (Mr. Justice) Ethnology of India, ... ... *1 

Carpojphaga cuprea, (Jerdon), ... ... 157 

. insignis, (Hodgson), ... ... ... 157 

- pusilla, ... ,,, ... 157 



Index. 



vu 



Carambers, 

Caspian Sea, Variations of the level of the,... 

Cataulus recurvatuSj (Pf r.), 

Caucasian race, Physical appearances of the, 

Cbamars, 

Charadrius pusillus, (Horsfield), 

Chenchwars, ... 

Chermars, 

Cheroos, 

Chimborazo peak, 

Chinav lake near Sunager, 

Chota Nagpore, Extent of, ... 

Constituents of river water, 

Coour and Cole languages compared, 

Cyclophorus jerdoni, (Bens.), 

- dejplanatus, (Pfr.), ... 

■ sp. near ravidus, 

Dapsang peak, ... 

Dards, ... ... ... 

Destal, Glacier lake in Garhval, . . . 
Dhanuks, ... ... 

Dhoonds, ... ... 

Dimals, ,<. ... ... 

Pjungaria, Points determined by the Jesuits in, 

Domestication of , wild cattle in India, 

Dosads, 

Dravidian Aborigines, ... 

Ellichpur Coours, 

Ethnology of India by Mr, Justice Campbell, 

Everest, Mount,... 

Falco labylonicus, ... 



Eossiliferous rocks in Kashmir, 

Fauna of the Weean bed, .. . ... 

Felis macrocelis, ... ... 

temminckii, (Vigors), ... 

swinhoeij ... ... ... .*, 

diardii, ... , , , 

charltonij ».. ... ... ... 

Felis marmorata, ... ... 

Felstone on the banks of the Jheelum, 

and porphyry of the mountains South- West, South 

and West of Cashmir, ... 



Page 

*25 

83 

38 

*8 

*121 

156 

#31 

*23 

*21 

54 

55 

*153 

211 

#41 

38 
38 
38 

55 
*146 

56 

*126 

*95 

*149 

48 

74 
*125 
*251 

*I58 
#1 

54 

156 
156 
197 
160 
156 
156 
156 
156 
156 
156 
94 

93 



viii Index. 

Page 
Fenestella sykesii, Koninck, ... ... ... 133 

megastoma, Koninck, ... ... 133 



Fireflies, Simultaneous flashing of, ... ... 73 

Gamin Pass, ... ... ... 53 

Gardening tribes, ... ... ... *20 

Garnets of the Kaj Nag, ... ... ... 101 

Garrows of Assam, ... ... ... *53 

Geographical Configurations of High Asia, the Andes, and the 

Alps, ... ... ... 52 et seq. 

Ghat wals, The half bred, ... ... ... *35 

Glaciers of High Asia, ... ... ... 61 

Golubief's (Captain) Observations on the Astronomical points, 
determined by the Brothers Schlagintweit in Central 

Asia, ... ... ... 46 et seq. 

Gond language, Dra vidian origin of the, ... ... *25 

Goniatites. sp. } like G. henslowii } ... ... ... 169 

Goojars, ... ... ... *101 

Goozrati Brahmans, ... ... ... *69 

Gourisunkar or Mount Everest, ... ••• ... 54 

Gours of Udeypore, ... ... ... *32 

Grauculus layardi, ... ... ... 157 

Grave stones of the Oraons, ... ... ... *193 

Gukkurs, ... ... ... *95 

Gurang and Magars, ... ... ... *148 

Gwallas of Orissa, ... ... ... * 53 

Gyal and the Gour, domestication of the, ... ... 74 



Hapatikri, ... ... ... 115 

Harees, ... ... ... ... *125 

Hazarehees of Ghuznee, ... ... ... # 54 

Helix anax, (Bens.), ... ... ... 41 

basilessa, (Bens.), ... - ... ... 41 

monticola, (Hutton), ... ... ... 36 

Helots, ... ... ... *120 etseq. 

High Asia, the Andes, and the Alps, Hypsometrical Tableau 

of, ... ... ... 51 et seq. 

Himalaya, Plateaux in tire,... ... ... 52 

Hodgson's Himalayan tribes, »., ... ... *46 

Hooghly water, Organic matter in the, ... ... 219 

Hos, ... ... ... ... *22 

Hurri Purbut, . ... ... 117 

Hydrography of High Asia, ... ... ... 55 

Influence of the tides in the Hooghly, ... ... 208 

Islamabad Hill, ... ... ... ... ... 181 

Issyk-Kul, Position of, ... ... ... ... 50 



Index. ix 

Page 

Janguas of Cnttack, ... ... ... ... ... E36 

Jatras among the Oraons, ... ... ... *183 

Jats and Zemindar equivalent terms, ... ... ... *4 

Kaffirs, ... _ *145 

Kafir Kote mountains, .. ... ... 184 

Kai, G-aikho or Prai-Ka- Young, ... ... ... 5 

Kailas range, ... ... ... ... ... 114 

Kaj Nag, Porphyry of the, ... ... ... 100 

Kamlawan hill, ... ... ... ... ... 115 

Kanouj Brahmins, ... ... ... ,~. 65 

Karabougaz, gulf, ... ... ... ... ... 83 

Karakoram Pass, Position of the, ... ... ... 46 

Karakoram Pass, Longitude of the, ... ... ... 46 

Karens, ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Kashmiri Brahmans, ... ... ... ... *57 

Vocabulary, ... ... ... ... *227 

Kashmir, Geology of, ... ... ... ... 89 

Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains, 

Geology of, ... ... ... ... ... 89 

Kaurs, ... *22 

Kayasthas, ... ... ... ... ... *117 

Kay a or Bed Karen, ... ... ... ... 4 

Kazalks of Central Asia, ... ... ... ... *28 

Kazi Kourt chain, ... ... ... ... 79 

Kharwars of Bewa, ... ... ... ... *37 

Khatrees, ... ... ... ... ... ... *108 

Kheriahs, ... ... ... ... ... *155 

Khokandian ruins near Baildyr Tugai, ... ... 86 

Khonds, ... ... ... ... ... *25 

Khotan, Cartographical position of, ... ... ... 48 

Kol, Derivation of the term, ... ..- ... ... *154 

KolaorKolar, ... ... ... ... ... *28 

Kolarian Aborigines, Language of the, ... ... *268 ct seq. 

Koles, the generic name of the Aborigines of Chota- 

Nagpore, ... ... ... ... ... *27 

Koonbees or Koormees, ... ... ... *92 

Kotahs, ... ... ... ... ... *25 

Kothair bed, ... ... ... ... ... 163 

Fauna of the, ... ... ... ... 190 

Kours of Western frontiers of Chota-Nagpore, ... ... *39 

Kunioun Hindus allied to the Bengali, ... ... ... *68 

Kiinlun and the Karakoram Pass, Plateaux between, ... 52 

Kurrals, ... ... ... ... ... *95 

Kashgar, Cartographical position of, ... ... ... 48 

Kun Lun or Ser and Mer Peaks. ... ... ... 114 



x Index. 

Page 

Lagunillas, The pass of, ... ... ... 54 

Lakes in the Himalaya, ... ... ... ... 55 

Language of the Aborigines, Turanian, ... ... ... *23 

Le in Ladak, Determination of the position of, ,.. ... 46 

Lepchas, ... ... ... ... ... *148 

Light, Exclusion of, from specimens in Spirits, ... ... 74 

Lunar and Solar Rajpoots, ... ... ... ... *21 

Lurk Coles, ... ... ... .„„ ... *26 

Macnamara's (Dr. F.) estimate of Organic matters in the 

Hooghly water, ... .. ... ... ... 204 

Magnetic iron ores in the Sub- Himalayan Valleys, .,, 103 

Mahratti Brahmans, ... ,., ... ... *70 

Mairs, ... ... ... ... ... *21 

Malacology, Contributions to Indian, No. VI., ... ... 31 

• No. VII., 134 

Maleasur, ... ... ... ... ... ... *30 

Mallees, ... ... ... ... ... ... *105 

Manikarn, the hottest spring of High Asia, ... ... 57 

Mankees, ... ... ... ... ... # 163 

Marang Booroo or the Landorians, ... ... ... *190 

Mason's (the Rev. F., d. d.) physical character of the Karens, 1 

Max Miiller on the language of savage tribes, ... ... *27 

Mechis of the Doars, ... ... ... ... *50 

Meenars of Rajpootana, ... ... ... ' ... # 45 

Mercantile class, ... ... ... ... ... # 10& 

Meteoric stones and irons, Catalogue of, in the Asiatic Society's 

Museum, ... ... ... ... 43 

Mhairs of the Aravallee range, ... ... ... ... # 45 

Modelliars, , ... ... *132 

Modern Indians, ... ... ... ... ... *56 

Monocondylced crebristriata, (Anthony), .. ... ... 153 

— ' peguensisj (Anthony) , ... ... ... 153 

vondenbuschiana, (Lea), ... ... 151 

Mont Blanc, ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Mont Rosa, ... ... ... ... 55 

Moondahs, ... ... ... ... ... ... *26 

Moonda and Oraon customs compared, ... ... ... *176 

Mopgha or Plau, ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Moplas, ... ... ... ... ... *13S 

Mountain ascents, ... ... ... ... 65 

Mustagh Pass, ... ... ... ... 54 

My a radiata, (Chem.), ... ... .... ... 146 

Nagas, ... *140 

Naini Tal Lake, ... ... ... ... 55 



Index. xi 

Page 

Namberee Brahmans, ... ... ... ... *75 

Namtso or Yunam in Lahol, ... ... ... ... 56 

Nanina acuducta, (Bens.),... ... ... ... 39 

ammonia, (Vallencienn.es), ... ... ... 33 

ampulla, (Bens.), ... ... ... 38 

(arioplianta) intumescens, n. 8., ... ... 32 

auris ? (Pfr.), ... ... ... ... 38 

bajadera, (Pfr.), ... ... ... ... 33 

basileus, (Bens.), ... ... ... ... 38 

■ carneola, (Pfr.), ... ... ... ... 35 

chenui? ... ... ... ... ... 34 

ivdica, (Pfr.), ... ... ... ... 38 

(jnacrochlamys f) hebescens, n. s., (W. T. Blanf.), ... 34 

(inacrochlamys f) infausta, n. s., (W. T. Blanf.), ... 36 

(macrochlamys f) lixa, n. s., (W. T. Blanf.), ... 35 

orobia, (Bens.), ... ... ... ... 34 

shiplayi, (Pfr.), ... ... ... ... 38 

(hemiplecta f) sisparica, n. s., (W. T. Blanf.), ... 34 

subgesta, (Bs.), ... ... ... ... 35 

travancorica ? (Bens.), ... ... ... ... 38 

vitrinoides, (Desh.), ... ,.. ... 36 

Nausherra and Ori felstone, ... ... ... !>7 

Neemehahs, ... ... ... ... ... *145 

Neophron ginyinianus, (Latham) , ... ... ... 1 56 

Hferitina perrotettiana, (Recleiz), ... ... ... 38 

Niti Pass, ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Nitrates in river water, - ... ... ... ... 228 

Nitrogenous matter in river water, ... ... 229 

Opisthoporus Jerdoni, (Bens.), ... ... ... 32 

Oraons, ... ... ... ... *168,22 

language, ... ... ... ... ... *151 

Orenburgh, Topography of, ... ... ... ... 81 

Organic remains in the Hooghly water, ... ... 207 

Orthis crenistria, (Phill.), ... ... ... ... 133 

Otocoris penicillatus, ... ... ... ... 157 

longirostris, ... ... ... ,., 157 

Otopoma hinduorum, (W. T. Blanf.), ... ... ... 32 

Paban or the village fruits, ... ... ... ... *171 

Pallers, ... ... ... ... ... ... *133 

" Pampur knoll", ... ... .... ... ... 172 

Parang Pass, ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Pariahs, ... ... ... ... ... ... *133 

Pasees, ... ... ... ... ... .., *126 

Pastoral tribes, ... ... ... ... *19 

Pasture ground in the Himalaya, ... ... ... G4 



xii Index. 

Page 

Pathana or Afghans, ... ... ... ... *143 

Perovski Fort, Rear admiral Boutakof 's expedition to the, ... 84 

Pir Punjal chain, ... ... ... ... 111—114 

Plateaux, ... ... ... ... 52 

Porphyry of Buniar, ... ... ... ... 107 

Productus semi-reticulatus, (Martin), ... ... 131 

« costatus (Sow.), ... ... ... 131 

cora (D'Orbigny), ... ... ... 133 

■ — ■ Jiurnboldtii (D'Orbigny), ... ... ... 133 

_-i fleminyii (D'Orbigny), ... ... ... 133 

— longispinus, (Verneuil), ... ... ... 133 

Pterocyclos nanus, (Bens.), ... ... ... ... 38 

Pterocyclos tenuilabiatus, (Metcalfe), ... .. 32 

Purbhoos, ... . . ... ... ... ... *119 

Puttoons, The leafclad, ... ... ... ... *156 

Pwo or heu-phlong, .. ... ... ... ... 5 

Pycnonotus jocosus, (L.) ... ... ... ... 157 

Rajpoot Brahmans, ... ... ... ... *60 

Rawats or Rajis of Rohilcund, . . . ... ... ... *48 

Reechpoora Spurs, ... ... ... ... ... 177 

Rong, ... ... ... ... *140 

Russian Geographical operations in Asia,... ... ... 77 

Sansees, ... ... ... ... ... *126 

Saij Aha hills, ... ... ... ... ... 115 

Saraswata Brahmans, ... *... ... ... *63 

Sarhools' feast of the Oraons, ... ... ... *185 

Sarry-kul, the source of the Amu, Determination of, ... 50 
Schlagintweit's Physical Tableau of High Asia, the Andes, and 

the Alps, ... ... ... ... ... 51 

Scindees, ... ... ... ... ... *141 

Serairkilla and Thakoors of Khurswan, ... ... ... *165 

Sgau or Pgha-Knyan, ... ... ... ... 3 

Shan Karens, ... ... ... ... 6 

Shanar, ... ... ... ... ... *136 

Sheri Bal mountain, ... ... ... ... 177 

Sherrias, The wild, of Bundelcund, ... ... ... *45 

Shinku La Pass, ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Shokum Spring, ... ... ... ... 161 

Singbhoom Ho or Lurka Kols, ... ... ... *163 

Snowfall in the Himalaya, ... ... ... ... 58 

Snowline, The Himalayan, ... ... ... 59 

Solenopsis imbricata ? (Koninck), ... ... ... ... 169 

Sontals, ... ... *29 

Sjpiraculum hispidum, ... f .. ... ... 32 

beddomii, n. s., ... ... ... 31 



Index, 



xni 



Spirifer vercherii, (Verneuil), 
Spiriferina octoplicata? (Sow.), 

stracheyi, (Salter), ... 

St. Theodule Pass, 

Stoliczka's (Dr. F.) Catalogue of Meteoric stones, 

Strophomena analoga, (Phill.), ... 

Bymphonota bilineata, (Lea), ... 

Syrdaria, ... 

Tanaolees, 

Tank water, Composition of, ... 

Taru or Plu, 

Teers, 

Tehon, Investigations beyond the, 

Tertiaries near Ori Fort, 

Thames, and New River, Quantity of solid matter 

Than Karens, 

Tharoos of Goruckpore, ... 

Todas, Peculiarities of the, 

Total solid matter in river water, 

Toungthu or Lau, 

Towns and villages in High Asia, 

Tukt-i-Suliman, 

Turkistan and Western Thibetan lakes, 

Unio anodontinus, (Lam.), 

bengahnsis, (Lea), 

bilineatus, (Lea), ... 

ccendeus, (Lea), 

corrianus, (Lea), 

corrugatus, (Mull.), ... 

favidens, var. marcens t (Bens.), 

favidenSj 

favidens, var. trigona, 

rfavidens,YHY.deltce, 

favidens, var. chrysis, 

favidens, var. viridula, 

favidens, var. densa, 

involutus, (Bens.), 

lamellatus, (Lea), 

■ macilentus, (Bens.), 

1 margina lis , (L am . ) , 

merodabensis, (Busch.), ... 

— — 7iagpoorensis, (Lea), 

> nuttallianus, (Lea), 

— — olivarias, (Lea), 
rugos us, (Grmelin), 





Pasfe 




. 133 


• . . < 


. 133 


. . . 


. 169 




54 




43 


.. 


. 133 


• . 


. 139 


.. 


80 




. *95 


• • . 


. 232 




5 


• • . 


. *137 


.. 


81 


• . 


94 


n the, 


. 214 


. . . 


6 




. *47 


.. 


*24 




..' 214 


. • . 


6 




62 




. 117 




5G 




. 138 


.. 


. 141 


... 


. 139 


. . . 


.. 139 


. . . 


.. 140 


... . 


.. 136 




.. 139 


... 


. 137 


. . . 


.. 139 




.. 139 


. . 


.. 139 




.. 139 




.. 139 


• • . 


.. 140 




.. 141 


. . . 


.. 144 


. . * 


.. 138 


.. 


.. 142 


• • . 


.. 143 


*• 


.. 140 


. . • 


.. 140 


.. , 


.. 137 



xiv Index. 

Page 

Unio rajalieniis, (Lea), ... ... ... ... 141 

sihkimensis , (Lea), ... ... ... ... 142 

theca, (Bens.), .,. ... ... ... 144 

wynegungaensis, (Lea), ... ... ... ... 143 

Vegetation of Central Asia, ... ... ... ... 69 

Velmas, ... ... ... ... ... *127 

Vercheres' (Dr. A. M.) Geology of Kashmir &c, ... 89 et seq. 

Vernag spring in Kashmir, ... ... ... 56 

Vincularia multangularis (Portt), ... ... ,.. 131 

Vitrina aurif omits, n. s., ... ... ... ... 36 

gigas, (Bens.), ... ... ... ... 37 

membranacea, (Bens.), ... ... ... ... 37 

Waldie's (Mr. D.) Investigations connected with the Water 

Supply to Calcutta, ... ... ... ... 203 

"Walker's (Colonel J. T.) Russian Geographical opei^tions in 

Asia, ... ... ... ... ... 77 et seq. 

Wastarwan, ... ... ... ... ... 172 

Water Supply to Calcutta, Investigations connected with the, 203 

Water, Constituents of River, ... ... ... 211 

Water at ehb and flood tide at Baranagur, ... ... 209 

Water, Amount of solid matter in the, of the Hooghly, ... 207 

Weean and Kohew valleys, ... ... ... 168 

Western Thibet, Plateaux in, ... ... ... 52 

Wokuls, ... ' ... ... ... ... ... *129 

WoolarLake, ... ... ... ... ... 201 

Yarkand, Cartographical position of, ... ... ... 48 

Zehanwan spur, ... ... ... ... ... 128 

Zebanwan, ... ... ... ... ... 115 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



Part II.— PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 



No. I.— 18G6. 



Physical Character of the Karens. — By the Rev. F. Mason, D. D. 

[Received 7th January, 1865.] 

Karens.* 

The name Karen has been adopted from the Burmans, who apply 
it to various uncultivated tribes, that inhabit Burmah and Pegu ; but 
it is used, in these notices, as designating a people that speak a lan- 
guage of common origin, which is conveniently called Karen ; embracing 
many dialects, and numerous tribes. These tribes, though speaking 
a common language, have no common name with which to distinguish 
themselves ; but in this respect, they do not differ from our own 
ancestors. Csesar found some twenty or thirty different tribes in 
Britain, but it does not appear that they had any common name by 
which they designated themselves. 

* The following pages are offered as answers to " Queries respecting the 
human race addressed to travellers, by a Committee of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science," at the request of Col. Phayre ; and embrace 
all the writer has to say on the general division of the Queries, entitled " Phy- 
sical Characteristics ; " from Query 1 to Query 49. 

No answers are given to Queries 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 30, relating mainly to 
anatomy, because satisfactory ones have not been obtained. Nor are answers 
given to Queries 13, 14, 15, 16, because the writer has already published on the 
subject of Language in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and in his 
work on " Burmah." To write again on the subject, would necessarily compel 
him to repeat considerable of what is already in print, which seemed un- 
desirable. 



2 Physical Character of the Karens. [No. 1, 

The word Karen has been supposed to signify aboriginal, from yen* 
u first," and kaf a formative particle ; but the derivation is European^ 
not Burmese. The Burmans have never been so recondite in naming 
wild tribes. When the Buddhist missionaries landed at Martaban, they 
denominated the aboriginal inhabitants Beloos, or " Monsters," and 
the Burmese still retain the name for a tribe of Karens on the borders 
of Karenee. The subdued Bghais they dispose of as Loo-Taing,l 
11 wild men ; while the more civilized Mopghas that bring honey and 
bees' wax for sale, they call Taubya,§ u wild bees ;" and they find in 
the dress of another a distinctive name, and call them " Bed Karens." 

The word Karen is probably a Karen word. One of the northern 
Karen tribes, with which the Burmans must have held most inter- 
course before they conquered Pegu, call themselves Ka-yong, which is 
sufficiently near the Burmese to be the same word. Then we have a 
precisely parallel case in the name they give this tribe, which is 
Gai-kho,\\ a Karen word that is manifestly identical with Kai-khen, 
the name the other Karen tribes give them. 

Eight distinct Karen tribes are known, who speak dialects so diverse, 
that they cannot understand each other ; and yet, on examination, the 
larger proportion of the roots of each dialect are of common origin. 

These tribes have often several names, and not only are travellers 
misled by them ; but residents often take up wrong impressions and 
give, for distinct nations, names that refer to the same tribe. 

A few of the tribes only have distinctive names for themselves, and 
all, when speaking to each other, use the word for man to designate 
themselves ; precisely as the Hebrews use the word for man as the 
proper name of the first man, Adam. Were these terms for man 
adopted in English, the tribes would be much more accurately distin- 
guished than they are at present. Thus we should have 



g|£ 



Pgha-knyan 


for 


Sgau. 




Pie-ya 


>> 


Bghai. 




Pra-ka-ya, or 


Ka ya „ 


Red Karen. 




Heu-phlong 


>> 


Pwo. 




Peu 


>j 


Taru. 




Plau 


?> 


Mopgha. 




f CO 


t ojl§& 


§ ccqo qps 


II *§ 



1866.] Physical Character of the Karens. 3 

Pray-kS-yong for Kay or Gaikho. 

Lau „ Toungtliu. 

SgaUj or Pgha-knyan. 

This tribe is known by a diversity of names. 

Sgau, the name the tribe give themselves. 

Burmese Karens, thus designated by some English writers. 

White Karens, the name given them by English travellers to distin- 
guish them from the Red Karens. 

Myeet-tho, so designated by the Burmese. 

Shan, the name the Pwas give them. 

Pa-ku, the name by which they are known in Toungoo, and to the 
Red Karens ; but it more properly denotes a sub-tribe of Sgaus. 

Shan-ne-pgha, a name given to another sub-tribe of Sgaus. 

We-wa, a small sub-tribe of doubtful origin, but probably originally 
Sgaus. 

Bgiiai, or Pie-ya. 

The Bghais have no distinctive name for themselves, besides Pie-ya. 

Bghai is the name the Sgaus give them, and they recognise the 
name so far as to apply it with an adjective to sub-tribes among 
themselves. 

Bghai-ka-teu, " Bghais at the end," is the name of the Tunic 
Bghais, as used by the Pant Bghais ; because they live at the extre- 
mity of the tribe nearest Toungoo. 

Tunic Bghai is the name given to the above sub-tribe, by English 
writers, because they wear tunics or frocks. 

Bghai-ka-hta, " Upper-Bghai." The Pant Bgh#s are thus de- 
nominated by the Tunic Bghais, because they live on the streams 
above them. 

Pant Bghai is the denomination by which all the Bghais that wear 
pants are known to English writers. 

A-yaing, or Ka-yen Ayaing, " Wild Karens," is the name the 
Burmese give to nearly all the Pant Bghai. 

Leik-bya-gyie, " Great Butterflies" is the Burmese name of a por- 
tion of the Tunic -Bghai. 

Leik-bya-guay, " Little Butterflies" are other villages of Pant 
Bghai. 



4 Physical Character of the Karens. [No. 1, 

Pra-pa-ku, is the name given by the Red Karens to the Bghais 
that live near the Pa-kus. 

Manu-manau is a Burmese name given to a mixed sub-tribe of 
Bghais. 

Pray is the Bed Karen name applied to the Manu-manau and to 
some other clans related to the Bghais. 

Lay-may is Burman for a sub-tribe of Bghais, called Pray by the 
Bed Karens. 

Shan-kho is a name given to a Bghai clan in the north-eastern part 
of Toungoo. 

Bed Karen, or Ka-ya. 

The Bed Karens have no name for themselves, except Ka-ya, or 
Pra-ka-ya. 

Ka-yeu-nie, " Bed Karen" is the name given them by the Burmese, 
on account of the red-striped pants they wear. 

Bghai-mu-hta, Bghai-mu-htay, names given them by the Bghais, 
signifying " Eastern Bghai." 

Yang-laing, " Bed Karens" is their name among the Shan tribes. 

The-pya the name by which the Kay people designate them. 

Ta-lya a small sub- tribe of Bed Karens, are thus denominated by 
the Bed Karens themselves. 

Yen-ka-la, the Burmese name of the above clan. 

Tha-vie, or Tha-vie-la-kha is a Bed Karen name for a people of 
their own tribe living ten clays' journey above them, on the Salween, 
and who were separated from them when driven from Ava, sixteen 
generations ago. 

In 1861, our Assistant in Karenee reported a singular letter that 
was sent by them to Karenee ; the object of which was not stated dis- 
tinctly, but it was understood as a challenge to fight. The following 
is a translation : — 

" Now, the words of God and his commands have come to us. Let 
all men give up the customs of their ancestors, and offerings to spirits, 
and live in peace. As for us in the land of Tha-vie, we will dwell 
in peace and obey the commands. 

" Nevertheless, at the proper time we will make a feast ; and this 
feast is not a woman's feast, but a man's feast ; and when the time 
arrives to dance, we will dance. And the shades of the dead, and the 



1866.] Physical Character of the Karens. 5 

spirits will look on. We say to you, if you wish to look on, come and 
look, and bring sword and spear. We have appointed the month of 
March for the time of holding the feast." 

Pwo, or Heu-phlong. 

The Pwos call themselves Sho. 

Pwo is the name given them by the Sgau. 

Meet-khyen is a name given them by the Burmese, signifying' 
" River-khyens." 

Talaing- Karens is a designation they have in some published papers, 
and they are sometimes thus designated by the Burmese, because they 
are principally found among the Takings. 

Shoung is a name given to a small sub-tribe of Pwos in the north 
of Toungoo. 

Taru, or Plu. 

Taru is the name given to a tribe nearly related to the Pwos by 
the Bed Karens. 

Khu-hta is the name they give themselves. 

Be-lu or monasters is the name by which they are characterized by 
the Burmese. A part of the tribe shave the whole head excepting 
two tufts of hair, one on each temple, which gives them a sufficiently 
frightful appearance to account for the name the Burmese have given 
them. 

Be-lu-ba-doung is the name given them by the Kay tribes. 
Mo-pgha, or Plau. 

Mo-pgha is the name of one of the villages, from which the mission- 
aries have named the whole tribe ; but it is a name they do not recog- 
nise themselves. Neither do all call man Plau. Small as is the tribe, 
there are two or three different dialects among the people, and we 
have Pie-zau, and Pie-do for man, as well as Plau. 

Tau-bya, " Wild Bees" is a name the Burmese give them in some 
settlements. 

Bgha-Pwo is a designation sometimes given them. 
Kai, G-aikho, or Prai-ka- young. 

The Kai, or Kay, or G-aikho have no distinctive name for them- 
selves, beyond Pra-ka-young, or Ka-young, their word for man. 

Ka appears occasionally as designating the people, but it signifies 
land in their dialect, and properly denotes the country. 



6 Physical Character of the Karens. [No. 1, 

Kai, or Kay is the name given them by the Bghais, but they never 
use it alone. They make three divisions of the tribe. 

Kai-kheu " Upper-Kai," often applied to the whole tribe. 

Kai-la " Lower-Kai." 

Kai-pie-ya " Kai's people." 

Gai-kho is the name which the Burmese give them in imitation of 
the Bghai Kai-kho. 

Pa-htoung is the name the Red Karens give them. 

Hashwie is a small tribe related to the Kay, and thus denominated 
by the Bghais. 

Hashu is the name they give themselves. 
Toungthu, or Lau. 

The Toungthus are related to the Pwos by their language. 

Toung-thu is the name given them by the Burmese. 

Pa-au is the name by which they designate themselves. 

There is nothing to associate this tribe with the Karens but their 
language, excepting that the people have the appearance of being a 
Shan tribe. 

Shan Karens. 

The generic name that the Shans give the Karens in their own 
country is Yang, which is softened in Burmese into Yen, or Yein. 
Hence we have of the following Karen tribes is the Shan country of 
which we know little more than the names. 

Yang-lang, "Black Karens." 

Ying-ban. 

Yen-seik. 

Yein. 

Sok, or Tsok is the name the Shans give all the Karens that reside 
in the Burmese territories, without distinction of tribe. 
Physical Characteristics. 

Though the preceding tribes are one in language, they are scarcely 
one in anything else. They differ materially in their physical cha- 
racteristics. 

The Pwos and Toungthus, that usually inhabit the lowlands, resem- 
ble the Burmese, who inhabit similar localities, in their physical 
traits more than they resemble the Karens that dwell on the moun- 
tains. They are a short muscular people with large limbs, larger than 



1866.] Physical Character of the Karens. 7 

the Burmese ; while the mountaineers are usually of little muscle and 
small limbs. It is a popular idea that mountaineers are stronger, and 
hardier than lowlanders, but, however, it may be in other lands, it is 
certain that in Burmah the mountain tribes are weaker people than 
those who live on the plains. The cause, however, may possibly be 
other than the locality. 

In stature, all the Karens, excepting perhaps the northern tribes, are 
shorter on an average than Europeans. In a promiscuous assembly of 
one hundred men, embracing several tribes, two were five feet seven 
inches high, eight were five feet six and a half inches, and all the rest 
were shorter. An intelligent man that measured five feet fi ve inches 
and a half was confident that he was taller than the average of 
Karens. I should fix the average at from jive feet four and a half 
to five feet five. The shortest man I have measured, is a Bgbai chief, 
who was only four feet eight inches high ; and the tallest Karen I have 
seen, was not quite six feet. 

A company of one hundred Karen women had only two that were 
five feet one inch high, eight were about four feet ten ; and the rest 
shorter. The average cannot be more than four feet nine. The short- 
est woman I have noted, was four feet five. 

In different villages, the average would vary considerably from the 
above. A village of Mopghas, on the hills, that can be seen with a glass 
from the city of Toungoo, is remarkable for its short men. especially 
the younger ones. I doubt there being one over five feet high. On 
the contrary, the northern Bghais and Graikhos are comparatively tall, 
perhaps as tall, usually, as Europeans ; but they are a small minority ; 
and I attribute their superiority, in part, to the higher and cooler 
region that they inhabit. 

Though small in stature, the Karens appear to be tolerably well 
proportioned. No prevailing disproportion between different parts of 
the body has been noted. 

In those parts of the body which are not exposed, the northern 
Karens, at least, are as fair as the Chinese. The young people, both 
male and female, among the Grai-khos and northern Bghais, often 
show red and white in strong contrast on their countenances ; alto- 
gether unlike the uniform clay colour of their more southern relatives. 
I have met with individuals, who, if seen alone, would be pronounced 



8 Physical Character of the Karens. [No. 1, 

part European. Indeed, if not exposed to the sun, some of thern 
would be as fair, I think, as many of the inhabitants of Northern Eu- 
rope. 

The yellow tinge of the Chinese is very distinctly seen on many of 
the Karens, particularly the females ; and yellow, as well as white, is 
considered handsome, by Karen connoisseurs of beauty. 

The hair is straight and coarse, usually jet black ; but a few have 
brownish hair. 

The eyes are commonly black, but as we proceed north, many hazel 
eyes are met. 

The head is pyramidal, the breadth of the face across the cheek 
bones wider than across the temples, and the bridge of the nose rises 
only slightly above the face. Occasionally a decided Roman nose is' 
seen, but there is still a depression between the eyes not possessed by 
the Romans. The face is lozenge-shaped, and the whole countenance, 
in typical specimens, is Mongolian. There is a great diversity in indi- 
viduals, and these traits are less developed in the more civilized Sgaus 
and Pwos than in the wilder Pakus and Bghais. 

It is not easy to describe the characteristic countenances of the 
different tribes, yet there are characteristic differences, which the ex- 
perienced eye detects. There is considerable too in locality, which 
affects the countenance, apart from the difference of race. Thus the 
Sgaus of Tavoy and Mergui can usually be distinguished from the 
Sgaus or Pakus of Toungoo. Education also affects the countenance. 
The Karens that have been educated in our Mission schools look like 
quite a different tribe from their wild countrymen on the hills. 

The Karens rarely marry with other races ; but among those who are 
settled near the Burmese, a Burman is sometimes found with a Karen 
wife, and in every instance that has come under my personal observa- 
tion, the children have had a strong Burmese cast of countenance # 
There in a village near Toungoo where there are several of these mix- 
ed families ; Europeans do not distinguish them from Burmans. Still, 
persons acquainted with the Karens, readily recognise them as a mixed 
race. There is a village, however, on the mountains called " Village 
of Talaingings," that tradition says was settled by a company of 
Taking men who fled into the jungles during some of the wars in 
Pegu two or three centuries ago ; but there is very little in the conn- 



1866.] Social Customs of the Karens. 9 

tenances of their descendants to distinguish them from other Karens. 
Their faces are a little longer, their cheek bones not quite so widely 
expanded, and their faces have a little less of the lozenge shape. 

Births. 
When a child is born, in some clans the mother, in others the mid- 
wife, cuts the umbilical cord, and puts the placenta into a joint of a 
large bamboo, and wraps it in a rag. The father then takes it and 
hangs it up on a tree. An abortion is treated in a like manner, but 
the tree selected is a species of Ficus, and the abortion is supposed to 
become one of the Cicadae that are so often heard singing at evening. 

On returning to the house, if the child be a girl, the father goes 
through the pantomime of performing a woman's labours, beating 
paddy in a mortar, and the like. If a boy, he spears a hog, and, seizing 
the first man he meets, wrestles with him, to indicate what his son 
will do when he comes to manhood. 

The knife with which the navel string is cut, is carefully preserved 
for the child. The life of the child is supposed to be in some way 
connected with it, for, if lost or destroyed, it is said the child will not 
be long lived. 

About the third day, when the navel string sloughs and comes 
away, the father takes his net, and, with a few friends, goes out fish- 
ing and hunting. The success of the party is deemed prophetic of the 
character of the child. If much fish or game is obtained, he will be 
prosperous ; if little, he will be unfortunate. 

On the return of the party, a feast is made, the friends are invited, 
and the child is purified and named. Children are supposed to come 
into the world defiled, and unless that defilement is removed, they will 
be unfortunate, and unsuccessful in their undertakings. 

An Elder takes a thin splint of bamboo, and, tying a noose at one 
end, he fans it down the child's arm ; saying : 

" Fan away ill luck, fan away ill success ; 
Fan away inability, fan away unskilfulness : 
Fan away slow growth, fan aw r ay difficulty of growth : 
Fan away stuntedness, fan away puniness : 
Fan away drowsiness, fan away stupidity : 
Fan away debasedness, fan away wretchedness : 
Fan away the whole completely." 

2 



10 Social Customs of the Karens. [No. 1 

The Elder now changes his motion and fans up the child's arm ; 
saying : 

" Fan on power, fan on influence : 

Fan on the paddy bin, fan on the paddy barn : 

Fan on followers, fan on dependants : 

Fan on good things, fan on appropriate things." 

He next takes a bit of thread that has been prepared for the pur- 
pose, and tying it round the child's wrist, says : "I name thee A. B. ;" 
using the name that the parents had previously determined upon. 

Sometimes a name is selected from among their ancestors, or other 
relatives ; but in such cases they are always careful to select one whose 
bearer was rich, or valiant, and prosperous ; ever avoiding the poor 
and unfortunate, as they suppose the name influences the character of 
the man. 

Often a name is selected indicative of the state of the parent's mind 
at the time the child is born. A man rejoices at the birth of a son, 
and he names it " Joy." A mother is suffering, and she calls her 
daughter, " grief." Another has a son born when he is hoping for de- 
liverance from Burmese oppression, and the advent of White Foreign- 
ers, so he names him " Hope." 

Frequently a child is named from some circumstance connected with 
its birth. One is called : " Father-retnrned," because the father re- 
turned from a journey just as the child was born ; and another is nam- 
ed " Harvest," because born at harvest time. For like reasons we 
have, "New-house," " Sun-rise," " Evening," "Moon-rising," "Full- 
moon," and "February." 

Sometimes the child is named from its appearance, and hence we 
meet with the names " White," " Black," and " Yellow." " White" 
is about as common a name in Karen, as Smith or Jones in English. 

The animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms all occasionally furnish 
names. There are "Tiger," "Yellow-tiger," li Fierce-tiger," " G-aur," 
and " Goat-antelope ; " " Hornbill," " Heron," " Prince-bird," and 
" Mango-fish ; " " Eugenia," " Job's-tears," " Cotton," " Gold," " Sil- 
ver," and " Tin ; " with many others of a like character. 

When the child grows up, and developes any particular trait of 
character, the friends give it another name, with " father" or "mother" 
attached to it. Thus, a boy is very quick to work, and he is named 



1866.] Social Customs of the Karens. 11 

" Father of swiftness." If he is a good shot with a bow and arrow, 
he is called " Father of shooting." When a girl is clever to contrive, 
she is named " Mother of contrivance." If she be ready to talk, 
she becomes " Mother of talk." 

Sometimes the name is given from the personal appearance. Thus, 
a very white girl is called " Mother of white cotton ; " and another, 
of an elegant form, is named " Mother of the pheasant." 

Occasionally, the name refers to locality. Thus, one living near the 
Sitang, is " Father of the Sitang ;" and another, on the borders of 
the Thoukyekhat, is " Father of the Thoukyekhat." 

Frequently a second name is given without " father" or " mother" 
being attached to it. Thus, a handsome young person is denominated 
"Yellow-rising sun ;" and one with remarkably long hair, " Horse-tail." 

When a man is married, and has a child born to him, his name is 
changed again to the father of that child. The mother's name is 
changed in like manner. Thus, I have a Bghai writer called Shie-mo, 
and his father is known as the " Father of Shie-mo ; and his mother, 
as the " Mother of Shie-mo." 

Where there are two persons of the same name, they are distinguish- 
ed by appending to their names the names of the villages where they 
reside ; analagous to the Norman de followed by the name of a place. 

The Red Karen ceremonies, at the birth of a child, differ consider- 
ably from those noted above. With them, after the child is three days 
old, the time at which the mother is deemed convalescent and able to 
walk out, a feast is made by the parents, and the house is open for all 
to come and eat and drink who choose. All who come are treated as 
brethren. After the feast, the mother takes the child in a wrapper, 
on her back, and goes down out of the house. She is then supposed, 
by a legal figment, to proceed to the paddy field, but in fact she goes 
out a few yards, digs the ground a little with a hoe, or spade, pulls up 
a few weeds, and returns to the house. These are symbolical acts, by 
which the mother pledges herself to labour for the support of the child. 
The mother next' carries her babe to the houses of her near relatives, 
where the people visited present the child, if a boy, with silver or iron ; 
if a girl, with beads, or a chicken, or a pig. 

After these preliminaries, the child is named ; often after some per- 
son that has been visited who made handsome presents ; and always 



12 Social Customs of the Karens. [No. 1 

after some relative, that the memory of their ancestors may be pre- 
served. 

Infanticide is rare. Occasionally, when the mother dies, the infant 
child is killed and buried with her ; and I have known a woman con- 
fess that she killed her little sister, soon after her birth, because it was 
ugly ; but such things are not common. Children are not exposed. 

No measures are taken to alter or modify the form of a child, or 
any of its limbs. It is carried about in a wrapper, naked, till it can 
walk, when it is sometimes clothed in a loose tunic ; but more often, 
it is allowed to run about naked. No modification of the limbs is 
practised. 

Among no people are children taught so little as among the Karens ; 
and nothing is taught them to modify the character. They grow up 
like weeds, and are remarkable for nothing so much as for their wilful- 
ness and disobedience. Yet the Sgaus have a very stringent injunction 
to obedience to parents. The Elders say : 

" children and grandchildren ! respect and reverence your mother 
and father ; for, when you were little, they did not suffer so much as a 
musquito to bite you. To sin against your parents, is a heinous crime. 

" If your father or mother instruct or beat you, fear. If you do 
not fear, the tigers will not fear you." 

They are also taught to obey kings ; another of the commands of 
the Elders being : " children and grandchildren ! obey the orders of 
kings, for kings in former times obeyed the commands of God. If 
we do not obey them, they will kill us." 

There is nothing remarkable in the sports of the child. 

The age of puberty may be set down at from twelve to fifteen years. 
The people not having had the means of keeping their ages, nothing 
precise can be affirmed that depends on a knowledge of the age. The 
Karens consider fifteen as the marriagable age. 

While writing, six Karens came in, and on inquiry, one says his 
mother had five children, two say their mothers had eight, two be- 
longed to families of twelve children, and one man of about fifty years 
of age is the last surviving child of thirteen by one mother. Women 
that live to forty-five years of age probably bear on an average from 
nine to ten children. The Karens consider ten as the proper com- 
plement. 



1866.] Social Customs of the Karens. 13 

A verse from an old song intended to teach the duty of children 
taking due care of their aged mothers, says : 

" A mother can bear ten children, 
A child cannot bear ten mothers : 
A mother bears ten children 
And her strength is exhausted." 

Twins are very uncommon ; much more so than among European 
nations ; and I never heard of more than two at a birth. 

A large family is deemed a great blessing. When seated around the 
fire at night, they sometimes sing : 

" People's Kyee-zees many, I covet not, 
People's money much, I covet not, 
I covet young paddy ten cubits high, 
Good children and good grandchildren." 

The proportion of sexes among adults is remarkably equal, for it is 
very rare to find either man or woman over twenty-five years of age 
that is not married or has been married. The proportion in infancy 
cannot be very diverse. 

Children are reared with difficulty. Large numbers die in infancy 
from want of care, and from ignorance of the proper way to manage 
the diseases of children. 

Nothing remarkable in their senses has been observed, excepting 
that their eyes are uncommonly good in seeing objects at a distance ; 
but which may be the result of habit. When I have shown them the 
villages on the distant hills through my glass, and asked if they did 
not see them plainly; the reply has often been : " Yes, but I can see 
them about as well without the glass." 

The women bear children to quite as late an age as Europeans. 
Women, that I should judge to be between forty and forty-five, may 
be often seen with children at the breast. 

Three years is the period for which a child is deemed entitled to 
his mother's milk ; but they are oftened suckled longer. It is not 
uncommon to see a woman suckling her babe at one breast, and its 
elder brother or sister at the other. 



14 Social Customs of the Karens. [No. 1, 

Betrothal. 
The Karens go on the principle that marriages are made in heaven. 
They believe that parties who many do so in accordance with an engage- 
ment into which their sentient spirits entered in the presence of Grod, 
before they were born. 

It is a very common practice among all the tribes, except the Red 
Karens, for parents to betroth their children while young, if not in in- 
fancy. They have an idea that children are benefitted by it. If a 
child is sickly, the parents say, " We had better seek a wife for this 
boy. A wife may invigorate him and make him stronger." 

Some one then who has a daughter is selected, and if the parents 
are agreed, and the fowl bones give a favorable response, a feast is 
made, and the children are betrothed. The feast is provided by the 
parents of the boy, and one of the Elders offers the prayer of betrothal, 
saying : " Lord of the land and water, Mokhie of the land and water ; 
these two are engaged to be united in marriage. May they have long 
life, may they produce seed, may their shoots sprout forth, may they 
grow old together ! 

After a boy and girl have been betrothed, should they, on coming to 
marriageable age, be unconquerably averse to the union, the parents 
say : " Ah ! their spirits did not consent, their guardian angels did not 
make the agreement." 
The young people sing : 

" Grod and the spirit ; 

Without their consent, 
No marriage is made. 
God and the spirit, 

And with their consent 
No marriage is staid." 
Should there be a mutual desire to sever the engagement, the pa- 
rents of the youth go to the friends of the girl ; and after the introduc- 
tory remark that the union does not appear to have been agreed to in 
heaven, they say : " They were not planted together, they were not 
sown together, and they do not love each other. Water spilt, leaves 
the vessel empty ; flour thrown out, leaves the basket empty, There 
must be the loss of half, and the paying of half." Then the parents 
of the girl pay half the expenses of the feast at the betrothal. 



1866.] Social Customs of the Karens. 15 

Engagement. 

When a young man wishes to take a girl for a wife, the first persons 
to be consulted are her parents. If they make no objections, he em- 
ploys a go-between to transact the business for him. 

The go-between takes a fowl and gives it to an Elder who consults 
its bones, and if the response is unfavorable, the match is broken off 
and no further proceedings taken. 

When the fowl's bones are read as approving the marriage, the 
go-between goes to the parents of the girl, when, in some sections, the 
following form of dialogue takes place : 

Go-between. — " Now I will creep up thy stairs, I will tread on the 
steps of thy ladder. Thou plantest up large house posts, thou flattenest 
out wide bamboo planks. Thou callest thyself the master of the 
house, a good man. When the sun rises, it shines upon thee ; when the 
moon rises, it shines upon thee. Thy head is as large as a still pot, thy 
tongue as long as the gigantic bean pod. How wilt thou reply ? The 
children lift their eyes on each other. They lift their hearts on 
each other's heart. Wilt thou approve? " 

Girl's Guardian. — " Man is the horse's tooth ; the elephant's tusk. 
Woman is a tree, a bamboo. We are the woman, the female. We 
cannot reach distant waters, nor arrive at far off lands. We dare not 
seize those who seize us, we dare not strike back again. The man can 
reach waters, and arrive at distant lands. Can he take upon himself 
the charge of a house and a field ? " 

Go-between. — " Fear not, be not anxious, for the house and the field. 
Mother dying, occupy mother's chamber ; father dying, occupy father's 
hall. By day, there is one sun ; by night, there is one torch. Fear 
not, be anxious for nothing." 

GirVs Guardian. — " If thy word is true to thyself ; if thy language is 
faithful to thyself ; if thy word is one, thy foot-print one — Let not the 
tree depart from its shadow, let not man leave his place— very good. 
Thou art a hunting dog, thou scentest the covert ; thou trackest the 
game. Art thou satisfied? " 

Go-between. — " I am a hunting dog, and in scenting the hiding 
place, and tracking the game, I have got to thee." 

GirVs Guardian. — " Thou art a hunting dog. What ornaments hast 
thou brought ? Let me take a look at them." 



16 Social Customs of the Karens. [No. 1, 

When the work of the go-between is done, the friends of the young 
man take a hog, an ox, or a buffalo, according to their circumstances, 
and, leading it to the dwelling of the parents of the girl, they kill it 
and examine its gall bladder. If the bladder is full, they say the 
omen is favourable to the union ; but if flaccid, containing little liquid, 
it is deemed unfavourable. Still, a feast is made, but it is eaten in 
sadness, and the people murmur, " If they are married, they will have 
no children ; they will be unsuccessful in their undertakings, and they 
will die young." Sometimes the marriage is broken off, and sometimes 
it proceeds. 

If the gall bladder be plump, there is great rejoicing, and all say, 
the couple will live to old age, and have a numerous posterity. Be- 
fore partaking of the feast, an Elder takes a bit of the liver and viscera 
of the animal together with boiled rice on a plate, and, pouring them 
out on to the earth, prays ; " Lord of the heavens and earth, Lord of 
the lofty mountains and high hills, we give thee food and drink. 
May these two persons prosper and be successful, may they have a 
posterity, may they live to old age, that they may bring up sons and 
daughters." After the prayer, the elders eat, and then all the people 
eat after them. After eating, they drink spirits, beat kyee-zees, 
dance, and sing songs. 

After this engagement feast, sometimes the marriage takes place in 
a few days, # but frequently, for various reasons, it is delayed for a con- 
siderable period, sometimes for years ; and when the delay is protract- 
ed, it is not uncommon for the engagement to be broken off. 

Should the girl refuse to fulfil her contract, she must pay all the 
expenses of the engagement feast with interest. " If a hog was killed, 
she must repay a buffalo. If a horse was offered, she must repay an 
elephant ; and there is the shame besides." 

These exaggerated demands are never exacted to the letter. In 
general terms it is said : " If a man breaks his engagement, he loses 
his outlay ; if a girl breaks her engagement, she must pay a fine." 

If a young man wishes to break the engagement, he publicly de- 
clares that he will sacrifice all the affair has cost him, and ask no 
return : " Let the fowl be," he says, " as if the hawk had taken it. 
Let the food I furnished the parents be as if the tiger or leopard had 
devoured it. Let the presents I made her relatives be as if sunk in 



1866.] Social Customs &c. of the Karens. 17 

the water, or destroyed by fire." After this public declaration, the 
girl is considered at liberty to receive proposals from others ; which, 
without it, she is not. 

Marriage. 

If there are no obstacles to an immediate union, after an interval of 
two or three days, the relatives of the bride conduct her to the house 
of the bridegroom's parents, with a procession of her friends blowing 
trumpets. When the bride ascends the ladder into the house, water 
is poured on her abundantly from the verandah, till her clothes are 
wet through. She then eats with the bridegroom's relatives, and, at- 
tended by her female friends, she goes into the chamber. The young 
man's friends make presents to all the party, giving the most valuable 
to the relatives of the bride. 

When the time for the company to separate approaches, two of the 
Elders take a cup of spirits, which is called " the covenant drink," 
and one speaks for the bride, and the other for the bridegroom. 

One says ; " Now the woman is thy wife, thy daughter-in-law, 
thine own daughter, thy own wife who will live with thee. Should 
she be drowned, should she die by a fall, should she be bitten by 
a poisonous snake, we can Bay nothing. But should she be killed 
in a foray, should she be carried into captivity, should she be put 
in bonds, thou must purchase her freedom, or obtain the price of her 
blood." 

The other Elder then says : " What thou say est is true. She is not 
the child of another, she is my child, my wife, my daughter-in-law. 
Should she die by accident, I can do nothing. I will lay her out, put 
food in her mouth, drink by her side, make a funeral feast, and bury 
her. But should she be carried into slavery in a foray, I will carry 
a kyee-zee for her redemption, and thou must demand a fine. I will 
carry spirits to drink, thou must spread out food to eat. We together 
will purchase the woman. But if we cannot obtain her if she has 
been killed or is lost, we will demand her price. If I ask her price in 
kyee-zees, thou must demand it in slaves. We together will make it 
a reason for making reprisals ; and if I am the father of the foray, thou 
shalt be the mother of it. If I am the head of the foray, thou shalt 
call the army ; and if I call the army, thou shalt be the head of the 

3 



18 Social Customs &c. of the Karen*. [No. 1, 

foray ; and we will work together. If I go first, thou shalt come last ; 
and if I come last, thou shalt go first." 

Each one then gives to the other to drink, and each says to the 
other : " Be faithful to thy covenant." 

This is the proper marriage ceremony, and the parties are now 
married. 

Now, the people say, they are man and wife and may live where they 
choose, with the parents of the man, or with the parents of the 
woman, or may live independent of both. " They may have food or 
no food ; clothes or no clothes ; may live in peace, or fight and quarrel. 
No one will interfere. It is nobody's business but their own. No 
one has any right to control them." As a matter of fact, however, 
the young man usually goes to live with the parents of his wife, and 
remains with them for two or three years. 

Marriage ceremonies among the Ked Karens differ materially from 
those described above. They never betroth their children in infancy, 
but leave the young people to make their own engagements. 

When the parties have agreed to marry, the man kills one or two 
hogs or fowls in his own house, and makes a feast. To this the 
friends of the bride, male and female, conduct her ; and she eats and 
drinks, and spends the night in the house with her companions. 

In the midst of the feasting, and in the presence of the whole com- 
pany, the bridegroom offers a cup of spirits to his bride, who drinks it 
up ; and then he asks her : " Is it agreeable ? " To which she replies : 
" Very agreeable." 

The next day the bride returns home and makes a similar feast, to 
which the bridegroom and his friends go. It is now her turn to 
offer the cup to him, and when he replies to her question : " Is it 
agreeable?" that it is "very agreeable," the two are regarded as 
married. 

Often, however, the reply is playfully given : " Not agreeable," and 
then the feasts have to be repeated till the favourable response is ob- 
tained. 

Marriages, according to the Bghais, ought to be always contracted 
among relatives. First cousins marry, but that relation is considered 
undesirably near. Second cousins are deemed most suitable for 
marriage. Third cousins may marry without impropriety, though that 



1866.] Social Customs dsc. of the Karens. 19 

relation is considered as undesirably remote. Beyond third cousins 
marriages are prohibited. 

Chastity. 

Among the Red Karens, chastity, both with married and unmarried' 
is reported as remarkably loose. The commerce of the sexes among 
young people is defended as nothing wrong, because " it is our custom.'' 
The Sau-bwakepho has a regular rule to give six rupees damages in 
cases of rape ; but these are the only cases of crim. con. that he enter- 
tains in his courts. 

Chastity is cultivated, however, by the other Karen tribes ; and one 
means by which it is preserved, is early marriages. The great majo- 
rity are married soon after the age of puberty. Still, while the young 
people are as chaste as most people in Christian nations, lapses among 
the married are not uncommon ; but illegitimate children are very 
rare. 

The Sgaus at least are not wanting in good precepts, notwithstand- 
ing, for a contrary course. The Elders say : 

" children and grandchildren ! do not commit adultery, or forni- 
cation, with the child or wife of another ; for the Righteous One looks 
down from above, and these things are exposed to him. Those that 
do thus, will go to hell. 

" If you meet the wife of another, avoid her, and pass on the lower 
side of the road." 

Though the Bghais do not appear to have precisely the same form 
of command, yet they regard adultery as particularly offensive to God, 
and as being the cause sometimes of bad crops. 

Human nature is the same everywhere, and the betrothal of child- 
ren in infancy often results in unhappy marriages, and unfaithfulness 
to the marriage tie. 

Sometimes the parties, on becoming of marriageable age, so dislike 
each other, that they rebel against the authority of the Elders, and 
form connections for themselves more congenial to their tastes. 

Polygamy. 

Polygamy is neither permitted nor practiced by any of the Karen 
tribes ; but Karens who live in the neighbourhood of the Burmese 



20 Social Customs &c. of the Karens. [No. 1, 

sometimes adopt the Burmese custom of taking an additional wife, as 
they do that of worshipping idols. The Sgau Elders charge their 
children : 

" children and grandchildren ! If you have one husband or wife, 
lust not after another, male or female ; for Grod at the beginning 
created only two, one male and one female." 

Divorce. 

Divorces are not unfrequent, arising often from marriages being 
made by the parents of the betrothed in infancy, and the children 
grow up without any love for each other. 

If a man leaves his wife, the rule is that the house and all the pro- 
perty belongs to her. He is allowed no claim on his money and 
valuables that may be in the wife's possessions, after he has left her. 
Nothing is his but what he takes with him. 

If a woman forsakes her husband, it is usual to allow a share of the 
property, but no more than the husband consents to allow. 

Widows. 

Widows retain their husbands' fireplace, and endeavour to support 
themselves. When young they usually marry again ; but if old and 
unable to support themselves, they look for help to their own rela- 
tions, and often suffer from neglect. The obligation to treat widows 
kindly is recognised in theory, but often neglected in practice. ' The 
following story from the Bghai gives a too true picture of this 
matter. 

" Formerly, there was a woman whose husband died, and left her to 
get a support as best she could. All her children were small. Their 
father had forsaken them, and the mother took care of them in any 
corner or interstice she could find. 

" She had no relations of her own in that country. She had none 
but her husband's relations, and her husband was dead, and his rela- 
tions would not help her. She could not therefore get curry to eat, 
and she fed her children on the sheaths of the blossoms of the wild 
plantain flowers : these she called to the children " brains," and they 
knew not, but that was the proper name. 

" When the neighbours heard the children say they lived on brains, 
they said ; ' The woman is a witch ! Morning after morning it is 



1866.] Social Customs dc. of the Karens. 21 

brains ; evening after evening it is brains. It must be she goes and 
gets human brains to eat. We cannot get so many brains : and they 
have no father. Where can so many brains come from?' 

" After awhile they concluded they would kill her for being a 
witch, and they made known their intentions to an uncle of hers. He 
said : ' Wait till I can go and see her.' When at leisure, he went to 
see the family. He killed a deer, took the head to the children, and 
showed the brains to the children, asking : ' Does your mother feed 
you with brains like these ? ' They all replied : ' No, uncle, mother 
feeds us with brains that are bright red.' There are no fibres in them 
like these.' 

" The uncle then repeated his enquiries successively with the heads 
of ahorse, an elephant, a bear, a goat-antelope, a bison, a barking deer, 
a porcupine, a bamboo-rat, a squirrel, a tupai, a rat, a bird, a fowl, a 
snake, a frog, a fish, and every kind of animal known in the country ; 
but the children said to all, ' Uncle, our mother feeds us with no such 
brains as these. ' 

" He thought to himself ; ' It is not this, and it is not that. Surely 
the woman is a witch, for there is no other kind of brains it can be, 
but human brains.' So he concluded it was best to kill her. 

u However he went out hunting one day more, and all day he met 
with nothing ; so on his return home he plucked two sheathes of wild 
plantain blossoms, and bringing them into the house, he laid them 
down by the wash stand. One of the children saw the bright red 
sheathes ; ' My uncle has brought me some brains, I will eat them all 
myself, I will not give a taste to any one else.' All the children 
rejoiced greatly, and said ' These are the brains on which mother fed 
us.' 

" When the uncle knew that his niece was not a witch, he 
almost fainted at the thought of having so nearly consented to her 
death." 

Food. 

A Karen is a most omnivorous animal. Always excepting the 
feline race, he eats every quadruped from a rat to an elephant ; and 
there is scarcely a reptile unacceptable to his palate, from a sand lizard 
to a crocodile, and from a toad to a serpent. Flying ants and crawl- 
ing grubs are in his bill of fare ; and there is no bird too tough, no fish 



22 Social Customs &c. of the Karens. [No. 1, 

too bony for his table. Dogs are not eaten by the Southern Karens, 
but they are as great delicacies in the Bghai country as they are in 
China. 

To this great mass of animated nature, the whole vegetable king- 
dom is made to serve as greens. Nearly every weed is a vegetable, 
and the young shoots of the largest trees serve as spinage. They are 
so careless about what they gather for greens, that one of our young 
teachers poisoned himself, not long ago, by the vegetable curry he 
made by the way, while travelling. 

Besides game, the Karens raise hog's and fowls for home consump- 
tion as well as for sale, and on festive occasions, those who are able, 
purchase and kill a buffalo or ox ; so they do not seem to lack for 
animal food. Still, they may be often seen sitting down to rice and 
vegetable curry, with perhaps a taste of dried fish, and they certainly 
do not eat as much animal food as Europeans. They live much like 
the wild beasts of the forest. When chance, or something very like 
it, sends them a whole beast, they eat meat to surfeit ; and then they 
live on vegetables and rice, till the wheel of fortune turns round 
again. 

The meat is often cut into small pieces and boiled in curry ; but it 
is also frequently roasted or grilled. Fish is often dried, as is also the 
flesh of game sometimes ; but dried so imperfectly, that it usually has 
a very bad odour. 

The Karens distil from rice or millet a kind of whiskey, of which 
men, women, and children often drink to intoxication. But, like their 
meat, this too they have not on hand constantly ; and they are sober 
a great part of the year, because they cannot get anything to drink to 
be intoxicated. 

In the matter of quantity, they take more food at a meal than 
Europeans ; and yet, if labouring hard, require to eat more frequently 
I have often walked with them, up hill and down ; and though I 
could walk all day, from sunrise to sunset, after an early breakfast 
with a couple of crackers, and water from the brook by the way ; the 
Karens were always knocked up by noon ; and had to stop and eat a 
hearty meal, before they were able to proceed. This is true of all the 
natives in the country ; but is not quite understood by some of our 
medical men. Natives are sometimes taken into the hospitals, and 



18GG.] Social Customs &c. of the Karens. 23 

actually starved to death by not having food enough allowed them to 
keep up their strength. 

Dress. 

The dress of Karen men, south of Toungoo, is a tunic, or frock, and 
a wrapper ; the latter serving for a sheet to sleep in at night. Each 
one, too, usually carries a bag slung over his shoulder. 

The tunics of different tribes and clans are distinguished by the 
peculiar embroidery of each.* The Sgau tunic has red horizontal 
parallel lines on a white ground. The Bghai tunic, on the contrary, 
has the red lines perpendicular. The Pgho tunic has a broad belt of 
embroidery at its base, and the Pahu tunic has a narrow band, and the 
figures varied for every village, originally distinct families, so the 
markings are equivalent to coats of aims. 

One clan of the Bghais wear tunics, but by far the larger portion of 
the tribe wear pants, and no tunic ; and all the tribes beyond them, as 
the Gaikho, Tarus, and Red Karens wear pants ; but each tribe or 
clan has some variation in the stripes of figures worked on them, so 
that, like those who wear tunics, they can be distinguished at a 
glance, f 

Excepting the Red Karens, all the women wear a short gown, petti- 
coat, and large turban, all variously ornamented. The Red Karen 
women have corresponding articles of dress, but each one is merely a 
rectangular piece of cloth. 

The dresses are made of cotton, which the women usually plant, 
gather, clean, spin into thread, and weave into cloth. The Northern 
Bghais and G-aikhos, who raise the silkworm, adorn their dresses with 
a profusion of silk embroidery. 

In some of their clans, the Elder who officiates as high priest in 
their offerings, or sacrifices, has a longer and more ornamented tunic 
presented to him than ordinary, but nothing in their traditions has 
been found to explain the reason. 

To describe the different modes of ornamenting their dresses, would 
require a long article by itself, and a series of drawings. 

* There is one exception. The Mopghas wear the same tunic as the Tunic- 
Bghais, but why, no reason is known. They speak widely different dialects. 

f There is one exception. The Northern Bghais, and the Gaikhos wear the 
same pants. 



24 Diseases of the Karens. [No. 1, 

Tattooing is a practice quite foreign to all the Karen tribes, except- 
ing the Red Karens, who are all tattooed across the back with a figure 
resembling the rays of the rising sun. They can give no account of 
the origin of the custom. Karens who are brought in contact with 
the Burmese and Talaings, often adopt their customs, so that Karens 
are often found, especially among the Pghos, tattooed and dressed like 
Burmans. 

No characteristic mode of amusement has been observed. The 
Karens dance, wrestle, and show their agility much like the other 
nations around them. 

Games of chance are not unknown to the people, but they are little 
addicted to them, and never bet on them, unless they have been cor- 
rupted by the Burmese or Shans. 

Every village has a good complement of old people in it, and I have 
met with two men, who considered themselves a hundred years of age. 
Every village has persons over sixty, seventy is not uncommon, eighty 
is rare, but ninety is met occasionally. 

No marked difference has been noticed between the sexes in respect 
to longevity. 

Sickness. 

Where diseases are not deemed contagious, ordinary attention is 
bestowed upon the sick by their friends and relatives ; but when conta- 
gious diseases appear, like the small-pox, the whole population seems 
struck by a panic, and they abandon their houses and scatter into the 
jungles, where they build booths, and remain till they consider the 
disease to have passed away. They deem the cholera as contagious 
as small -pox, and though husbands and wives, parents and children 
will unite and watch each other to the end *; yet all often run away, as 
soon as a person is dead, and leave him unburied. It is extremely 
difficult to get people buried in times of cholera. 

The Karens attribute diseases to the influence of unseen spirits, and 
hence, to cure them, they resort to making offerings to appease the 
spirits that are supposed to be offended. They have twenty or thirty 
distinct names for different offerings that are made for the sick. They 
do not, however, exclude the use of medicine altogether ; and the 
Karen Elders have a large Materia Medica, consisting of roots and 



1866.] Diseases of the Karens. 25 

herbs, leaves and bark, to fall back upon when the offerings do not 
prove efficacious. 

From satisfactory statistics the annual death rate of the Mountain 
Karens has been ascertained as a little over two and a half per cent., 
or about the same as in London. The same years that these statistics 
were collected, the death rate among the acclimatized European 
soldiers in Toungoo, was only one per cent. The difference should be 
attributed, it is believed, to difference in constitution, difference in 
habits, and difference in treatment of the sick ; and not to locality. 
The Karen Mountains appear as healthy as the Scotch Mountains, or 
the Mountains of Pennsylvania. That something does affect the death 
rate besides the locality, is manifest from the deaths in the Toungoo 
jail. The very years that one man only in a hundred was dying in 
Cantonments, from eight to seventeen in a hundred were dying in the 
jail. 

Karens lack vigour of constitution, and therefore present a weak 
resisting power to disease. They are subject to intermittent fevers 
throughout life. I have prescribed to shivering infants at the breast 
and to shaking old men of threescore and ten. An European does not 
escape them, but he has a strong constitution, which struggles hard, 
and if it comes off victor, it is a victor for life. For the first four 
years of my jungle travels, I had fever every year, but for thirty 
years since, with one slight exception, I have been entirely exempt. 
Bites from land leeches often result in bad sores on Karens ; while 
an European will sit down and pick off a dozen from his legs after 
a walk, without the slightest subsequent inconvenience. In some 
localities, there is a species of gad fly that bites severely, and its 
bite is often followed by an ulcer on a Karen ; while I have had 
the backs of both my hands dotted all over with blood spots from 
their bites, without suffering anything beyond the temporary incon- 
venience. 

The Karens are a dirty people. They never use soap, and their 
skins are enamelled with dirt. When water is thrown on to them, it 
rolls off their backs, like globules of quicksilver on a marble slab. 
To them, bathing has a cooling, but no cleansing effect. Dirt is 
death's half brother, and is the father of a host of skin diseases to 
which the Karens are subject. About half of them have the itch, and 

4 



26 Diseases of the Karens, [No. 1, 

many in the form of dreadful sores. Shingles, and fish-skin, and ring- 
worm are nearly as common as psora. 

Many diseases, common to all nations, are much more fatal to Karens 
than to Europeans. The measles are as fatal as the small-pox in 
Europe, and the hooping cough often makes sad havoc among children. 
I have known more than twenty die of this disease In a small village 
of some two hundred inhabitants. 

Consumption kills a few, dropsy more, dysentery many, and occa- 
sionally considerable numbers are reported to me as dying of fevers ; 
and yet I have never met with a single case of fever among the 
Karens, that did not yield to medicine. Enlarged spleen is very com- 
mon, and is sometimes fatal. Ulcers do not kill, but they are as com- 
mon as skin diseases, and are in great variety. 

There is a disease very prevalent among the Sgau tribes, in which 
large ulcers appear on thejimbs. I have had patients brought to the 
towns, where they have been sent to the hospitals ; and sometimes 
they have been slightly benefited ; but in no case has a cure been 
effected by European treatment ; and I have never found a Surgeon 
who understood the nature of the disease. One said : "It is not 
leprosy ;" but I think it is a kind of leprosy. Another remarked on the 
cases submitted to his treatment: "I cannot help thinking there is some- 
thing venereal in it." This the Karens uniformly deny, but I have 
certainly seen cases in which both legs were masses of what appeared 
to be incurable sores completely cured, by severe salivation administered 
by a Burmese doctor ; which favours the idea of the venereal character 
of the disease ; but I have seen others die under the same treatment. 
The disease is hereditary in most instances, but whenever an ulcer 
appears, the Karens consider it infectious, and will not have the 
patient in the same house with them. They insist on his living in a 
separate house, as much as they would a leper. The Burmese, how- 
ever, do not consider the disease infectious, in which they are partly 
correct. The Bghais say it is a foreign disease, and some call it " the 
Paku disease," and others the " Burmese disease ;" while the Burmese 
in some sections call it " the Martaban disease," and in others " the 
Toungoo disease." 

Goitre is common on the hills in special localities. It abounds in 
one village on the granite mountains, while villages three hours' walk 



18GG ] Diseases of the Karens. 27 

distant are nearly exempt, though located on the same hills, with the 
same geological formation. Three or four days.' journey beyond this, 
in an extensive region, where the rocks are exclusively secondary 
limestone, goitre is again found in excess, while other villages, on the 
same limestone range, are quite free from the disease. In neither of 
these districts has any metallic mineral been found. Still, there must 
be something' special in the localities where it abounds to produce it ; 
but what that is, remains to be discovered. All that can be said of it 
with certainty is, that it is a disease of the hills, for it is not found on 
the plains ; nor did I ever meet with it on the hills in the Tenasserim 
Provinces. The Karens attribute it to the soil, and say that the dis- 
ease is caught by eating beans, pumpkins, and other vegetables raised 
in the infected locality, and by drinking the water that runs through 
it. Their theory has probably some foundation in fact. 

Fowls and hogs that the Karens raise, are occasionally attacked by 
a violent disease by which they die off as if they had the cholera ; and 
buffaloes on the plains are subject to a like complaint. 

"Worms. 
Entozoa are very abundant. The round worm, ascaris lumbricoides, 
is often vomited up by Karens, both children and adults. The com- 
mon tape worm, taenia solum, is a common inhabitant of the bowels, as 
are also thread worms, ascaris vermicular is. 

Death. 

When an elder among the Bghais, with a large number of descend- 
ants, dies, the people build a place in the hall for the deposit of the 
corpse, and they hew a coffin out of the body of a tree, and hew a 
cover for it, like the Chinese coffins. 

The body lies in state three or four days, and during the time men 
blow pipes, and the young men and maidens march round the corpse 
to the music. At night, the piping is discontinued, and singing is 
substituted. 

When the piping and marching is not going forward, the exercises 
are diversified by weeping and mourning ; or by the men knocking 
pestles together, and others showing their dexterity by putting their 
hands or heads in between, and withdrawing them quickly before the 
missiles come together again, 



28 Burial riles among the Karens. [No. 1, 

Before the burial, an elder opens the hand of Che dead man and 
puts into a bangle or some other bit of metal, and then cuts off a few 
particles with a sword, saying : " May we live to be as old as thou 
art." Each one in the company goes through the same ceremonials, 
and the fragments gathered are looked upon as charms to prolong life. 

When about to bury the corpse, two candles made of bees-wax are 
lighted, and two swords are brought. A sword and a candle is taken 
by the eldest son, and a sword and a candle by the youngest ; and they 
march round the bier in opposite directions three times, each time 
they meet exchanging swords and candles. After completing the 
circuits, one candle is placed at the foot of the coffin, and the other at 
the head. 

A fowl or a hog is led three times round the building in which the 
body is placed, and on completing the first round, it is struck with a 
strip of bamboo once ; on completing the second round twice ; and at 
the third round it is killed. If a fowl, it is killed by twisting its 
head off. The meat is set before the body as food. 

Young people are buried in a similar manner, but with some 
abridgement of the forms. 

When the day of burial arrives, and the body is carried to the 
grave, four bamboo splints are taken, and one is thrown towards the 
west, saying : " That is the east." Another is thrown to the east, 
saying : " That is the west." A third is thrown upwards towards the 
top of the tree, saying : " That is the foot of the tree ; " and a fourth 
is thrown downwards, saying: "That is the top of the tree." The 
sources of the stream are then pointed to, saying: " That is the mouth 
of the stream ;" and the mouth of the stream is pointed to, saying : 
" That is the head of the stream." This is done, because in Hades 
everything is upside down in relation to the things of this world. 

The body is then buried, and the grave filled in without further 
ceremony, and when the top of the grave has been neatly smoothed 
off, a little fence of trellis work is built around it. Within this fence, 
boiled rice and other food is placed for the dead. 

On returning from the grave, each person provides himself with 
three little hooks made of branches of trees, and calling his spirit to 
follow him, at short intervals, as he returns, he makes a motion as if 
hooking it, and then thrusts the hook into the ground. This is done 



18G6.] Karen feasts for the Dead. ' 22 

to prevent the spirit of the living from staying behind with the spirit 
of the dead. 

After the funeral, the grave-digger washes his clothes, or the neg- 
lect to do so renders him unfortunate. Married children may dig the 
grave for a parent, but young ones are prohibited. They must hire 
some one to do the work, and give him five rupees. 
Feast for the Dead. 

Like the Chinese, the Bghais make annual feasts for the dead, for 
three years after a person's death. The feast is made at the new 
moon near the close of August, or the beginning of September ; and 
all the villagers that have lost relatives, partake in it. 

Before the new moon, they prepare food, plantains, sugar-cane, 
tobacco, betel nuts, betel loaves, and other articles of consumption. A 
bamboo is laid across one ang'le of the roof of the room, and on it are 
hung up new tunics, new turbans, new petticoats, beads and bangles ; 
and at the appropriate time, when the spirits of the dead are supposed 
to be present, having returned to visit them, they say : " You have 
come to me, you have returned to me. It has been raining hard, and 
you must be wet. Dress yourselves, clothe yourselves with these new 
garments and all the companions that are with you. Eat betel 
together with all that accompany you, all your friends and associates, 
and the long dead. Call them all to eat and drink." 

After dark, all the people eat bread made of boiled rice beaten in a 
mortar. The bread is spread down, and the people are invited : " All 
who are hungry, eat bread here." 

Next morning, the first day of the moon, which is deemed the 
proper feast day, the previous last day of the month being regarded as 
the day of preparation, all who have Kyee-zees hang them up, and 
beat them. Then they kill a hog, and make thirty bottles of bamboos. 
Into one bottle, they put honey, into another water, in a third whis- 
key, in a fourth salt, in a fifth oil, in a sixth chillies, and into the 
seventh tumeric. The other twenty-three are laid aside. Loopholes 
are made to each bottle through which a string dyed yellow is tied. 

After setting apart the seven bottles that have been filled, the re- 
maining twenty-three are filled with food indiscriminatively. Some 
with pork, some with boiled rice, some with bread, some with whis- 
key, and some with betel. When these are filled, j-ice bread is rolled 



30 Karen feasts for the Dead. [No. 1, 

up in leaves, and the rolls piled up together ; and then a large basket 
of open work is woven, into which all these bamboo bottles and the 
rolls of bread are put. 

When the rice and meat is cooked for the feast, after the above 
arrangements have been made, the food is placed on kyee-zees, or 
little bamboo stools, if they have no kyee-zees ; and they have to be 
very particular to spread out all the food at the same instant, lest 
some of the spirits of the dead, being delayed in eating, should be left 
behind by their companions. 

So soon as the food is arranged on the tables, the people beat the 
kyee-zees and begin to cry, which they say is calling the spirits to 
come to eat. Each one calls on the particular relative, for whom he 
has prepared the feast, as father, mother, sister or brother. If a 
mother, he says ; weeping : " prince-bird mother, it is the close of 
August, Oh ! It is the new moon in September, Oh ! You have 
come to visit me, Oh ! You have returned to see me, Oh ! I give 
you eatables, Oh ! I give you drinkables, Oh ! Eat with a glad 
heart, Oh ! Eat with a happy mind, Oh ! Don't be afraid, mother, 
Oh ! Do not be apprehensive, Oh ! " 

After the weeping exercises are over, the spirits are supposed to 
have finished their repast, and then the people sit down to eat what is 
left. 

More food is then prepared and put into the basket with the bam- 
boo bottles, that the spirits may have food to carry away with them ; 
and at cock-crowing next morning all the contents of the basket, 
including the bamboo bottles, are thrown out of the house on the 
ground ; when the same scene of crying and calling on the spirits of 
the dead is repeated, as detailed above. 

They do not weep long, because it is related that in ancient times 
a woman had a daughter, whom she loved much, and after her death 
she made this annual festival for her and wept long ; when a prophet 
reproved her, saying : " That is enough. Your daughter says : ' My 
companions have left me. They have all gone on before.' " Then 
the mother said : " Seize her for me," and the prophet attempted to 
grasp her, but he got only a single hem from her garment. Hence 
the people never weep long, that the departed spirits of their friends 
may not be left behind by their companions. 



1866.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 31 

Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. VI. Descriptions of new 
land shells from the Nilgiri and Anamullay Hills, and other places 
in the Peninsula of India. — By W. T. Blanford, A. R. S. M., 
F. G S. 

[Received 3rd February, 1866.] 
Of the shells described in the following pages, the greater portion 
were collected by Captain Beddome, Deputy Conservator of Forests, 
in the Madras Presidency. This is the case with all the shells from 
the Anamullay hills, and also the remarkable species of Spiraculum 
from the neighbourhood of Vizagapatam. The Nilgiri Hill shells 
were found by myself in a recent visit, and II. intumescens was given 
to me some years since by Mr. Theobald as II. Bajadera, Pfr. 

1 have since collected the shell myself living at Mahableshwar. 

1. Spiraculum Beddomei, n. s. 

Shell very broadly umbilicated, depressed, sub-discoidal, smooth, (?) 
solid, white with transverse chesnut zigzag stripes. Spire flat or sub- 
convex, suture deep. Whorls 5, rounded, the last cylindrical, de- 
scending gradually towards the aperture, and furnished, 7-10 milleme- 
tres behind the peristome, with a short open sutural tube, projecting 
forwards and upwards, not touching the penultimate whorl. Aperture 
diagonal, circular, peristome double, both lips continuous, the inner 
slightly expanded, curved back into a shallow angular sinus at the 
suture, the outer expanded, and inverted upon the upper and dextral 
margins, rising near the suture into a compressed wing, which is at- 
tached throughout on the left side to the penultimate whorl. Opercu- 
lum horny, concave within, convex without, flattened near the centre, 

2 or 3 outer whorls furnished with a free spiral testaceous lamelliform 
border. 

Millem. Inches. 

Major diameter, 27 1.12 

Minor ditto, 23 .92 

Height, 10 .4 

Interior diameter of aperture, . . 8 .32 
Habitat. Kimery Hills near Waltair (Vizagapatam), northern divi- 
sion of the Madras Presidency. 



32 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

This species is of about the same size as Sp. hispidum, Pearson, 
which it closely resembles in many particulars, though differing in 
several essential characters. Of these perhaps the most remarkable is 
the forward direction of the sutural tube, which, in all the previously 
described species of Spiraculum (even if the Moulmein Opisthoporus 
Fordoni, Bens, be included), is retroverted. In several forms of Opis- 
thoporus, however, the spiracle projects forward, as in the present 
species. The wing of Sp. Beddomei is much more distinct, higher 
and more pterocycloid than that of Sp. hispidum; the inner peristome, 
(which is deficient in the last named species), is angularly sinuate 
beneath the wing, but there is no approach to the deep sub-circular 
opening of the Indian species of Pterocyclos. All the specimens pro- 
cured by Captain Beddome were dead and weathered, and had lost 
their epidermis, but the traces which remained, shewed no approach 
to the hispidity from which the Khasi hill shell derives its name. 
The operculum has even more resemblance to that of Pterocyclos 
tenuilabiatus, Metcalfe, than has that of Sp. hispidum. 

This is the first discovery in the peninsula of India of a species of 
Spiraculum, that genus having hitherto only been met with to the 
east of the Bay of Bengal, in Assam and Burmah, while the sub- 
generic form Opisthoporus occurs in the Malay countries and Borneo. 
In a country like India, which intervenes between two great zoologi- 
cal provinces, the Malayan, and the Africano-Asiatic, such exception- 
al occurrences are natural, and instances are known not merely of out - 
lying species, but of genera, such as Cataidus and Cyclotopsis, peculiar 
to the Indian peninsula or to Ceylon, though belonging to Malayan or 
African families. The presence of a Spiraculum on the eastern coast 
of India, is a parallel case to the existence of Otopoma Hinduorum, 
W. Blanf. in Hattiwar. It should also be noted that the discovery of 
specimens of the two Burmese helices, H. Castra, Bens, and H. levi- 
cula, Bens., on the hills of Orissa, shews that some few Burmese 
species even have extended their range down the western side of the 
Bay of Bengal. 

2. Nanina (Ariopiianta) intumescens, n. s. 

Shell sinistrorse, narrowly and sub-obtectly umbilicated, globose, 
thin, finely, subplicately, transversely striated with obsolete decussating 



18GG.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 33 

sculpture, dull fulvous brown, horny, rather lighter in colour just 
above the periphery and around the umbilicus. Spire convexly 
conoid, apex very obtuse, suture scarcely impressed. Whorls 4J, 
slightly convex ; the last bluntly carinate, descending very little near 
the aperture, tumid beneath, compressed around the umbilicus. Aper- 
ture large, diagonal, truncately sub-circular ; peristome white, sub- 
expanded, margins approaching each other, columellar margin nearly 
vertical, rather broadly reflexed, partly covering the umbilicus. 

Millem. Inches. 

Major diameter, 32 1.3 

Minor ditto, 26 1.05 

Axis, 22 0.9 

Habitat. Mahableshwar. Western Gbats of Hindustan. 

This fine species of Ariophanta has long been confounded with 
Nanina Bajadera, Pfr. which is, however, although a variable 
shell, easily distinguished. N. Bajadera is more globose and thicker, 
being at the same time more transparent, it has much stronger sculp- 
ture (and deeper sutures) and is always rounded at the periphery near 
the mouth, and frequently throughout, while in N. intumescens, the 
blunt angulation is persistent. N. Bajadera too has a fine vitreous 
lustre, while intumescens is dull, and the former shell is usually of a 
greenish olive colour, though varying in this character and sometimes 
resembling the latter. The animals also shew a difference in colour, 
that of N. intumescens is uniformly, so far as I have seen, dark cine- 
rous, while that of Bajadera is much lighter, but very variable. The 
latter shell is found mostly on shrubs, the former on the ground, and 
while intumescens has as yet only been found at Mahableshwur, 4,500 
feet above the sea, Bajadera (which is rare at Mahableshwur) abounds 
on the equally or nearly equally high hills of Singhur and Poorundhur, 
and along the summit of the Western Ghats at about 2,000 feet. It 
abounds at Khandalla at the top of the Bhore Ghat. 

I have already mentioned, in a previous paper, (An. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
for February, 1863) that an examination of the type specimens of 
N. Bajadera, Pfr. and N. ammonia, Valenciennes, has shewed these 
two supposed species to be identical. I long doubted the distinct- 
ness of the species now described from N. Bajadera, but although 

5 



34 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

I have specimens of the latter from many different places, they are all 
easily distinguished from N. intumescens. 

3. N. (Hemiplegia f) Sisparica, n. s. 

Shell openly perforated, subumbilicated, depressed, rather thin, 
striated, white with a yellowish brown epidermis, having a rather dull 
oily lustre. Spire convex, apex obtuse, suture flat, linear, submargi- 
nate. Whorls 4, very flatly convex above, apical whorl marked with 
very fine decussated plicate striation, the last not descending distinctly, 
but bluntly angulate above the periphery, convex beneath. Aperture 
oblique, semiovally lunate, white and pearly within, the breadth ex- 
ceeding the height, peristome thin, margins distant, united by a thin 
callus, columellar margin very oblique, and triangularly reflexed close 
to the perforation. 

Millem. Inches. 

Major diameter, -. 37 1.5 

Minor ditto, . 31 1.3 

Axis, 18 .75 

Habitat. Sispara ghat, Nilgiri hills, S. India, rare. 

I know of no near Indian ally of this species. N. Orobia, Benson, 
from Darjeeling, which approaches it in some respects, is more globose 
and more solid, and has impressed sutures. The Ceylonese N. Chenui, 
however, closely resembles the species above described in form, though 
it is easily distinguished by its peculiar impressed sculpture. I ob- 
tained but two specimens, one of which was living, near the top of 
Sispara ghat. It is remarkable that so fine a shell should have escap- 
ed detection before. 

The animal differs in no essential character from those of the sinis- 
trorse Arioplmnta section. It has a large mucus pore at the end of 
the foot without any lobe above, the mantle is of moderate size, the 
head and neck granulated, the caudal portion of the body marked by 
oblique parallel, impressed wrinkles, and broadly margined near the 
sole with a double, impressed line. 

4. N. (Macroclilamys ?) Hebescens, n. s. 
Shell scarcely perforate, inwardly depressed, yellowish or fulvons, 
thin, horny, dull, marked with very close microscopic impressed 



1865.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 35 

oblique lines above, more polished and radiately striated below. Spire 
low, apex rather acute, prominent, sub -acuminate, suture deep. 
Whorls 5J, rounded, the first narrow, the last much broader, very 
bluntly sub-angulate at the periphery, and tumid beneath. Mouth 
large, nearly vertical, lunately sub-ovate, breadth exceeding the 
height ; peristome thin, straight, margins sub-distant, united by a very 
thin callus, columellar margin nearly vertical above, very briefly and 
broadly reftexed, nearly covering the perforation. 

Millem. Inches. 

Major diameter, 15 0.6 

Minor, 12J 0.5 

Axis, 8J 0.33 

Habitat. Anamullay hills. S. India. 

This species resembles the Bengal N. subgesta, Bs., and the Cey- 
lonese N. carneola, Pl'r. (as figured by Reeve) in form, but has 
a duller lustre and deeper sutures, resembling in the latter character 
some of the Ceylon Nanince of the same section. The microscopic 
sculpture is peculiar, the impressed lines being very close, but some- 
what irregular and wavy. They cause the dull appearance of the 
surface. An ordinary lens is insufficient to shew them : under a 
microscope with a 1J in. objective they .are very distinct. 

5. N. (MacrochJamys ?) Lixa, n. s. 

Shell obtectly perforate, rather depressly turbinate, very thin, ful- 
vous, horny, dull, obliquely striated and marked with very fine and 
close impressed lines, also oblique, only visible under the microscope, 
polished beneath. Spire conical, apex acute, suture impressed. 
Whorls 5J, convex, gradually increasing, the last much broader, obso- 
letely sub-angulate at the periphery, tumid beneath. Aperture nearly 
vertical, roundly lunate, breadth very little exceeding the height. 
Peristome thin, straight, margins sub-distant, columella nearly vertical 
and very briefly reflexed above, almost concealing the perforation. 

Millem. Inches. 

Major diameter, 13J 0.54 

Minor ditto, 12 0.48 

Axis, 9} 0.38 

Habitat. Anamullay hills. E. side. 



36 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

This is a shell with a similar dull greasy lustre to the last and 
owing it to the same cause, viz, microscopic sculpture. It is a well 
marked species. Very possibly, however, intermediate varieties may 
be found connecting it with N. hebescens. 

6. N. (Macrochlamys) Inpausta, n. s. 

Shell openly perforated, convexly depressed, very thin, fulvous 
horny, obliquely finely striated, spire convex, apex distinct, suture 
scarcely impressed. Whorls 6, flattish above, gradually and regularly 
increasing, the last not descending, depressed, swollen beneath, obso- 
letely sub-angulate above the periphery. Aperture oblique, lunate, 
breadth exceeding the height ; peristome thin, margins distant, united 
by a very thin callus, columellar margin vertical above, briefly and 
triangularly reflexed. 

Millem. Inches. 

Major diameter, 23 0.92 

Minor ditto, 20 0.8 

Axis, ... 12J 0.5 

Habitat. Anamullay hills, S. India. 

Three specimens of this species occur amongst Captain Beddome's 
Anamullay collections. The .above dimensions are those of the largest 
and most perfect specimen. In both of the smaller specimens which 
measure respectively in their major and minor diameters and axis 19J, 
18, 10, and 17, 15, 9 millemetres, there is more or less descent of the 
last whorl at the aperture, but both specimens have a stunted appear- 
ance, and irregular descent of the last whorl is very common in abnor- 
mal individuals of all forms of Helix. 

This species has no very marked character. It is very near N. vi- 
trinoides, Desh., but may be recognised by its smaller and rounder 
mouth, narrower last whorl and more convex form. In shape it re- 
sembles H. monticola, Hutton. 

7. VlTRINA AURIFORMIS, n. 8. 

Shell very depressed, irregularly ovate, ear-shaped, very thin, striat- 
ed, polished, with a membranaceous epidermis, greenish or brownish 
yellow in colour, paler at the nucleus. Spire flat, suture slightly 
impressed. Whorls 1J. Aperture oval, occupying the whole under 



18GC] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 37 

part of the shell, and exposing the interior to the apex ; peristome 
membranaceous. 

Millem. Inches. 

Length, 13 0.52 

Breadth, 8 0.32 

Height, , 2| 0.1 

Habitat. Sispara ghat, Nilgiri hills, Southern India. 

This species is very near V. gigas, Bens, and still more closely allied 
to V. Peguensis, Theobald, being, however, a more depressed species 
than either, and more open. It is also less solid than the last named 
species. I have not met with the animal, which may possibly differ 
from those of other Vitrimu. 

If the animal resemble those of V. gigas and V. Peguensis, the oc- 
currence of this mollusk on the western flank of the Nilgiri Hills 
will be one of the most anomalous with which I am acquainted 
amongst the land-shells of India, since I know of no other instance of 
a Malayan type, unrepresented on the Himalayas, of which species 
occur on the hills of Southern India. A small auriform shell such as 
this may, however, have been easily overlooked, and the Himalayan 
Molluscan fauna is, probably, far from thoroughly known.* 

The animal of V. Pegucnsis has been partly described by Mr. Theo- 
bald who, however, has unfortunately not mentioned the form of the 
mantle, the presence or absence of lobes covering the shell, nor the 
existence of a caudal gland, unless by the expression "caudali papilla 
nulla" is intended to imply its absence ; more probably Mr. Theobald's 
meaning is that the overhanging lobe, so conspicuous in some forms of 
Nanina is absent, the gland existing, as in Ariojphanta &c. 

This Vitrina is not the only south Nilgiri species. A larger mem- 
branaceous form also occurs, which requires comparison with Mr. 
Benson's V. membranacea from Ceylon. 

8. Achatina Anamullica, n. s. 
Shell turrito-ovate, thin, finely striated, horny with high vitreous 
lustre. Spire turrited, sides convex, apex obtuse, suture impressed. 

* Mr. Theobald (J. A. S. B. XXXIII. p. 244,) includes V. gigas in his list of 
Himalayan shells, but the species is found on the Khasi hills, the fauna of which 
differs widely from that of the Himalayas. 



38 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

Whorls 8, scarcely convex, the last rounded beneath. Aperture 
oblique, peristome thin, columella moderately arcuate, obliquely trun- 
cated below. 

Millem. Inches. 

Length, 27 1.1 

Diameter, 12 0.48 

Aperture 10 millemetres high, 6J broad. Habitat. Anamullay Hills. 
Intermediate in its characters between A. Nilagarica, Bens., and 
the oblong ovate, Achatina of Ceylon. 

Captain Beddome's Anamullay collections comprise the following 
species in addition to those above described : — 
Nanina vitrinoides, Desh. var. 
N. Shiplayi, Pfr, 
N. Indica, Pfr. var. 
N. Travancorica ? Bens. 
N. Basilens, Bens. 
N. ampulla, Bens. 
N. auris ? Pfr. 

Bulimus Nilagaricus, Pfr var. 
B. physalis, Bens. 

B. sp. near B. trifasciatus, Rv., one imperfect specimen. 
Cyclophorus Jerdoni, Bens. 

C. deplanatus, Pfr. 

C. sp. near C. ravidus, Bens, (or possibly an immature A idopoma. ) 

C. sp. (apparently near C. Shiplayi, Pfr., but finely costulated, 
possibly the young of an Alycanis.) 

Pterocyclos nanus, Bens. 

Pt. rupestris, ? ! Bens. 

Paludomus, sp. 

Neritina Perrotettiana, Recleiz. 
To which there only remains to be added Cataulus recurvatus, Pfr., 
to complete the list of known shells from the Anamullays. I add a 
few remarks upon the species above quoted. 

But one specimen occurs of the shell which I am disposed to con- 
sider a variety of Nanina vitrinoides. It is small, measuring only 18J 
millemetres by 16 in its two diameters, and 8 J in height. It is de- 
pressed in form, and of a greenish tinge, but appears to differ in no 



1866.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 39 

essential particular from the Bengal variety. The species has not 
before, so far as I am aware, been found in Southern India. N. Ship- 
layi, Pfr. inhabits the eastern base of both the Anamullays and the 
Nilgiris ; on the latter hills I have found it at the foot of the Coonoor 
ghat. The animal is a Nanina, closely resembling N. indica, Pfr. and 
N. acuducta, Bens., having a large mucus pore at the caudal extremity 
of the foot without an overhanging lobe, or with but a very rudimen- 
tary one. The mantle lobes are small, and the animal in all respects 
closely resembles that of the sub-genus Ariophanta. A solitary speci- 
men of N. indica from the Anamullays is very solid and rather strong- 
ly marked, the sculpture being less regular than in the common 
Nilgiri form, and scarcely granulate, the last peculiarity being perhaps 
due to weathering, as the specimen is decorticate and somewhat 
bleached. It is a dwarf form, less depressed than the type, and mea- 
sures 17 and 15 millem. in its two diameters, and 10 in height. The 
shells found on the Nilgiris vary considerably. 

N. Basilens, Bens. (H. Titanica, Pfr.^), I learn from Captain Bed- 
dome, is far from scarce in the teak forests of the Anamullays, a tract 
2,000 to 3,000 ft. above the sea, where N. ampulla, Bens, also occurs. 
The range of the latter shell extends a considerable distance to the 
north in the Wynand district, where it was found by Dr. Jerdon, if 
not to the base of the Coorg hills, while N. Basilens does not appear 
to be found north of the remarkable gap in the Western Ghats at 
Paulghat cherry, which, traversing the very highest portion of the 
whole chain, divides the Nilgiris from the Anamullies, and through 
which the railway from Madras to Beypoor passes. Both N. ampulla 
and N. Basilens have only been found west of the Hills. 

I have not had an opportunity of comparing the shell referred 
doubtfully to Mr. Benson's recently published N. Travancorica with 
the full description, and the identification is therefore unsatisfactory. 
The shell referred to N. auris, Pfr. is identical with a species found at 
Neddiwuttom on the Nilgiris, and corresponding closely with Reeve's 
figure of that N. auris in Conchologica Iconica. 

The little shell which I have called Bulimus Nilagaricus, I was at 
first disposed to consider a distinct species. It is only 14 millem. in 
length, and base by 6 in diameter. But some specimens from the 
Nilgiris are no larger, and there are graduations in size from these to 



40 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No 1. 

the typical shells. The solitary specimen of B. pliy sails has only 
traces of spiral sculpture, but it appears to agree in every other respect 
with Mr. Benson's description. 

A dwarf form of GyclopJwrus Jerdoni, only 29 millem. in diameter 
and 19 high, and 2 species of Pterocyclos, one of them unquestionably 
identical with Pt. nanus, Bens., are also comprised in Captain Bed- 
dome's collections. The second species of Pterocyclos of which a 
single weathered specimen was found, shews no essential distinction 
from the Bengal Pt. mpestvis, Bens., but it appears improbable that 
that form should really exist so far to the south. 

Cyclopliorus deplanatus, Pfr. some decorticated specimens of which 
were amongst the Anamullay shells, occurs abundantly on Sispara 
ghat, at the western extremity of the Nilgiri plateau. A small shell 
in Captain Beddome's collections, with more colouring than G. ravi- 
dusj Bens., and ornamented with zigzag transverse stripes, may possi- 
bly be a young specimen of that species, but its thin and continuous 
peristome recalls that of some forms of Aulojwma, and the possibility 
of its belonging to that genus is strengthened by the deficiency of the 
epidermis close to the peristome. As the Anamullays have already 
furnished a Cataulus, the occurrence of a species of Aulopoma is by no 
means improbable. 

The Paludomus is perhaps a variety of the species common near 
Bombay. The little Neritina Perrotettiana was previously unknown 
except in the Pykara river on the Nilgiris. 

We have evidently, as yet, only an instalment of the molluscan 
fauna of the Anamullays. None of the shells above specified are from 
the higher ranges. So far as they have been collected, there is, as 
might have been anticipated, a general identity with Nilgiri shells, 
but at the same time a somewhat closer approximation to the Cinga- 
lese fauna. 

P. S. — The above paper was written six months ago, and would 
have been sent for publication in the Society's Journal at once, but 
that I hoped to be able to procure drawings of the shells for the pur- 
pose of illustrating it. In this, I have again been disappointed, and I 
am compelled to forward the descriptions of the shells by themselves. 

In the meantime, however, I have received from Captain Beddome 
several additional shells from the Anamullay hills collected by him 



1866.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 41 

during the past year. Besides several new species, the collection com- 
prises Helix Anax, Bens., and a fine large Nanina resembling N. Cy- 
sis, Bens, but dextrorse, and which is very possibly a large variety of 
Mr. Benson's II. Basilessa. It occurred at a height of 7,000 feet 
above the sea. I append descriptions of 3 of the new species sent. 



9. Aciiatina Beddomei, n. s. 

Shell turrito-ovate, solid, finely and closely sub-costulately striated, 
dark purplish brown, epidermis in parts having a tendency to assume 
a dirty cream colour, especially in dead specimens. Spire convex 
below, slighly acuminate above, apex obtuse, rather inclined to the 
right, suture impressed. Whorls 7J-8 convex, the last f of the entire 
length, rounded at the base. Aperture nearly vertical, sub-pyriiorm, 
milky within ; peristome thickened, white, outer margin rather 
straight, not arcuate, columella deeply curved, lined with callus, sub- 
obliquely and rather broadly truncated at the base. 

Millem. Inches. 

Length, 30 1.2 

Diameter, 11 J .45 

Aperture 10 millem. long, 6 broad. 

Habitat. Anamullay Hills, 5,000 to 7,000 feet (Beddome.) 

This is a more solid form than any of the Nilgiri species, and it 

differs from all of them, and also from the solid Ceylonese forms, in its 

sub-acuminate apex. It is a well marked species. 

10. Aciiatina textilis, n. s. 

Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, translucent, striated near the 
suture, smooth, polished, dark chesnut with close vertical and horizon- 
tal lines of a greyish yellow colour, varying in breadth and resembling 
the threads of an irregularly woven cloth. Spire elongated, conoidal 
with convex sides, apex obtuse, sutures impressed. Whorls 7, convex 
the last about | of the entire length, rounded beneath. Aperture ver- 
tical, truncately semioval, milky within ; peristome slightly thickened 
white, right margin slightly sinuate toward the base, columella deeply 
curved, obliquely truncated beneath, margins united by a thin callus. 

6 



42 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

Millem. Inches. 

Length, 26 1.05 

Diameter, 13 0.52 

Aperture 10J millem. long, 7 broad. 
Habitat. Anamullay Hills, 6,000 feet, (Becldome.) 
This is the only indigenous Indian Achatina with which I am ac- 
quainted, possessing coloured markings. In form it approaches some 
of the Ceylon Achatince, and also an undescribed Deccan species. 

11. BuLIMTJS TRTJTTA, U. S, 

Shell perforated, conically ovate, thin, finely striated, light yellowish, 
with two spiral rows of sub-distant chesnut spots, sub-quadrate in 
form, on all the whorls, and two spiral chesnut stripes, the lower 
sometimes very faint, upon the last whorl below the periphery. Spire 
conical, apex acute, sutures impressed. Whorls 5J, convex. Aper- 
ture nearly oval, slightly oblique. Peristome thin, margins united by 
a thin callus, columellar margin vertical, narrowly re flexed, the re flexed 
portion meeting the penultimate whorl at an angle. 

Millem. Inches. 

Length, 14 .55 

Diameter, 9 .35 

Aperture 7 millem. long, 4 J broad. 
Habitat. Anamullay Hills, (Beddome.) 

There is some doubt whether the shells above described be adult. 
They have a somewhat immature appearance, but all the specimens 
sent, four in number, are of precisely the same size, and the thin 
peristome is characteristic of the group of Bulimus Bengalensis, to 
which the present species belongs. From that species and its allies, it 
s easily distinguished by its short conical form. 



1866.] 



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46 On the Schlaginticeits' [No. 1, 

Observations on the Astronomical points determined by the brothers 

Schlagintweit in Central Asia.* — By Captain Golubief. 
From the Journal of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. Part 4th, 1861. 
[Received 11th January, 1866.] 
During the current year, the first volume of the Narrative of the 
Scientific Expedition of the brothers Schlagintweit to India and High- 
Asia, extending over a period of four years, from 1854 to 1858, has 
made its appearance. This remarkable production is all the more 
valuable, inasmuch as it will not only embrace the results of the ex- 
plorations of the brothers Schlagintweit, but likewise those of many 
learned travellers who were their predecessors in this field of inquiry. 
The first volume contains a collected series of astronomical and mag- 
netic determinations. The number of the points for which geographi- 
cal co-ordinates are given is 112, but the degree of their exactness 
differs considerably. Many of the points for which co-ordinates are 
given were obtained from Indian triangulations ; but many others were 
determined from march-routes alone. The determinations which are 
less exact, belong naturally to the northern portion of the journey, to 
Tibet and Turkestan. The corrections which it would be necessary 
to make in the existing maps, in consequence of the Schlagintweit s' 
determinations, would be very considerable, particularly in longitudes. 
Thus, for instance, Le, in Ladak, is alleged to lie 44' more to the West 
than was originally supposed, and altogether the whole of western 
Tibet would have to be removed about 20' to the westward. The 
changes in the latitudes are less extensive, the highest do not exceed 
10', as in the case of Balti. The Karakoram pass, the highest point 
attained by Europeans who had preceded the Schlagintweits, lies more 
northwards by 11', and the same distance farther to the West than 
marked on any previous map. 

* This paper was read at a general meeting of both sections of the Russian 
Geographical Society. The president of the section of physical geography, M. 
Semenof, who had only just returned from abroad, took occasion to express his 
own doubts as to the coiTectness of some of the determinations and conclusions 
of the brothers Schlagintweit. He communicated to the members present that 
these results, which bear evident traces of haste, are regarded with equal doubt 
by the learned in Germany. The extensive range of the labours, the multipli- 
city of the collections and observations which devolved on the celebrated tra- 
vellers, produced the confusion and irregularity apparent in their observations 
and collections. 






1866.J Astronomical points of Central Asia. 47 

The weight which is to be attached to these corrections, must de- 
pend on the degree of exactness which regulates the scientific labours 
of the brothers Schlagintweit ; but unfortunately, in the volume that 
has been issued, this consideration is not dwelt on, that is to say, the 
probability of errors in the determinations is nowhere alluded to. ^The 
determinations themselves are not particularised minutely enough, to 
enable us to estimate their value. 

In order to judge of the correctness of these labours, we bring for- 
ward some examples. Thus, in the determinations of Le in Ladak, 
the error which should be expected in the latitude would amount to 
30 //# . The longitude of Le was determined by the transfer of one 
chronometer which was rated at Simla on the 15th May, at Le on the 
17th September, at Srinagar the 24th October; the longitudes of 
Simla and Srinagar are known. The rate of the chronometer should 
have been deduced from the longest transfer occupying 162 days, from 
which, in the main result, a considerable error was to be expectedf 
amounting to no less than 7 7 .5. Further an error has crept into the 
calculations of the brothers Schlagintweit which, when corrected, will 
alter their result by 8' (instead of 77° 14' 6" it should be 77° 22' 5" 
east of Greenwich) . The correction of the chronometer was determined 
on the Karakoram pass on the 9th of August ; by its action from 
Simla (15th May) to Srinagar (24th October) the longitude of the 
pass was determined at 77° 30' 4". But corrections of the chrono- 
meter at Le were also obtained on the 11th July and 17th Septem- 
ber, according to which the determinations of the Karakoram pass is 
found to be 77° 39'' 5" or, otherwise, differing by 9'. 



* The latitude of Le was determined twice by polar heights. 

11th July, ...., 34° 7'5 

16th September, 34° 9'2 

Mean, 34° 8'3 

According to Cunningham, 34° 9'1 

Moorcroft, 34° 9'3 

f The chronometer was rated in the Observatory of Calcutta in March, 
1855 atad April, 1857 (pp. 98 and 102). From this it must appear, that the 
probable 24 hourly disturbance of the chronometer on the spot would not be 
less than its. In the longitude of Le, also, one can suspect an error of at 

least ~ S ' 3 '- — ± 29s. From Simla to Le is a journey of 125 days, from 

162 
Le to Srinagar 37 days ; whole duration of the journey 162 days. 



48 On the Sehlagintweits'' [No. 1, 

But the Sehlagintweits express their doubts as to the correctness of 
the determination of time at Le on the 11th July, and, therefore, do 
not take it into account. Nevertheless, an error of no less than 10' 
must, in all probability, be suspected in the longitude of the Karako- 
ram pass as well as in the longitude of Le. It remains, consequently, 
open to doubt, which longitude is to be accepted, that given by the 
Sehlagintweits, or that previously adopted by Humboldt, which 
Thompson, who visited this pass in 1848, found to be quite accurate. 
Up to this point, the corrections are less than J°, and applied to the 
map attached to the description of their journey, they excite curiosi- 
ty, but not surprise ; but the upper portion of the map representing 
Central Asia puzzles every one, by its marked difference to every 
thing that has hitherto been known of these countries. It is sufficient 
to say that the position of the three bases of the cartography of this 
part of Asia, namely the towns of Khotan, Yarkand and Kashgar, 
disagrees with those hitherto generally accepted, by nearly 180 versts, 
for all the three points nearly equally lie 10' in latitude, and 130' in 
longitude, more southward and westward, according to the dictum of 
the Sehlagintweits. 

At the same time, the determinations of little Bokhara, which 
belong to the Jesuits, cannot call forth strong doubts ; on the contrary, 
there is strong reason for believing, that if these determinations are 
not altogether correct, they are but very slightly incorrect. In Djun- 
garia, there are several points determined by the Jesuits, and some sub- 
sequently by me in 1859. From a comparison of these determina- 
tions, it becomes evident that the latitudes given by the Jesuits are 
correct to a minute. But the astronomical observations in Djungaria 
were, in all probability, not made by the Jesuits themselves, but by 
Chinese whom they had instructed. It must therefore be supposed, 
that the points in little Bokhara, where the Jesuit fathers worked 
themselves, are equally correct. As regards the longitudes, it is well 
known that the existing itineraries coincide perfectly well with the 
determinations of the Jesuits, though it must be acknowledged that 
the marche-routes having almost a meridional direction, cannot point 
out any appreciable error in the longitudes. Generally speaking, the 
better acquainted we become with Chinese Turkestan, the more con- 
vinced we are of the accuracy of the determinations of the Jesuits. 



1866.] Astronomical points of Central Asia. 49 

In support of this, we shall here bring forward the following example. 
There are two routes, besides others, across the Tian Shan leading to 
little Bokhara ; one from Kuldja to Aksu, the other from the south- 
ern shore of Lake Issyk-kul by way of the Fauku pass, to Ush. 
Until the astronomical labours of 1850, both these routes presented 
on the map considerable angles with the axis of the mountain range ; 
the first one of nearly 45°, and the- other that of 30°, but according 
to the astronomical results obtained in 1859, it was found that the 
inclination of routes from Kuldja to Aksu, to the axis of the range, 
did not exceed 30°, while the route to Ush intersects the ridge in a 
direct line, and runs north and south. It appears strange then after 
this, if, seeing the great inclination of the transverse routes to the axis 
of the mountains, that Issyk-kul, with the neighbouring countries on 
the northern side of the Tian Shan, had not been before removed to 
the west, as was done subsequently in consequence of the astronomical 
determinations ; or that all the series of points in Little Bokhara were 
not removed to the east, and in every case not to the west. Facts 
like these, speak in favour of the positions of Ush and Asku, and other 
towns of Little Bokhara determined by the Jesuits ; and it must be 
observed, that up to the present time no one has had the same means, 
as possessed by them, of determining the relative positions of these 
towns. The last point that the Schlagintweits determined instru- 
mentally, is Suget, a halting place for caravans, proceeding from 
Ladak to Yarkand. This route is marked on a very rare map, which 
is a direct copy of an original one compiled by the Jesuits and trans- 
lated by Klaproth ; a point on this road under the same latitude with 
Suget, as determined by the Schlagintweits, has nearly one and the same 
longitude. Beyond Suget, all the other points on the Kuen-luu and 
in Turkestan, are determined by the marc he-routes ; the most northern 
of these and nearest to Khotan, which the two brothers Herman and 
Robert succeeded in reaching, is the village of Bashia. This point is 
also given on the map of the Jesuits, its position being fixed by 
marche-routes, not by direct determination. The difference in the 
positions of Bashia, as given by the Jesuits and the brothers Schla- 
gintweit, amounts to 6' in latitude, and 47' in longitude. How is it 
then possible, after this, to accept the position of Khotan, and with it 
that of the other towns of Turkestan, as given by the Schlagintweits, 

7 



50 On the Schlagintweits* Astronomical points. [No. 1, 

differing as it does by 130' in longitude from the astronomical deter- 
minations of the Jesuits, when neither Herman nor Robert visited 
Khotan, while the papers of Adolph perished with him in Kashgar ? 

But how are we to regard the more recent labours in the country 
adjoining Little Bokhara, which cannot be reconciled to the points of 
the Schlagintweits ? 

Thus Sarry-Kul, the source of the Amu, which was determined by 
Wood, the Schlagintweits could not place on their map, according to 
the determination of Wood, but were obliged to remove it nearly 2° 
to the westward. 

Issyk-kul is also marked on the map 2° more to the west than it 
should be, according to the last Russian astronomical determinations 
in 1859. And if this Lake be marked in its true position on the 
map of the Schlagintweits, Sarry-kul would then fall back on Yarkand, 
and the western extremity of Issyk-kul will appear above Asku, 
which, of course, would be impossible. 

Petermann, in his notice of the labours and researches of the Schla- 
gintweits, is of opinion that a review of their determinations in Little 
Bokhara is premature, more especially as the marche-routes by which 
they were guided, are not yet published. But the astronomical re- 
sults of 1859, which so distinctly contradict the determinations of the 
Schlagintweits, belong to the Russian Geographical Society, and this 
is our excuse for expressing our doubts of the correctness of a certain 
portion of the results of the brothers Schlagintweit, before receiving 
the data on which they are based » 



1860] Tableau of High Asia. 51 



Comparative, hypso metrical and physical Tableau of High Asia, the 
Andes, and the Alps. — By Robert de Schlagintweit, Professor 
at the University of Giessen. 

Contents. — I. Geographical configurations. 1. Plateaux. 2. Passes 
3. Peaks. 

II. Hydrography. 1. Lakes. 2. Springs. 

III. Physical phenomena. 1. Snow-fall. 2. Snow-line. 

3. Glaciers. 

IV. The varieties of habitation. 1 Towns and villages. 

2. Pasture grounds. 

V. Extreme heights visited by man. 1. Mountain-ascents. 

2. Balloon-ascents. 3. Effect of height. 

VI. Limits of vegetation and animal life. 

Remarks. — 1. Drawings of many of the objects (plateaus, peaks, 
towns, &c.) mentioned in this Tableau, as well as panoramic pro- 
files and maps, are contained in the Atlas to the " Results of a 
scientific mission to India and High Asia," by Hermann, Adol- 
phe, and Robert de Schlagintweit. 

2. The heights, given in English feet, are absolute, referring 
to mean sea-level. 

Transcription. — Vowels and diphthongs sound as in Italian and Ger- 
man : & = u in " but ;" a = an in the French " gant ;" ii == ii 
in German.— Consonants as in English. The sign ' marks the 
syllable to be accentuated. 
The materials, upon which this comparative tableau is based, are : 

For High Asia, viz. — The Himalaya, Western Tibet, the Karakorum 
and Kunliin, our own travels and observations, combined with the 
valuable data of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India, and 
with those of our predecessors. 

For the Andes. — The celebrated " Voyages aux regions equinoctiales," 
by Alexander de Humboldt, which possess to this day the high- 
est value and importance ; in his recent publications,* the newest 
contributions of science have been added with a master's hand. 

* Kosmos. — Ansicliten der Natur, 3rd edition. — Kleinere Schriften, — I always 
quote the original, German edition. 



52 Tableau of High Asia. [No. 1, 

For the Alps. — The two volumes " Untersuchungen iiber die physi- 
ealische Geographie und die Geologie der Alpen," published by 
my brothers Adolp'he and Hermann. 

I. Geographical Configurations. 

1. Plateaux. 

Plateaus, in consequence of their being more or less intersected by 
deep and broad valleys, or from being covered with ridges, are so 
variable in their form, that the use of the name, in many instances, 
appears to be somewhat arbitrary. I prefer not to extend the meaning 
of the name too far, and in so doing diverge from the practice of 
earlier travellers, who commonly applied the term to every mountain- 
ous region of great general elevations — as the natives of the Himalaya 
have a tendency to do — irrespective of its form. 

In the Himalaya, which is composed in almost every direction of 
lofty and irregular ridges, and intersected by numerous valleys of 
inconsiderable width, no plateau of any extent has been discovered as 
yet, nor is it at all probable that one exists. 

Western Tibet was for a long time supposed to be little else than a 
country of plateaux — an erroneous impression emanating from the first 
observers, though Humboldt had early pointed out the error of this 
belief,* as well as later travellers (the Stracheys, Cunningham, and 
Thomson). Plateaux certainly do occur in Tibet ; they are, however, 
much less numerous and considerably smaller than I had been led to 
expect. In Balti, the plateau Deosai is 14,200 ft. high. 

Between the Karakorum and Kunliin, especially near the western 
crest of the former, several well-defined plateaux of extraordinary height 
occur. Some of the highest are called : Dapsang (17,500 ft.), Bullu 
(16,883 ft.), Aksae Chin (16,620 ft.), and Vohab (16,419 ft ) In 
summer, no snow covers these plateaux, but also no vegetation : in the 
far distance there are some isolated, lofty, snowy peaks, besides which 
the eye discerns nothing but barren rocks, and extensive sterile plains, 
all well watered by streams, to which the glaciers covering the flanks 
of the peaks afford an ample and lasting supply. If water was want- 
ing to these plateaux, they would be a complete desert, as uninhabita- 
ble to man as to any animal. 

* Ansichten der Natur. Vol. I., p. 104. 



1866.] Tableau of High Asia. 53 

In the Andes are to be found, if not the highest, at least the most 
extensive plateaux of our globe, which generally lie along the very 
ridge of the mountains, and on which large towns are situated, as 
Cerro de Pasco (14,098 ft.), Potosi (13,665 ft.), and Cuzco (11,380 
ft.). There is also a large plateau surrounding the elevated lake 
Titicaca (12,843 ft.). 

In the Alps, plateaux occur only at their base; the Swiss plateau 
having a mean height of 1,460 ft., the Suevo- Bavarian plateau of 
1,420 ft. 

2. Passes. 

The mean of a sufficient number of such passes, which lead over the 
principal crests, is particularly to be taken into consideration, it being 
approximative^ proportional, or, to express it more clearly, equal to 
the general mean height of these crests. The passes situate in the 
lateral ramifications of the principal crests — though they are numerous 
— cannot be included in these general means, being geographically 
of subordinate importance. 

The mean height of passes in the three principal mountain-chains 
of High Asia is as follows : 

A. For the Himalaya (mean of 19 passes,) 17,800 ft. 

From Sikkim to Kishtvar : Bhutan and Kashmir being excluded : 

the former for want of materials, and Kashmir on account of the 
Himalaya there losing the character of one well-defined and predomi- 
nant chain. 

B. For the Kardkorum (mean of 3 passes,) ...18,700 ft. 

From long. E. Gr. 76° to 79J°, the heights in the eastern continu- 
ation being quite unknown. 

C. For the Kiinliin (mean of 2 passes,) 17,000 ft. 

As the two passes are situated in parts not differing in any particu- 
lar from the general mean of this chain, they may be looked upon as 
representatives of the other. 

From these numbers it appears, that the Karakorum has by far the 
greatest mean height of passes ; but the one pass which we must still 
consider the highest, is situated in the Himalaya. This is the Ibi 
Gamin pass (20,459 ft.) leading from Garhval to Grnari Khorsum, 
which my brother Aclolphe and I myself crossed as the first, and as 
yet as the only Europeans, Aug. 22, 1855. The pass next in height 



54 Tableau of High Asia. [No. 1, 

is the Must&gh pass in the Karakorum chain (19,019 ft.), the third the 
Changchenmo, or Yengi Davan (about 18,800 ft.), in the same chain. 
None of these passes are generally used as commercial roads. The 
highest pass as yet known to be regularly crossed with horses and 
sheep, for the purposes of commerce, is the Parang pass (18,500 ft. ; 
Mr. Theobald, Jr. makes it 19,132 ft., which seems too high — ) ; and 
between this height and 18,000 ft. are situated several of the most 
important and frequented passes, as the Mana (18,406 ft.) the Kara- 
korum (18,345 ft.) and the Kiobrang (18,313 ft.). The lowest passes 
in the Himalaya chain are the Shinku La (16,684 ft.) and the Bara 
Lacha (16,186 ft.); the well known Niti pass reaches 16,814 ft. 

In the Andes, the general mean elevation of the passes is, according 
to Berghaus : 

For the Western Andes, 14,500 ft. 

For the Eastern Andes, 13,500 ft. 

The highest passes are : Alto de Toledo (15,590 ft.), Lagunillas 
(15,590 ft.}, and Assuay 15,526 ft.). The latter pass attains, accord- 
ing to Schmarda, only 14,517 ft. 

In the Alps, the mean of the passes is 7,550 ft. 

The highest pass, at least in former times not frequently used for 
commercial purposes, is the St. Theodule (11,001 ft.), upon which 
the brothers Platter have now erected a meteorological observatory. 

3. Peaks. 
In the beginning of this century, the Andes were supposed to con- 
tain the highest peaks on our globe, and Chimborazo to rise supreme 
above the rest. Though as early as 1816 this was proved by Captain 
Webb's measurements to be incorrect, yet some time elapsed, before 
the superiority of the Himalaya above the Andes was generally 
admitted. Now we know, from the valuable and accurate observations ' 
of the Gr. T. Survey of India, that G-aurisankar, or Mount Everest I 
(29,002 ft.) is the highest peak of the world. The memoir of Major 
J. T. Walker in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1862, 
No. I., pp. 32—48, gives a detailed enumeration of the peaks hitherto j 
measured in the Himalaya ; this memoir, as well as the publications 
of Captain Montgomerie and private communications kindly received 
from the Surveyor General's Office, enable me to state, that 216 peaks 
are now accurately measured in the chain of the Himalaya. Among 



I860.] Tableau of High Asia. 55 

these 216 peaks, 17 exceed the height of 25,000 ft., 40 the height of 
23,000 ft., and 120 the height of 20,000 ft. 

In the Karakorum, peaks have lately been discovered, which are 
scarcely inferior in height to the loftiest in the Himalaya, though 
only its western part has as yet been explored. "With regard to the 
heights of its eastern continuation, there is not enough known to 
allow even of an estimate being made. 

The highest peaks of the Karakorum are the Dapsang (Ko of the 
G. T. S. 28,278 ft.), the Diamar (26,629 ft.), and the Masheribrum 
(25,625 ft.) 

With reference to the Kunlun f we can only mention the peaks that 
we saw and measured between the Yurungkash pass and the western 
termination of this chain ; our idea about the general height is the 
more limited, as we have not even itinerary reports of former travel- 
lers to assist us. None of the peaks seen there by ourselves exceeds 
22,000 ft. 

In the Andes, important alterations have very recently been made 
with reference to the succession of the peaks, when arranged according 
to height, and, even now, the same amount of accuracy cannot be 
ascribed to the hypsometrical determination of its principal peaks as 
to the trigonometrical operations in the Himalaya. The highest peak 
in the Andes is the Aconcagua (23,004 ft.) in Chili (Pissis gives 
only 22,451 ft.) : and there are as many as five peaks higher than 
the Chimbarozo (21,422 ft.). In High Asia, forty-five peaks arc 
known, which exceed in height the dominating peak of the Andes, 
the Aconcagua. 

In the Alps, Mont Blanc (15,784 ft.) and Monte Rosa (15,223 ft.) 
are well known to be the highest peaks. Other high peaks are ; 
Taschhorn, or Lagerhorn (14,954 ft.), Weisshorn (14,813 ft.), Mont 
Cervin (14,787 ft.), and Dent Blanche (14,305 ft.). 

II. Hydrography. 

1. Lakes. 
In the Himalaya, there are but very few'lakes. That of Nainital 
(6,520 ft.), in Kamaon, the Vullar lake (5,126 ft.), and the Chinar 
lake near Srinagar in Kashmir, suffice to exhaust the category of those 
deserving mention. 



56 Tableau of High Asia. [No. 1, 

Glacier lakes. — Accumulations of water formed by one glacier ob- 
structing the outlet of a higher one— are of much more frequent occur- 
rence. At times, the wall of ice breaks away before the pressure of 
the swollen waters, when the lower lands become suddenly inundated, 
and the torrent rushes on with uninterrupted violence for miles, exer- 
cising a marked influence even down to the lower parts of the river. 
Similar inundations, some of them of a most destructive character, 
have several times occurred. Two of the most elevated glacier-lakes 
are the Destal (17,745 ft.), in Garhval, and the Nanitso, or Yunam 
(15,570 ft.) in Lahol. 

Western Tibet and Turkistdn possess many lakes, all of which are 
situated in great heights ; they are, however, gradually drying up, as 
becomes apparent by the unmistakeable marks of larger surfaces re- 
maining from former times. They contain a greater quantity of salt 
than lakes in general, and most of them to an amount which renders 
them more or less brackish. 

The following are the names and the heights of the principal : — 
Lakes of Western Tibet and Turkistdn, 



Aksae Chin, 16,620 


Mma Kar, ... 


... 15,100 


Tso Gyagar, ... ... 15,693 


Haule, ... ... 


... 14,600 


Tso Kar, or Khauri Talau, 15,684 


Tso Gam, 


... 14,580 


Mure Tso, ... ... 15,517 


Tso Bui, 


... 14,400 


Khik-Kiol, ... 15,460 


Tso Mitbal, ... 


... 14,167 


Mansaraur, or Tso Mapan, 15,250 


Upper Tsomognalari, 


... 14,050 


Bakus Tal, or Tso Lanag, 15,250 


Lower Tsomognalari, . . . 


... 14,010 


Tsomoriri,... *15,130 






In the Andes, the most rem 


arkable lake is that of 


Titicaca 



(12,843 ft.) 

The foot of the Alps is adorned with a great many lakes, all in low 
elevations of from 600 to 1,600 ft. 

2. Springs. 

Springs of an ordinary, mean temperature, commonly called cold 
springs, are of frequent occurrence in High Asia ; the finest and most 
copious springs are to be found in Kashmir, as the spring Vernag, 
Vetur Vullar, Kokar Nag, Achibal, A'nat Nag and others. The 
spring Sonda Breri, also in Kashmir, situate about five miles south- 
east of Shahabad, is the only intermittent spring as yet known in 
High Asia. 

* According to Mr. Theobald, Jr. (see Journ. As. Soc, Beng , 1862, No. V«> 
p. 513) only 14,272. 



1866.] Tableau of High Asia. 57 

In Western Tibet \ where rains in the higher parts are rare, and 
where the dryness in summer is so excessive that even the formation 
of dew is scarcely perceptible, cold springs are comparatively rare. 
In Turkistan, in Balti, and Hasora, we find a greater number of 
springs, a fact intimately connected with the general meteorological 
conditions of these provinces. 

With reference to the limit, at which springs are to be found still 
in High Asia, I give the following data, derived from our own obser- 
vations. The greatest height, at which we found a spring in the 
Himalaya, was 15,920 ft. ; this spring was situated on the slopes of 
the Kyungar pass. In Tibet, we discovered a real spring on the 
slopes of the Ibi Gamin peak still at a height of 17,650 ft. ; this 
spring is probably the highest spring hitherto found. 

As the highest spring in the Andes, Humboldt names the one 
called "Ladera de Cadlud," at a height of 15,526 ft. above the level 
of the sea ; in the Alps, Adolphe and Hermann have found the high- 
est cold spring at 10,440 ft. 

Hot springs occur in High Asia in a surprisingly great number,* 
from the sea-level up to heights of more than 16,000 ft. The highest 
hot springs of High Asia are at Murgai, (16,382 ft.), in Niibia, at 
Momai (about 16,000 ft.), in Sikkim, at Puga (15,264 ft.), in Ladak, 
near the lake Aiukkio (15,010 ft.), in Turkistan, and at Chagrar 
(about 15,000 ft.), in Pangkong. As a curious and remarkable fact I 
may add, that the highest hot spring in India, at Hazaribagh, in 
Bengal, is only 1,750 ft. above the level of the sea. 

The hottest spring of High Asia is at Manikarn (temp. 202° Faht.) 
in Kulu (this is the hottest spring as yet found all over Asia), at 
Jamnotri (temp. 193° Faht.) in Garhval, and at Chorkonda (temp. 
190° Faht.) in Balti. The hottest springs of the world (if we 
exclude those, which rise in the immediate neighbourhood of volca- 
noes) are to be found in the Andes. There " Aguas de Comangillas," 
near Chichemequillo and Quanaxuato, at a height of about 6,200 ft., 
in latitude north 21°, show a temperature of 205°.3 Faht. ;f and the 
springs " Las Trincheras" between Porto Cabello and Valencias, in 

* See the " Enumeration of the hot springs of India and High Asia, given 
by me in As. Soc. Journal, 1864, No, I., p. 49. 

t Humboldt's " Essai pratique sur la Nouvelle Espagne." 2nd Ed., Vol. III. 
(1827), p. 190. 

8 



58 Tableau of High Asia. [No. 1, 

Mexico, have increased, between the years 1806 and 1823, from 195° 
Faht. to 206°. 6 Faht.,* thus exceeding at present the temperature of 
the " Aguas de^Comangillas" by 1°.3 Faht. 

The hottest known spring of Europe, unconnected with present 
volcanoes, is that of Chaudes Aigues in Auvergne (temp. 176° 
Faht.).f 

III. Physical Phenomena. 
1. Snovj-fall. 

The lowest height at which snow has fallen in the Himalaya 
during the winter, is about 2,500 ft., but such cases are extremely 
rare, having occurred in Kamdon and Garhval only twice (in 1817 
and 1847), since the British took possession of the country. J Snow 
has fallen in the memory of man only once in Nahan§ (3,207 ft.), in 
the province of Simla. The snow, which falls once within several 
years in the Kangra valley, down to heights of 3,000 and 2,700 ft., 
disappears almost immediately. At Haribagh the snow melts away 
on the day it falls, or at least within thirty-six hours. During my 
travels in Kulu, I was informed by the natives, as well as by several 
gentlemen who knew this part of the country thoroughly, that the 
village of Mandi (2,480 ft.), is below the limit of snow-fall. 

At an elevation of 5,000 ft. scarcely one year passes by without 
snow-fall ; but, even at this height, the snow disappears after a few 
days, and sometimes even hours. " It snows, but one does not see 
it," the natives of Kathmandu (4,354 ft.) very significantly use to 
say, meaning, that the rare nightly snow-falls are melted away by the 
earliest rays of the sun. 6,000 ft. may be assigned as the limit in 
the Himalaya, where snow regularly falls in winter, with the proba- 
bility of remaining some time upon the ground. 

In Western Tibet and in the Karakorum, the general elevation of 
the country is so great, even in its lowest regions, that no part lies 
below the limit of hibernal snow-fall. But the quantity of snow 
actually falling is inconsiderable, and this circumstance it is, which 
forms one of the chief causes that the passes of the Karakorum, even 

* Humboldt's " Kosmos," Vol. IV., p. 246. 

f Newbold, in " Philos, Transactions," 1845, p. 127. 

X Colonel R. Strachey, in this Journal, Vol. XVIII., Part I., p 309. 

§ This Journal, Vol. III., p. 367. 



186C] Tableau of High Asia. 59 

the highest, remain open throughout the year. In some parts of 
Tibet the winter is the only season, when atmospheric precipitation 
at all takes place. 

In the Kunliln, even on its southern slopes, a greater amount of 
snow is precipitated than on the northern side of the Karakorum, 
whilst its Turkistani (northern) slopes differ still more from the 
Karakorum in this respect, they being visited by very heavy rains and 
great snow-falls. Even at Kashgar (about 3,500 ft ), in Turkistan, 
there are said to be several snowy days every winter. 

The data, which I was able to collect on snow-fall in the Andes, are 
so few and vague, that I could not draw any conclusion from them. 
Also for the Alps, I could not bring forward any new facts with 
reference to the snow-fall. 

2. Snow -line. 
The snow-line, or the average height where snow remains perpetu- 
ally throughout the year, lias offered unexpected difficulties in its de- 
termination for the Himalaya. When Webb and Moorcroft first 
pointed out the general heights reached by the snow-line, when they 
first discovered the remarkable fact, that, in spite of the influence 
arising from exposition, the snow-line of the Himalaya descends lower 
on its southern (Indian) than on its northern (Tibetan) slopes, the 
statements of these travellers, now proved to be correct in all material 
points, were discredited by men of science both in Europe and in 
India. Humboldt, however, was among the first who endeavoured 
to remove the distrust with which these discoveries were received ; 
he also gave an explanation* of the causes which were possibly suffi - 
cient to originate so remarkable a phenomenon as this of the unlooked- 
for differences existing between the snow-lines of the Tibetan and 
Indian slopes. He considers it " the results conjointly of the radiation 
of heat from the neighbouring elevated plains, the serenity of the sky, 
and the infrequent formation of snow in very cold and dry air." Of 
all these causes, however, the last is the most important. The direct 
insolation, being less interrupted on the Tibetan side, has also its 
share of influence ; but the effect is comparatively small. As the best 
corroboration of the quantity of snow-fall being the principal cause of 
the depression on the southern (Indian) slope of the Himalaya, may 
* " Asie Centrale," pp. 284, 327 ; " Kosmos ; " Vol. I. p. 358. 



60 Tableau of High Asia. [No. 1, 

"be adduced the fact, that we found the isothermal lines for the year 
and the summer, which coincided with the snow-line on the Indian 
side, decidedly warmer than those on a level with the Tibetan snow- 
line. The fact, moreover, of the Karakorum — though on an average 
three degrees farther north — having the snow-line so excessively high 
on both its slopes, offers another instance of the influence of limited 
precipitation. 

In the Kiinlun, the meteorological conditions also become apparent 
in the different limits of the snow-line on either side ; but here the 
effect is the reverse of that perceived in the Himalaya, the greater 
precipitation on the " northern" slopes (towards the plains of Turkis- 
tan) lowering the snow-line on that side to a considerable extent. 

Although, in the Himalaya at large, the snow-limit of the Tibetan 
side does not descend so low as that of the Indian, yet the influence 
of exposition at once becomes apparent in the ordinary sense, corre- 
sponding to these latitudes, if we examine the slopes of a crest or 
mountain, of which, by the nature of its position, both slopes belong 
either to the Indian side of the ridge in general, or to the Tibetan 
side. The many and vehement disputes upon the much-discussed 
subject of snow-limits have chiefly arisen from the entire neglect of 
this modification.* 

The values we obtain for the height of the snow-line on the three 
mountain chains of High Asia are : 

Feet. 

A. Himalaya. Southern (Indian slopes), ... 16,200 

Northern (Tibetan) slopes, ... ... 17,400 

B. Karakorum. Southern (Tibetan) slopes, 19,400 

Northern (along the Turkistani plateaux), 18,600 

C. Kunlun. Southern (facing mountainous ramifications), 15,800 

Northern (facing the Turkistani plain),f ... 15,100 

For the Andes , the snow-limits are, according to Humboldt and 
Pentland : 

* See Batten, in the " Calcutta Jour, of Nat. Hist.," Yol. IV. p. 537 ; Vol. V. 
p. 383. Capt. T. Hutton, " in the same Journ." Vol. IV. p. 275 ; Vol. V. 
p. 379 ; Vol. VI. p. 56 j and Capt. A. Jack, " in the same Journ." Vol. IV. 
p.' 455. 

f « Asie Centrale," 1847, VoL II. pp. 165 and 177. 



1866.] Tableau of Sigh Asia. 61 

Feet. 

Eastern Andes of Bolivia, ... 15,900 

Western Andes of Bolivia, ... ... 18,500 

Andes of Quito, ... * ... 15,700 

For the Alps, my brothers obtained : 

Southern slopes, ... ... ... 9,200 

Northern slopes,... ... 8,900 

Extremes (near the Mont Blanc and Monte 

Rosa group), ... ... ... 9,800 

3. Glaciers. 
The existence of the glaciers of High Asia was first made known 
for Western Tibet, by Vigne, who alludes to them repeatedly in his 
" Travels in Kashmir," London, 1842. Colonel Richard Strachey 
was the first* who (in 1847) proved their existence in the Himalaya. 
The recent date of this discovery will appear the more surprising, 
when the immense number of glaciers now positively ascertained to be 
in this region is taken into consideration. The great amount of ice 
to be met with, even in lower elevations of the Himalaya, could not 
of course escape the observation of previous travellers ; these masses, 
however, they used to designate as " hard, frozen snow-beds," and to 
consider them as local phenomena, analogous to remains of avalanches. 
On both sides of the Karakorum and the Kunliin, we also found 
glaciers, having forms identical with those of the Alps, and following 
the same laws of motion. Some of them are considerably larger than 
i the glaciers in Europe. The Aletsch glacier in the Alps extends a 
little over fifteen miles in length, whilst some of the glaciers, surveyed 
by Captain Montgomerie and his party in Balti (on the southern side 
of the Karakorum)" boast of no less than thirty-six miles in length, 
with a breadth of from one to two and a half miles. The Biafo 
glacier forms, with the glacier on the opposite slope towards Miggair, 
a continuous river of ice of sixty-four miles running in an almost 
straight line, and without any break in its continuity beyond those 
of the ordinary crevasses of glaciers. The Biafo glacier is supplied in 
a great measure from a vast dome of ice and snow, about one hundred 
and eighty square miles in area, in the whole of which only a few pro- 
jecting points of wall are visible. The Balsoro main glacier, thirty- 
* See this Journal, Yol. XVI., part II. p. 794 ; Vol. XVII. part II. p. 203. 



62 Tableau of High Asia. [No. 1, 

six miles in length, and with fourteen large tributary glaciers of from 
three to ten miles in length, would form a study in itself, and give 
employment for several summers, before it could be properly examin- 
ed."* 

In the Himalaya, the lowest glaciers go down to 11,000 ft. and even 
10,500 ft. ; the Pindari ending at 11,492 ft., the Timtimna at 11,430 
ft., the Tsoji at 10,967 ft., and the Chaia at 10,520 ft. 

In Western Tibet, they descend to about the same elevation ; thus, 
the Mustagh 11,576 ft., the Tapto 11,508 ft., the Tami Chuet to 
10,460 ft., the Bepho (Biafo of Capt. Montgomerie ?), near Askoli, 
even to 9,876 ft. The latter is worthy of notice as a remarkable case 
of low termination. 

In the Kunliln, the glaciers end probably at heights not much differ- 
ing from those in Western Tibet ; at least so we infer from the gene- 
ral appearance of the upper part of the glaciers we saw during our 
travels in these regions. The glaciers on both flanks of the Elchi 
pass presented, however, no instances of particularly deep descent. 

In the Andes, no glaciers are as yet known to exist,f and they do 
not occur in tropical America, from the equator to 19° latitude north. 

In the Alps, the lowest glacier is that of Lower Grindelwald, end- 
ing at 3,290 ft , but in general 5,000 ft. must be considered as a 
rather low end of a glacier. 

IV. The Varieties of Habitation. 
1. Towns and Villages. 
The Himalaya rises, in general, so abruptly above the plains of 
India, and the latter, particularly in the western regions, are in them- . 
selves of such an elevation, that even in the lower parts of the valleys 
there are but few, if any points of less height than 1,000 ft. above the 
level of the sea. Two causes more especially have tended to displace 
the order of population in these districts, the lower parts being almost 
deserted in favour of the lands lying immediately above. In the first 
instance, the prevailing steepness of the country hereabouts, which is 
still considerably increased by the erosion of the rivers, precludes the 
successful cultivation of the soil ; and, again, the fertile, well cultiva- 

* Montgomerie, in " Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1862, No. II. p. 210. 
f Humboldt, " Asie Centrale," Vol. II. p. 167. 






1 $M).~\ Tableau of High Asia. 63 

ted plains of India are converted, wherever they touch the southern 
foot of the Himalaya, into swampy and marshy lands, called the Tarai, 
which in some parts form but a narrow strip or belt, whilst in others, 
as in Nepal, they attain a breadth of thirty to forty miles. The Tarai 
abounds with large and lofty forest trees. Owing to the swampy and 
malarious character of the Tarai, which skirts the extremities of the 
valleys, the neighbourhood is rendered as uninhabitable to the tribes 
of the Central Himalaya as to the highly susceptible and less seasoned 
visitor from European climes. Consequently (from all these reasons 
stated), in the inferior stratum of heights, ranging between 2,000 and 
3,000 ft., the number of places inhabited by the natives is compara- 
tively insignificant ; while population reaches its maximum in the 
rich belt of life rising from 5,000 to 8,000 ft., the traces of man and 
his dwelling-place begin rapidly to disappear at 11,000 ft., and 
even before. 

The highest limits of habitation^ however, very often present them- 
selves under a form which almost excludes the possibility of strictly 
comparing them as dependent upon climate. It is a remarkable fact, 
that in some provinces of the Himalaya, especially in Nepal, Kamaon, 
and Garhval, many villages are deserted in winter, though as far as 
regards their elevation and the solid construction of the houses, they 
might very well be inhabited throughout the year. The natives, how- 
ever, prefer removing to villages less elevated, where they spend the 
colder months. In the Himalaya west of Garhval, such modifications 
do not occur ; at least we are not aware of the existence of villages in 
Simla, Kulu, Kishtvar &c, where the inhabitants follow regularly 
the nomadic example furnished in other parts of the hill country. 

The Alps of Europe also present instances of this kind in Findelen 
(7,192 ft.), Bresily (6,594 ft.), and many other summer villages of 
greater or less elevation on the French side of the Alps. 

Western Tibet is a country of such general elevation, that only in 
the province of Balti villages are to be found below a height of 6,000 
ft. Some of the chief towns are built at considerable elevations ; 
Leh, the capital of Ladak, lies 11,527 ft. above the level of the sea. 
The highest permanently inhabited places are, however, Buddhist 
monasteries, the most elevated being probably that of Hanle, (15,117 
ft.), in Ladak. I state it positively as my conviction, that nowhere in 



64 Tableau of High Asia. [No. 1, 

the world there exists a permanently inhabited place at a height ex- 
ceeding 15,600 ft. Paul de Carmoy's " Pueblo de Ocoruro," in the 
Sierra Nevada, 18,454 ft. high, will prove, on a closer examination, to 
be a temporarily inhabited place, similar to the summer villages of 
Tibet, of which I name Gartok (15,090 ft.), Norbu (15,946 ft.), and 
Puga (15,264 ft.) 

In the Kunlun, even the foot of its southern (Tibetan) slopes is so 
elevated, that no villages exist at all. By combining with our own 
observations a variety of reports received, I obtain for its northern 
slopes 9,400 ft. as the limit of permanently inhabited villages ; sum- 
mer villages reach about 10,200 ft. 

In the Andes, large and important permanently inhabited places 
have been built at great heights (Cerro de Pasco, 14,098 ft., Potosi 
13,665 ft.) ; they are generally situated on plateaux. Santa Barbara, 
a mine with solid houses, about three miles south of Huancavelica, is 
situated at a height of 14,508 ft. 

For the Alps, I have already had occasion to mention their summer 
villages. The highest permanently inhabited villages are in the 
valley of Avers in G-raubiindten, where Juf lies at an elevation of 
7,172 ft., and that of Cresta exceeds 6,700 ft. But the roads leading 
across the passes have rendered it necessary to construct houses near 
the top which are permanently inhabited; the highest of these at 
present being the well known monastery of St. Bernard (8,114 ft.) 
As long as the road over the Stelvio or Stilfser Joch was kept up, 
Santa Maria (8,146 ft.; was also inhabited throughout the year. 

2. Pasture-grounds. 

In the Himalaya, pasture-grounds " Karik," for sheep and bovine 
cattle, are for the most part in low elevations, and at no great dis- 
tance from the villages. The Karik Biterguar, in Kamaon. must be 
mentioned as an exception to this general rule, it being situated at 
an elevation of 14,594 ft. Nowhere are there built on these pasture- 
grounds chalets (Alpenhutten), which are as little used in the Hima- 
laya as tents in the Alps. 

Dairies, which are dispersed all over the Alps, and which form the 
source of a profitable income under an able management, are quite 
unknown in the Himalaya, even in those parts, as Kashmir and Nepal, 



1866.] Tableau of High Asia. 65 

where ample tracts exist extremely favourable for erecting such estab- 
lishments even on a large scale. 

The pasture-grounds of Tibet, to which the numerous herds of sheep 
are driven in summer, reach an elevation from 15,000 to 16,349 ft,, 
beyond which the Tibetan shepherds, who sometimes remain upon the 
mountains from June to September, cannot be supposed to make any 
permanent residence. The most elevated pasture-grounds of Tibet 
are, Larsa (16,349 ft.), Zinchin (16,222 ft.), Kyangchu (15,781 ft,), 
Rukchin (15,064 ft.), A'mlung (15,300 ft.), and Jugta (15,058 ft.) 

Though many cloudless days succeed each other in these lofty 
regions, thus leaving the power of direct insolation unimpaired, the 
climate always remains bleak ; while the prevailing winds not only 
aggravate the effects of a low temperature, but also that of a low baro- 
metrical pressure, thus presenting a remarkable modification of cli- 
mate, of which I shall hereafter give some detail in the considerations 
upon the influence of height in general. The shepherds with difficul- 
ty provide themselves with a sufficient supply of fuel for cooking pur- 
poses ; sometimes they contrive with much labour and pains to erect 
rude stone walls, behind which they may take shelter during the 
night. These walls are usually circular in form, from four to five 
feet high, and without a roof. 

In the Kwilun, the slopes on its southern side are so elevated, that 
there exist no pasture-grounds at all ; on its northern slopes, they do 
not occur above 13,000 ft. 

For the Andes no data with reference to pasture-grounds are at my 
disposal. 

The pasture-grounds in the Alps, which are generally in the neigh- 
bourhood of Chalets, may be met with at heights of 8,000 ft. and 
upwards : the Fluhalpe (8,468 ft.) on the Findelen glacier near the 
Monte Rosa, and the Torrenthutle, in the Anniviers valley, being 
instances of the greatest elevations. 

V. Extreme heights visited by man. 

1. Mountain- ascents. 

Temporary habitations, frequented for some months, as we have 

seen from the discussion of the highest pasture-grounds, sometimes 

reach a height of nearly 16,300 ft. As far as my experience goes, I 

9 



66 Tableau of High Asia. [No. 1, 

may state, that for short periods of ten or twelve days, man may con- 
siderably exceed this height, not without suffering, but at least with- 
out positive injury to himself, During our explorations of the Ibi 
Gamin glaciers, August 13th to 23rd, 1855, we encamped and slept 
during these ten days in company with eight men at very unusual 
heights. During this period, our lowest camp was pitched at 19,326 
ft. — the greatest height at which we ever passed a night : — another 
was at 19,094 ft. ; two camps exceeded 18,300 ft., and the remainder 
ranged between 18,000 and 17,000 ft. Apart from the extreme ele- 
vation and consequent cold, the bodily exertions imposed upon us 
during our stay, proved a great tax upon our powers. Once we cross- 
ed a pass of 20,439 ft., and three days earlier, August 19th, 1855, we 
had ascended the flanks of Ibi Gamin to a height of 22,239 ft. This, 
as far as we know, is the greatest height yet reached on any mountain, 
though considerably below that to which man has arisen in balloons. 

On the Sassar peak we attained (August 3rd, 1856) an elevation of 
20,120 ft. As early as 1818, however, the brothers Alexander and 
James G. Gerard ascended (October 18th) a peak in Spiti 19,411 ft. 
high, not far from the Porgyal, or Tazhigang. Subsequently, August 
31st, 1828, Dr. James G. Gerard reached 20,400 ft. 

From Captain T. G. Montgomerie we learn, that a station of 19,979 
ft. has been reached twice by Mr. W. H. Johnson, and another of 
19,958 ft.* in height by Mr. W. G. Beverley. Mr. Johnson took, 
besides, observations in liadak at one station more than 20,600 ft. 
high, the greatest altitude yet attained as a station of the Trigonome- 
trical Survey of India. f A trigonometrical mark has even been erect- 
ed on a point 21,480 ft. above the level of the sea, "but unfortunately 
there was not sufficient space to put a theodolite on it." 

In the Andes, Humboldt ascended the flanks of Chimborazo (June 
23rd, 1802) to a height of 19,286 ft. ; this being the extreme elevation 
attained at that period. Some years afterwards (December 16th, 1831), 
Boussingault reached, on the same peak, a height of 19,695 ft. J 

In the Alps, my brothers Adolphe and Hermann once remained in 
the Vincenthutte, on the slopes of Monte Rosa, fourteen days at a 

* See this Journal, 1861, No. II., pp. 99, 110. 

f See this Journal, 1863, No. II., p. iii. 

J Humboldt's " Kleinere Schriffcen," p. 157, 



1866.] Tableau of High Asia. 67 

height of 10,374 ft. The well known English Professors Tyndall and 
Prankland even passed the night of August 21st, 1859, on the top of 
the Mont Blanc (15,784 ft.) 

2. Balloon-ascents. 

In the free atmosphere the greatest height was reached by Mr. 
Glaisher in a balloon, which was directed by Mr. Cos well ; he ascend- 
ed, September 5th, 1862, the extraordinary height of at least 30,000 ft., 
but, as he was unable to make any observations above that height, 
being suddenly overtaken by sickness, it is supposed that the balloon 
rose as high as seven miles = 36,960 ft. 

Not less remarkable than this ascent was the one performed by 
Gay-Lussac, as early as the beginning of this century (September 
16th, 1804), when he rose to 23,020 ft, Between Gay-Lussac's and 
Mr. Glaisher's ascent, several attempts have been made to reach great 
heights in balloons, especially in England, during one of which the 
late Mr. Welsh reached (November 10th, 1852) 22,930 ft.* The bal- 
loon-ascents made in England were all combined with experiments of 
a highly interesting nature, and instituted by a scientific committee, 
among whose members it is sufficient only to name Sabine and Sykes. 

Previous to Mr. Welsh, Messrs. Bixio and Barral rose (July 27th, 
1850) to a height of 23,009 ft. 

As a balloon-ascent, remarkable not only on account of the height 
reached, but on account of the horizontal distance performed, I must 
mention the one made by Mr. Nadar, in company with eight persons, 
October 18th, 1863. Mr. Nadar rose from Paris and let himself down 
— or he rather fell down — near Rethem, a small town on the river 
Aller, in Hanover. The direct distance between these two towns is 
about 395 miles, and as it took 15 hours, 47 minutes to travel 
through this distance, the balloon flew 2,227 ft per minute, or 37 ft. 
per second. But, as the balloon was far from going in a straight line, 
it has been computed, that the greatest velocity attained by it 
amounted to 50 ft. per second. 

3. Effect of height. 

The effect of height is chiefly perceptible in the decrease of tem- 
perature and barometrical pressure. According to our observations, 
* " Philosophical Transactions," 1853, Part III., p. 320. 



68 Tableau of High Asia. [No. 1, 

the atmospheric pressure is, at a height of about 18,600 or 18,800 ft., 
one-half of that at the level of the sea. At an elevation of 22,200 ft. 
(so trivial a height when compared with the extreme upper limit of the 
atmosphere), we observed a barometrical pressure of 13.364 inches, so 
that nearly three-fifths of the weight of the atmosphere lay below the 
point reached by us at the time. 

It is evident that there must be a limit beyond which the degree of 
rarefaction is incompatible with the conditions of human existence ; 
but it will ever remain extremely difficult to determine the line of 
demarcation, with any approach to scientific precision. 

The influence* which height exercises upon man, varies with 
the individual ; a man in good health having the chance of less suffer- 
ing. The difference of race has apparently no appreciable importance. 
Our Hindu servants suffered far more from the cold than our Tibetan 
companions, though not more from the diminished pressure. For the 
generality of people the influence of height begins at 16,500 ft., a 
height nearly coinciding with that of the highest pasture grounds 
visited by shepherds. 

The complaints produced by diminished pressure are, — headache, 
difficulty of respiration, and affection of the lungs, the latter even pro- 
ceeding so far as to occasion blood- spitting, want of appetite and even 
sickness, muscular weakness, and a general depression and lowness of 
spirits. Bleeding of the nose we experienced ourselves, though very 
rarely, the loss of blood on such occasions being insignificant ; but 
bleeding of the ears and lips we neither experienced personally, nor 
observed in others during our travels in High Asia. Humboldt,f 
however, states, that on the Antisana, at a height of 18,141 ft., his 
companion, Don Carlos Montufar, bleeded heavily from the lips, and 
that during the ascent of the Chimborazo, every one suffered from 
bleeding of the lips and even the gums. 

The effects here mentioned, which disappear in a healthy man 
almost simultaneously with his return to lower regions, are not sen- 
sibly increased by cold, but the wind has a most decided influence for 

* Notices and remarks on this subject are to be found in " Gleanings in 
Science," Vol. I., p. 330 ; Gerard's " Koonawur ;" Hooker's " Himalayan Jour- 
nals," Vol. II., p. 413 ; Thomson's " Western Himalaya and Tibet/' p. 135 and 
p. 433. 

t " Kleinere Schriften," Vol. I., p. 148. 



1866.] Tableau of High Asia. 69 

the worse upon the feelings. As this was a phenomenon we had not 
hitherto found mentioned by former observers, we directed our parti- 
cular attention to it, and remarked instances where fatigue had abso- 
lutely nothing to do with it. In the plateaux of the Karakorum, it 
was a common occurrence, even for the sleepers in the tents, where 
they might be considered as somewhat protected, to be waked up in 
the night with a heavy feeling of oppression, the entire disturbance 
being traceable to a breeze, which had sprung up during the hours of 
rest. 

The effects of diminished atmospheric pressure are considerably 
aggravated by fatigue. It is surprising to what a degree it is possi- 
ble for exhaustion to supervene ; even the act of speaking is felt to be 
a labour, and one gets as careless of comfort as of danger. 

VI. Limits of vegetation and animal life. 
1. Vegetation. 

In India, the vegetation is not limited by climate in the elevations 
existing ; the highest peaks, as the Dodabetta (8,640 ft.), in the Nii- 
giris, the most elevated plateaux are covered with trees, shrubs, and 
in fact a luxurious vegetation, not only along their slopes, but even 
on their top. 

In the Himalaya, trees grow very generally up to heights of 11,800 
ft., and in most parts there are extensive forests covering the sides of 
the mountains at but a little distance below this limit. Those forests 
are especially beautiful in the higher valleys of Kamaon and Grarhval 
in the Bhagirathi valley. 

In Western Tibet, though we did traverse it in various directions, 
none of us found anything at all corresponding to a forest. Apricot 
trees, willows, and poplars are frequently cultivated on a large scale ; 
poplars, indeed, are found at Mangnang, in Griiari Khorsum, still at 
a height of 13,457 ft. ; but they are the objects of the greatest care 
and attention to the Lamas. 

In the Kunliln, we found the trees on its northern side not to grow 
above 9,100 ft. On the northern side, we saw no trees at all ; here 
the considerable height of the valleys we passed excluded them. 

In the Andes, trees end at about 12,130 ft. ; in the Alps on an aver- 
age at 6,400 ft., isolated specimens occurring, however, above 7,000 ft- 



70 Tableau of High Asia, [No. 1, 

The cultivation of grain coincides, in most cases, with the highest 
permanently inhabited villages : hut the extremes of cultivated grain 
remain below the limit of permanent habitation. In the Himalaya, 
cultivation of grain does not exceed 11,800 ft., in Tibet 14,700 ft., 
and in the Kunlun 9,700 ft. For the Andes, the limit is 11,800 ft. ; 
in the Alps, some of the extremes are found near Tindelen, at a height 
of 6,630 ft., but the mean is about 5,000 ft. 

The upper mean limit of grass-vegetation is, in the Himalaya, at 
15,400 ft., in Western Tibet at 16,500 ft. ; in the Kunlun, grass is not 
found above 14,800 ft. 

Shrubs grow, in the Himalaya, up to 15,200 ft., in Western Tibet, as 
high as 17,000 ft. On the plateaux to the north of the Karahorum, 
shrubs are found at 16,900 ft., and, which is more remarkable, they 
occasionally grow there in considerable quantities on spots entirely 
destitute of grass. As an example, I mention the Vohab Chilgane 
plateau (16,419 ft.) and Bashmalgun (14,207 ft.) 

In the Kunlun, the upper limit of shrubs does not exceed 12,700 
ft. ; above this height grass is still plentiful ; and shrubs being here, 
as generally everywhere else, confined to a limit below the vegetation 
of grass, the range presents an essential contrast in this respect to the 
characteristic aspect of the Karakorum. 

In the Andes, shrubs grow up to 13,420 ft , in the Alps, their upper 
limit is at 8,000 ft. 

The very extreme limit of phanerogamic plants appeared in Tibet 
at the north-eastern slopes of the Ibi Gamin pass, at a height of 
19,809 ft. ; next in order came those of the Gunshankar peak, in 
Gnari Khorsum, at 19,237 ft. In the Himalaya, the highest plants 
Were found by us at 17,500 ft., on the slopes of the Jante pass, in 
Kamaon. 

In the Andes, Colonel Hall found the highest phanerogamic plants 
on the slopes of Chimborazo, at 15,769 ft., consequently 4,040 ft. 
lower than the Ibi Gamin plants in Tibet. 

In the Alps, my brothers found an analogous extreme on the south- 
ern slopes of the Yincent pyramide at 12,540 ft. 

2. Animal life. 
Monkeys appear to frequent, in the Himalaya, regions exceeding 
11,000 ft. in height ; the Bemnopiihecus schisiaceus, Hodgs. ascending 



1866.] Tableau of High Ada. 71 

higher than others. These monkeys, called " Langurs" by the natives, 
have been frequently seen at 11,000 ft., while the fir-trees among 
which they sported were loaded with snow-wreaths. This species is 
not known in India, whilst the Macacus Rhesus is met with in India, 
as well as in the Himalaya. 

In Western Tibet, and farther to the north, no monkeys have yet 
been found. Tigers ascend to 11,000 ft. in the Himalaya ; they are 
not, however, seen in Western Tibet or the Kimliin. 

Leopards may be met with, in the Himalaya and in Tibet, even at 
13,000 and 14,000 ft. The lion, though intimately connected with 
the mythology of High Asia, has been forthcoming, in historical 
times, only in Kashmir. In India, the lion occurs at the present day 
only in Griizrat, and there only in very small numbers. 

Jackals were found by us in the Karakorum between 16,000 and 
17,000 ft. Wolves are not known to frequent the Himalaya Proper, 
but they are found in Tibet, where we saw of traces of them in sand 
close to the Karakorum pass (18,345 ft.) 

Various species of beautiful ivild sheep and ibex, together with the 
Kydng and the wild yak, are met with in large herds on the highest 
plateaux between the Karakorum and the Kunliin. 

The cat is common in Tibet ; dogs are the companions of the Tibet- 
an shepherds, whom they follow over passes exceeding 18,000 ft. 

Some species of bats are seen in the Himalaya up to 9,000 ft. ; and 
the Tibetan hare occurs even in heights exceeding 18,000 ft. 

Migratory birds are not known to cross the Himalaya, as many 
birds of Europe cross the Alps. Doves were seen by us at very great 
heights in the Karakorum and Kunliin ; this was the most surprising, 
as other birds were very rare. 

The domestic fowl has recently been introduced with great success 
by Gulab Singh into Balti, Ladak, and Nubra. 

Fishes were found by us in some rivulets of Tibet exceeding 15,000 
ft. In the Alps they cannot live beyond 7,000 ft. 

Of reptiles we found snakes and saurians as high as 15,200 ft. In 
the Alps they go up to 6,000 ft., in the Pyrenees to 7,000 ft. In the 
Andes ; snakes were found by Schmarda at about 11,500 ft. 

For butterflies we found in the Himalaya 13,000 ft., in Tibet and 
Turkistan even 16,000 ft. as localities of permanent habitation. Bee- 



72 



Tahleau of High Asia. 



[No. 1, 



ties probably follow the highest formation of grassy turf in the Hima - 
laya, as well as in the Andes and the Alps. Mosquitoes go up to 
8,500 ft. ; and peepsies make themselves very troublesome during the 
rainy season as high as 13,000 ft. 

The "existence of infusoria seems as little subject to limitation by 
height in High Asia, as in the Andes and Alps. In a few fragments 
which we chipped off from the rocks of the Ibi G-amin pass (20„459 
ft.) Prof. Ehrenberg of Berlin detected their presence, and found 
them not ^insignificant in quantity ; he discovered twelve species new 
to science. 



1866.] Notes and Queries. 73 

(Notes and Queries.') 
[Received 20th December, 1865.] 
Camp, near Myanoung, Novemher 22nd, 1865. 
During a visit to Calcutta a few months ago, Mr. Grote drew my 
attention to a sort of controversy which had been started at home, 
touching the habit, which fireflies were stated to exhibit occasionally, 
of a concurrent exhibition of their light, by vast multitudes acting in 
unison ; a statement which appeared to have been somewhat sceptically 
received. Mr. Grote does not appear to have ever witnessed this 
phenomenon in Bengal, and questioned me if I had ever observed any 
confirmatory instance. Fireflies are tolerably well known, of course, 
to the resident in Bengal, but I had never there observed any such 
habit among the countless fireflies, which form such fiery-like orna- 
ments to the shrubberies about Calcutta. In Pegu, however, I have 
witnessed the exhibition in question ; myriads of fireflies emitting 
their light, and again relapsing into darkness, in the most perfect 
rythmic unison. I much regret, that I did not secure specimens, but 
the circumstances were as follows. I had halted my boat for the 
night, alongside a small clearing in the low lying tract of country, 
forming part of the Irawadi estuary (Delta), east of the Bassein 
river, where the water was salt, and the entire country not more than 
a foot, if so much, above the flood level. Night had closed in, and my 
servant, who brought in the tea, asked me to step out of my tent and 
see the fireflies which, he said, he had never seen the like of before. 
On stepping out of the tent, a truly beautiful sight presented it- 
self. In front was the broad and deep river sweeping on, wktl 
coikws, with its indistinctly seen background of primaeval forest on 
its opposite bank. Around me was the recently-formed clearing, with 
its two or three huts and my own camp, as the sole proof of man's 
occupancy, for miles and miles, but, for all the wildness and almost 
desolation of the scene, the bank on which I stood was a glorious 
spectacle, and those acquainted with the class of native servants 
will well understand that it must have been at once unusual and 
beautiful indeed to rivet the attention of a listless khitmutgar ! 

The bushes overhanging the water w T ere one mass of fireflies, 
though, from the confined spaca available for them on low shrubs, the 



74 Notes and Queries. [No. 1, 

numbers may not have been actually more than are often congregated 
in Bengal. The light of this great body of insects was given out as I 
have said, in rythmic flashes, and, for a second or two, lighted up the 
bushes in a beautiful manner ; heightened, no doubt, by the sudden 
relapse into darkness which followed each flash. These are the facts 
of the case (and I may add, it was towards the end of the year), and 
the only suggestion I would throw out, to account for the unusual 
method of luminous emanation, is, that the close congregation of large 
numbers of insects, from the small space afforded them by the bushes 
in question, may have given rise to the synchronous emission of the 
flash, by the force of imitation or sympathy. 

Mr. Montgomery, of the Survey Department here, also fully corro- 
borates the habit of our Pegu fireflies simultaneously emitting their 
light, but adds, he has only remarked it under conditions similar 
to those described above, in low swampy ground. It still remains, 
therefore, to be decided if the insect is different from the ordinary one, 
or if, as I am inclined to think, the simultaneity is produced by sym- 
pathy and great crowding of individuals. 

Whilst my pen is in my hand, I would add a few words on the 
address of Dr. J. E. Gray to the Zoological Section of the British 
Association, printed at page 75 of the Notices and Abstracts appended 
to the Report of the Association for 1864. 

The excellent remarks on the aim and arrangement of Public 
Museums will, it is to be hoped, not escape the attention of those 
interested in our own Calcutta Museum, and the especial stress he lays 
on the exclusion of light from collections on spirits, is what I urgent •* 
ly brought to the notice of the Society but a short time since. It is 
not, however, to this portion of Dr. Gray's address that I would now 
refer, but to the statement at page 82 that, " the natives of India and 
of the islands of the Malayan Archipelago have brought into a semi* 
domesticated state various species of wild cattle, such as the Gyal, the 
Gour, and the Banteng." 

Of the first of these, the Gyal, we know that such is the case, but 
I should much like to know in what part of India or Malaynesia the 
Gour or the Banteng are " semi-domesticated," certainly, the feat has 
never been performed by any " native of India" of whose geography 
and powers incurably lax notions appeax to be stereotyped in England, 



1866.] Notes and Queries. 75 

from the ablest downwards. I would enquire, therefore, through the 
pages of this Journal, to what instances Dr. Gray can allude, as the 
fact is certainly novel to those in India. The Governor of Rangoon, 
at the time of the last war, I am told, had a pair of Gour sufficiently 
tame to be yoked in a cart, but this is quite insufficient to establish 
their claim to be viewed as semi-domesticated. In India, the difficulty 
of rearing the calves is notorious. 

Again, immediately before the passage I have quoted above, Dr. 
Gray remarks, " In the lower and warmer region of Central and South- 
ern Asia, the Zebra has been completely domesticated." 

In the passage, Dr. Gray is alluding to wild species brought by 
man into a state of domestication, and I confess to some curiosity as 
to the wild stock of the domesticated Zebra. There is, I fancy, some 
little confusion, however, in Dr. Gray's ideas here, as, on the previous 
page, he tells us, " the oxen" " are never found truly wild." 

The distinction, too, which Dr. Gray draws (loc. cit.) between the 
" truly domesticated' 11 animals, the ox, the sheep, the horse, the camel, 
the dog and the cat, and the u semi-domesticated ," as the buffalo, the 
goat, the pig, the rabbit, the reindeer, the yak &c, appears forced 
and to a great extent imaginary. 

The distinction between these two classes of animals is more due to 
the efforts of the Breeder than to mere domestication, and I should have 
thought, that the highest triumphs of some of our rabbit fancies and of 
our breeds of pigs merited quite as much as our " sheep" to be con- 
sidered as " truly domesticated," if thereby is intended an unnatural 
deviation from the wild stock, solely produced by the art of the 

Breeder. 

I cannot enter at greater length on this most interesting question, 

but I hope that some of the readers of this Journal who have perused 

Dr. Gray's report, will be able to furnish some explanation of the 

points indicated above. 

Another query I would ask is, to what race of Calotes mystaceus 

can Gunther refer to, when he states that " an old male measures 

nearly 24 inches, the tail taking 19 inches?" Now Calotes mystaceus 

is common in Birma, and more than a score have passed through my 

hands, but no specimen that I ever saw attained to even 12 inches of 

total length ! 



76 Notes and Queries. 

Are not two races or species here united, a smaller one from Birma, 
and a larger one from Camboja or elsewhe r e south ? 

The type in the Paris Museum, Grunther says, is " not full grown," 
but it was from Birma, and is probably the size of ordinary Birmese 
specimens. 

W. Theobald, Jr. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY 



Part II.— PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 



No. II.— 18GG. 



Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. — Communicated hy Lieut. 
Col J. T. Walker, R. E* 

[Received 8th March, 1866.] 
Translation of a Portion of the " Compte Rendu de la Sooiete 

Im PERI ALE GeOGRAPIIIQUE DE RusSIe" FOR 1864. 

The Society has never failed to profit by every opportunity that 
has presented itself, for extending our geographical knowledge of 
the countries bordering on Central Asia ; consequently, in the month 
of February last year, M. Severstow, a distinguished Naturalist, who 
was accompanying an expedition into the countries beyond the Hi 
and the Tchou, was charged to collect information, with a view to 
preparing a physico -geographical description of all the countries through 
which the expedition would pass. 

* Of the two accompanying papers, one is a translation of a portion of the 
" Compte Rendu de la Societe Imperiale Geographique do Russie," for the year 
1864, while the other is a translation from the 4th volume of the Journal of the 
Russian Geographical Society for 1864. 

in the first the names are spelt as in the original French memoir. 

11 



78 Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. [No. 2, 

The Society has just been enriched by highly interesting geo- 
graphical materials, thanks to the cordial co-operation of its honorable 
members M. Milioutine, the Minister of War ; M. Duhanial, the 
Governor- General of Eastern Siberia, and Admiral Boutakow. 

We have been furnished with a very interesting manuscript chart 
prepared by the Staff Major. It represents, on a scale of 40 verstes 
(27 miles) to the inch, the southern portion of the Kirghiz Steppe, 
or, approximately speaking, the region between the Eastern shore of 
the sea of Aral, and the Chinese frontier, extending from 76° to 102° 
of longitude, and from 40° to 50° of latitude, and comprising the 
northern half of the district called Touran. On this map we have the 
result of all the geographical operations of the past few years 
represented for the first time. Until now they had remained isolated, 
and almost unknown to the scientific world. They greatly modify 
the general geographical aspect of this region. There are now 
determined a sufficient number of astronomical points to serve as 
a basis for an exact cartographic representation of the region above 
mentioned. We must observe, however, that the fixed astronomical 
points are as yet very irregularly distributed. They are comparatively 
numerous in the western part of the map, along the road from Oren- 
burgh to the Syr-Daria, and along the lower course of that river, also 
along the Chinese frontier in the Eastern part of the map, but, about 
the middle, they are very sparsely scattered. 

We now possess many orographic and hydrographic data, thanks 
to the military expeditions, and reconnoissances of 1864, and to the 
operations carried on for several years in the basin of the Syr-Daria 
by Admiral Boutakow. These data serve to correct the hitherto 
confused notions of the countries situated within and around this 
region. We have also received more accurate information regarding 
the races that people these countries, their mode of life, their migra- 
tions, the remains and traces of their ancient condition, and the 
possibility of their future civilization. We can here only point out the 
most salient geographical features of the mass of materials we have 
received, and of which the Society will avail itself for its future publica- 
tions. The geographical position of all the region above mentioned 
will have to be considerably altered, more especially as to western 
Turkestan, and the Khanat of Khokan. For instance, Aoulieta, a town 



Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. 70 

of Khokan, ought to bo shifted, on the map, half a degree towards 
the south, and one degree towards the cast ; the town of Turkestan at 
least a degree and a half towards the south, &c. Similar changes are 
equally necessary for many other points. The eastern part of this 
region is essentially mountainous. The principal chain of mountains 
is found to be a western branch of the Tian Chan ; its direction is 
from east to west from the lake Issik Koul, down to the lower course 
of the Syr-Daria ; these mountains were vaguely known under the 
general name of Karataon. They may be divided into three groups, 
the chain of the Kentchi-Alataou, the chain called Alexandrow.skaia, 
and that of Kazikourt. 

The Kentchi-Alataou consists of two parallel chains, which follow 
the northern bank of the Issik Koal ; they are separated (on the cast 
of the Issik Koul) from the Tian Chan by the Pass of San Tasch ; 
their greatest height is 14,000 feet. From this range, a lower range 
trends in a north-western direction, separating the waters of the Hi 
from those of the Tchou. 

The second group, the Alexandrowskaia, or the Alataou-Kirghisnyn 
chain, whose summits are covered with perpetual snow, joins the first 
at the defile of Baoum, on the western extremity of the Issik- Koul ; 
thence it stretches due west towards Aoulieta, separating the river 
Tchou from the river Talas; its greatest height is 15,000 feet. To 
the west of this chain, other hills, rising not higher than 5000 or 6000 
feet, stretch as far as the Syr-Daria, following the direction of that 
river down to Djoulek, and forming, so to say, a prolongation of 
the Alexandrowskaia chain. It is to these hills that the name of 
mount Karataon, which has been wrongly given to the whole system 
of mountains in this country, properly belongs. 

Lastly, the third group forms the Kazikourt chain and lies to the 
south of the Alexandrowskaia, from which it is separated by the 
basin of Talas. The Kazikourt mountains appear to be a continu- 
ation of the principal branch of the Tian Chan ; winding along the 
southern bank of the Issik-Koul, they fill the territory of Khokan 
with their southern ramifications. The disposition of these chains of 
mountains fixes the watersheds of the basins of the Tchou and the 
Syr-Daria, the two principal valleys of this country, lying almost 
parallel to each other. The valley of the Syr-Daria trends, with many 



80 Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. [No. 2, 

windings, from the south-east to the north-west. The Tchou flows 
in the same direction. Conformably with the general disposition of 
the whole mountain system of this region, these great basins are 
much narrowed towards the east, near Issik Koul, where all the above 
mentioned ramifications of the Tian Chan are concentrated. It must 
be observed,- that the predominant direction of these chains of moun- 
tains, not only in this country, but in all mountainous parts of Central 
Asia, is always to the north-east. We now have more accurate data 
concerning the course of the Tchou, especially about its various 
sources, also its relation to the Issik Koul, from which it does not 
take its source, but with which it is connected by its affluent, the 
little river of Koutemalda. 

The central portion of the basin of the Syr-Daria has been explored 
in detail, and with much success, thanks to the expeditions made 
during many years by Admiral Boutakow, who has qftite recently 
communicated to us the general results of his enquiries, but especially 
of his late explorations between Fort Perowsky, and the locality called 
Baildir Tougai. 

It is impossible to set forth here all the accumulated data of these 
countries of Central Asia, but seeing the interest that they excite, we 
must add a few more words about their population. It consists 
chiefly of nomadic Kirghises, and a rather restricted number of 
Khokans. Their mode of life and degree of civilization correspond 
with those of the Kirghises who inhabit the country north of the 
Syr-Daria and the river Tchou. 

Their chief wealth consists in cattle, horses and camels. They 
also cultivate their land and sow wheat, barley and tobacco. 

After the military expedition of 18 02, a great part of these Kirghise 
wanderers, from beyond the Tchou, passed into our territory. 

To retain these tribes in subjection, the Khokans constructed forts, 
called Kourgans, in great numbers. Tho four chief ones were 
Pichpek, Merke, Aoulieta, and Souzak. Aoulieta on the Talas 
(between the valley of the Tchou, and the chain of mountains which 
trend from Issik Koul towards the west) has an important position, 
for it is situated on the grand commercial road from Tachkend and 
Turkestan, towards the fortifications of Vernoi, Kouldja and Semi- 
palatinsk. It is by this road that the caravans come from the southern 



1866.] Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. 81 

regions of Central Asia to go to China, as well as to Russia. On a 
branch of this road, which stretches towards the north-west, at a 
junction of the roads of Orenbourgh, Troitsk and Oufa, is situated 
the town of Turkestan which encloses within its walls a sacred edifice, 
the mosque built over the tomb of Azret Sultan. 

Passing now to the topographical operations executed in these Kir- 
ghise steppes of Siberia, we will mention the surveys that were effected 
on the western borders of China, under the direction of Colonel Babkow. 
These operations embrace two distinct circles, — the northern parts of 
the Tarbagatai mountains, and the valley of the river Borokhoudzir. 
In the first of these circles, Captain Nifantiew of the Topographical 
Corps, surveyed the region that is bounded on the west by the road 
which crosses the Khabar Assou I 'ass, and by the course of the river 
Tamyrysk ; on the south, by the chain of the Tarbagatai ; on the east, 
by the line of the Chinese posts, and on the north, by the Kitchkine 
Taou mountains, branches of the Manak, and of the Tarbagatai. This 
region includes an area of 5,270 square verstes. 

In the country beyond the river Tchou, the topographers who 
formed part of the detachment with the expedition, surveyed the 
following localities. 1st, From the post of Kastek, by the pass of the 
same name, to the mouths of the little Kebin, and thence re-ascending 
the river Tchou, to the mouths of the great Kebin, then 40 verstes 
of the lower course of this last river. Then again, from the mouths 
of the little Kebin, along the river Tchou, to the ford of Tchoumitch. 
All these surveys have been mapped on a scale of 250 sagencs (or 1750 
feet) to the inch. 2nd, From the river Talas, crossing mount KaraBoura, 
to the river Tchotkala (Tchirtchik). 3rd, The marching roads along the 
valley of the Arys, and those from Tchcmkent to Aoulieta, also from 
Tcholak Kourgen to Aoulieta, have been drawn on the scale of 5 
verstes to the inch. 4thly, Plans of the forts of Tokmak, Mcrke and 
Aoulieta have been drawn out, on a scale of 250 sagenes to the 
inch. 

We have received from M. Besae, the Aide-de-camp General, a 
map of the topographical operations, executed and projected in the 
country of Orenbourg, from the year 1861 to 1865, with a Memoir. 

The total survey is 17,687 square verstes done in detail, and 3,928 
in half detail ; 168,178 reconnoitcred, and 2. ',100 triangulated. During 



82 Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. [No. 2, 

a period of four years, the total amount of survey operations is 
212,019 square verstes. 

These surveys embrace the following localities ; 1st, the two banks of 
the river Yany Daria ; 2ndly, the left bank of the Syr-Daria, from 
the fort Perowsky to Yany Kouigan, a destroyed fortress belonging 
to the Khokans, and thence to the place called Baildyr Tougai ; 4thly, 
the northern and southern slopes of the Karataou chain ; 5thly, the 
mouths of the river Emba, and the Bay of the Caspian Sea at the 
mouth of this river. Among the newly made maps, the principal are, 
the map of the country of Orenbourg, on a scale of 50 verstes to 
the inch ; a new map of Central Asia and the country of Orenbourg, 
200 verstes to the inch ; and 24 sheets of a special map of this 
country, on a scale of 10 verstes. 

The Society is continuing the publication and translation of the 7th 
Vol. of Ritter's Geography of eastern Touran. M. Grigoriew is 
compiling and making the necessary additions for completing this 
work, and is carrying on his labours with such activity, that we may 
look for the first part of his work during 1865. 

However short our account may seem of all the important geo- 
graphical operations in Asia, it is nevertheless sufficient to show that 
they embrace a large extent of this part of the world, and give rise to 
questions of both local and general interest. The several expedi- 
tions and explorations, in which our Society has taken part, form an 
uninterrupted chain which extends along our Asiatic frontier, from 
the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea ; from the valley of the Onssouri 
and the peninsula of Corea to the Oust Ourt, Turkestan and Khoras- 
san. With the exception of some conflicts with the Khokans, our 
enterprises along the frontier have been of a strictly peaceful, scienti- 
fic or commercial character, and our commerce has been considerably 
developed. These friendly relations are strengthened by an event 
of great importance which marks the past year, viz., the final pacifi- 
cation of the Caucasus, the point of our Asiatic frontier that is 
nearest to Europe. 

We must now pass on to the hydrographic operations executed in 
the Caspian Sea, which have always greatly interested our Society. 

Last year, our honorable member, M. Ivachinzew, who is the chief 
of these operations, read out to the Society, at a public meeting, 






18G6.] Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. 83 

B remarkable Memoir on the question of the variations of the level 
of the Caspian Sea. The same persons who carried on these hydro- 
graphic operations in 1863, continued them in 1864. At the begin- 
ning of the year, the Surveyors were concentrated in the southern 
parts of the sea, between Bakow and Lenkoran, a region bristling 
with rocks and volcanic islands. From January up to May, they 
explored and fixed the positions of several isolated volcanic reefs, 
which, as they undergo frequent change from the action of subterra- 
nean forces, often become very dangerous to navigators, and conse- 
quently require frequent soundings and examinations. The materials 
thus collected, regarding this volcanic region, may some day serve as 
valuable contributions towards the composition of a complete mono- 
graph of this extremity of the Caucasus. 

In the month of May, the hydrographic expedition crossed over to 
the eastern shore, between Tub-Karagane and the gulf of Karabougaz. 
During the subsequent five months, an extent of more than 200 
verstes was surveyed and sounded, chiefly between the isthmus of 
Mangnicli-lae and the gulf of Krasnovodsk, under the command of 
Lieut. Phillippow and Lieut. Dournew of the Pilot Corps. Sound- 
ings were also taken by Lieut. Onlsky, in the middle of the Caspian 
Sea, with an apparatus specially constructed for bringing up specimens 
of the different soils, and the fossil and animal life they contain. 

In June and July Captain Phillipow's party explored the entrance 
to the gulf of Karabougaz. At the same time, Lieut. Staritzki made 
some interesting observations on the speed of an uninterrupted current 
of water directing its course through the Gulf towards the Sea. 

The object of these observations w T as to determine the quantity of 
water which enters the gulf of Karabougaz, and the quantity of saline 
particles which is brought there. The exploration of the mouth of 
the Karabougaz will serve as a basis for a complete study of this 
interesting gulf. It is the opinion of M. Baer, the Academician, that 
this study will lead to a solution of the question regarding the varia- 
tions of saltness in the Caspian Sea. No one will doubt the economi- 
cal importance of this question, which is intimately connected with 
the future fisheries of the Caspian. The results of the hydrogra- 
phic operations are developing gradually, and are partly published. 
In addition to the maps and plans of different parts of this sea 



84 Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. [No. 2, 

that have already appeared, a report of the astronomical and magnetic 
operations is being actually printed. 

In speaking of the favourable results that have been obtained by the 
activity of our Society, we have not had the least intention to attribute 
it to one more than to another of its functionaries. Among us, 
individuals change and succeed each other so rapidly, that we cannot 
say the progress and strength of our institutions rest with them. It 
is the general conditions of our activity, and the liberal spirit by 
which they are pervaded, that unite and attract a constant succession 
of individual labourers. Besides the actual operations of the Society 
during the past 20 years, a vast amount of labour has been undertaken 
voluntarily, and without remuneration, by members of the Society, 
as well as by strangers, in private and in official capacities. Such 
are the public lectures, which many of our colleagues have delivered 
without any remuneration, and which have attracted large audiences 
to our reception Halls. We need not mention, in this place, the 
number of persons who, during the past and many preceding years, 
have disinterestedly brought accounts of their labours to the Society. 
It is doubtless through the liberal spirit which unites and animates 
all our members and constitutes our strength, that this great amount 
of work has been accomplished. Religiously to preserve this spirit 
should be our first duty, and our most sacred obligation. 

Translation of a portion of the Journal of the Russian Geo- 
graphical Society, Vol. iv. 1864. 

At a meeting of the Society on the 2nd and 14th December, 1864, 
Rear Admiral Boutakof read a paper on the subject of his last explora- 
tion on the Syr-Daria, between Fort Perovski and Baildyr-Tug* 
(a locality in the Tashkened territory). In 1863 Rear Admire 
Boutakof steamed 538 miles up the Syr-Daria, from Fort Perovski. 
This officer has now explored, determined astronomically, and mappec 
1003 miles of that river's course, beginning from its mouth. He 
expresses his conviction that the river is navigable still higher up, 
although, for want of fuel, he could not this time proceed further. The 
general ascending direction of the river from Fort Perovski is towards 
the south-east as far as the parallel of 43° of latitude ; thence it is 
directly to the south. Throughout the whole distance of 538 iniiesj 



I860.] Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. 85 

from Baildyr-Tugai to fort Perovski, the river flows in a magnificent 
mass of water between depressed banks of an argilo-salinous and 
sandy character,- for the most part inundated at high water ; thore 
was nowhere either a break in the banks, or a stone, for the observa- 
tion of the geologist. The swamps, after the subsiding of the waters, 
afford excellent pasturage whereon numerous Aouls of Kirghizes settle 
for the winter. In the midst of these meadow patches there occur 
here and there like islands, sand hillocks differing in height, from 30 
to 40 feet,- and overgrown with tamarisk, &c. The diy argilo- 
salinous banks rise from 7 to 10 feet above the level of high water, 
and are covered with tamarisk bushes with thorn (growing high and 
thick), ami in some places with the ' : Turanga" and " Djida." Nearer 
to our own possessions, large tracts are covered with the " Saxaul." 
Vegetation is most abundant on the islands, many of which are two 
miles long. Upon these the " Djida" grows 4 fathoms high, and the 
thickness of the " Turanga" reaches 10 inches in diameter. Almost 
all the islands are covered with a dense, almost impassable brushwood, 
where the Kirghizes declare there are tigers, drawn thither in pursuit 
of wild boars. The breadth of the river is from 150 to 400 fathoms-; 
the depth from 3 to 5 and 6 fathoms; the current ran at a speed of 
7 verstes (4 J miles) an hour, the average being from 4 J to 6 verstes (3 
or 4 miles) ; the water was of a dirty yellow colour, but when allowed 
to settle, was very soft and agreeable to the taste. Admiral Boutakof 
found no evidences of a settled life throughout the whole of the river's 
course. Patches of soil, cultivated by the poorest of the Kirghizes, 
occurred at extremely rare intervals ; and these were irrigated by 
water from canals replenished by hand from the river. The Kirghizes 
generally sow millet, sometimes barley, water-melons, and musk 
melons in their fields. There are two principal reasons for the absence 
of population along the banks of this river : firstly, the absolute want 
of any guarantee for personal security and for the protection of 
property and labour in the face of perpetual disturbances in Turkestan, 
Tashkend and Khokan ; and secondly, the greater advantage of settling 
along the rivulets running from the Kara-tau mountains ; these afford 
better facilities for irrigation than the Syr-Daria, which inundates 
and washes away its banks, and consequently demands an enormous 
amount of labour for the construction and maintenance of the necessary 

12 



8Q Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. [No. 2, 

embankments. This splendid water-course, navigable to Fort Djulek 
(the extreme eastern fort on the Syr-Daria line of frontier) which would 
be a picturesque feature in any other place, is surrounded by a bleak 
desert, and is now only occasionally enlivened by migrating hordes of 
Kirghizes, whereas the remains of the ancient towns of Otrar (where 
Tamerlane died) and of Tunent (destroyed by Tamerlane) which were 
seen by Admiral Boutakof, and the traces of a once extensive system 
of irrigation surrounding the ruins of these places, and occurring also 
in many other parts, are evidences of a once numerous, industrious, and 
settled population. The shores of the Syr-Daria, above and below Fort 
Djulek, present a striking contrast. Above Djulek is a howling desert ; 
below, and particularly commencing from Fort Perovski, all is life and 
activity along the banks. Corn fields and melon fields occur conti- 
nually, with populous Aouls of well-appointed tents, animated by the 
presence of herds of cattle. The Kirghizes assemble by hundreds to 
dig fresh canals for irrigation. Vast tracts of swamp and reeds, which 
were impassable in 1848, have been protected by embankments 
against the overflowing of the river and converted into corn fields 
which now engage the labour of thousands : and all this is exclusive 
of the localities within 50 or 100 miles of our Forts, especially the 
neighbourhood of Fort No. 1, where, in the excellent gardens surround- 
ing the Cossack settlements, grapes are grown, and cotton has been 
sown not without success. Kirghizes and sometimes Karakalpaks 
constantly migrate from the Khivan territories to the lands under 
Russian protection, so that they at length find themselves cramped 
for space. The Khivan and Khokandian forts which stood on the 
grounds now occupied by the Russians, were the centres of the most 
merciless and barbarous persecution. The Russian forts, on the other 
hand, are now guarantees for security, and serve to promote traffic and 
the general well-being of the natives. 

The advent of the Russians did certainly produce a most beneficial 
crisis in the condition of the Kirghizes of the Syr-Daria. 

Within 8 miles of Baildyr-Tugai, Admiral Boutakof s highest 
limit of ascent, there are the ruins of a small Khokandian fort, Bair- 
Kurgan, demolished, according to Kirghiz tradition, about 100 years 
ago. At a distance of 40 miles higher up, on the left bank, are the 
remains of the town of Tunkat (rased by Tamerlane). This place is 



18G6.] Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. 87 

now called Tskilleh, after a saint of that name whose tomb is close 

by. 

There are more Kirghizes grouped about Tunkat than over the 
entire extent of country traversed by Admiral Boutakof ; and to all 
appearances these were opulent, being possessed of immense studs 
of horses and camels, and of droves of horned cattle and sheep. 
Above that place, ♦. e. nearer to Tashkend, he fell in with two rich 
migrating Aouls, one encamped by the side of the river. 

Descending the Syr towards the river Arys, an open space becomes 
visible beyond the zone of reeds, at 4 or 5 miles from the river, 
studded with clayey sand mounds that are covered with a scanty 
and low brushwood. Some of these mounds are evidently artificial. 
On a sort of tableland, within 7 miles in a direct line, and almost 
due north from the mouth of the Arys, are seen the remains of what 
may have been the citadel of the ancient town of Otrar. 

From the mouth of the Arys to the little fort of Utch-Kayuk, 
abandoned two or three years ago by the Khokandians, and built on 
a marshy soil, the distance is 84 jj miles. The character of the river 
here is still the same, the same bends and islands, the same depressed 
banks, mostly flooded, the same vegetation along the shores and on 
the islands. The forts Utch-Kayuk, Din-Kurgaon, Yang-Kurgaon, 
Djulek and Ak-Mechet, (now fort Perovski), Kumysh-Kurgaon, Chin- 
Kuigaon, and Kash-Kurgaon (the three latter below fort Perovski,) 
were the rallying points of the Khokandians, for the subjugation of 
the Kirghizes, and the centres for the collection of tribute and the 
general merciless oppression of that people. Yang-Kurgaon, raised 
by the Khokandians in 1857, and Din-Kurgaon, erected in 1860, wero 
the last points of Khokandian resistance against the spread of Russian 
influence ; here also the last attempts were made by the Khokandians 
to retain under their yoke the Kirghizes who passed over in masses 
to place themselves under our protection. Yang-Kurgaon fell in 1860 
to the Russian arms; Din-Kurgaon in 1861. Utch-Kayuk is the 
nearest place to the town of Turkestan ; it was visible from the 
river, being situated in a hollow of the foreland of the Kara-tau 
mountains. 

The only affluents of the Syr seen by Admiral Boutakof are the 
rivers Arys and Sauran-Su, falling into the Syr on its right bank 



88 Russian Geographical Operations in Asia. [No. 2, 

opposite the An-djar settlement, 8f miles below Utch-Kayuk ; other 
rivers emerge from the Kara-tau mountains, namely the Tuitchke 
whereon Turkestan is situated, the Karaichik, 6 miles lower down, 
and the Sart-Su ; these do not reach the Syr-Daria, but lose them- 
selves in the marshes formed by its inundations. 

Below Utch-Kayuk the country at first is inundated, and large 
wet meadows, or more correctly morasses, extend along both banks of 
the river, but further on, especially on the right bank, land is firmer. 

Nearer Djulek the trees on the banks are higher and thicker than 
along the whole remaining portion of the river's course. In the 
immediate vicinity of this Fort, there is a very pretty avenue of tall 
and thick willows, looked upon by the Kirghizes as a sanctuary 
(Aulie). 

Between Djulek and fort Perovski the banks are generally firm and 
salinous, but not elevated. The u Saxaul" is very abundant at the 
Kasakty-Syra, -Chagouon and Kushsant settlements, and opposite 
Burinbai. The islands and the continuing banks are covered with 
the " djida," " turanga," and occasionally with willows, and the 
margins are usually clothed with high dense thorn and reeds. Sandy 
hillocks occur beyond the saline plains, and in many places Kirghiz 
tombs and the remains of long neglected irrigating canals are met 
with. 

From the 14th July, when the expedition was proceeding upwards 
and was within 67 miles of Utch-Kayuk, the waters were visibly 
subsiding, and daily decreased, though the heat continued to be great, 
up to 30° R. in the shade. This was doubtless owing to the exhaus- 
tion of the supply of snow which accumulates on the mountains, 
where the river takes its rise. At fort Perovski the water began to 
fall only from the 30th of July, and at Fort No. 2 from the 5th of 
of August (N. S). 

Notwithstanding that Admiral Boutakof's expedition had to halt 
at night close to marshy lands, there were no cases of ague, and so 
far as he was able to judge, the climate on the Syr-Daria, in its upper 
as in its lower course, was healthy. His astronomical observations 
disclose great inaccuracies in this portion of the map of Central Asia 
which is founded on the determinations by the Persian Missionaries 
of the 18th century,, 






1866.] Geology of the Western Himalaya, &c. 89 

The communication made by Admiral Boutakof, who has long 
distinguished himself by many years of labour in this region, was 
listened to with great attention, and received with great enthusiasm. 
We could not give here more than the mere outlines of the paper, 
which he is now preparing for the press, and which will appear with 
a map of the Syr-Daria. There is no doubt that Admiral Boutakof's 
work will be an agreeable acquisition for modern geographers. 



Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and tlie Afghan Mountains, a geological 
paper by Albert M. Verciiere, Esq., Bengal Medical Service ; with 
a note on the fossils by M. Edouard de Vernueil, Membre de 
V Academie des Sciences, Paris. 

[Received 11th March, 18G5.] 

Introduction. 

Of all the great chains of mountains on our Planet, the most 
stupendous is, singularly enough, the least known to the geologist. 
Many fossils have indeed been collected by travellers in the Himalaya, 
and a few have been determined ; but satisfactory sections and careful 
descriptions are very scarce, and it has not yet been found practicable 
to attempt any general grouping and arrangement of the rocks and 
beds of these mountains. Jacquemont's researches in Kashmir have 
not, I believe, much advanced our knowledge of the geology of the 
country. Mr. Vigne was no geologist, and his observations were not 
sufficiently accurate for scientific purposes ; the same remarks apply, 
more or less, to most visitors who have published what they saw 
amongst the higher ranges. Captain B. Strachey, B. E. in his papers 
on the geology of the Himalaya, between the Sutlej and the Kali 
rivers, gives a map and two sections which are of great interest ; they 
do not, however, refer to the portion of the Himalaya which I have 
studied, and they leave yet a vast field for more precise investigations. 
I regret not having been able to consult Capt. H. Strachey's paper 



90 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

on the physical geography of Little Thibet, and Dr. Thompson's work 
on the same country ; neither have I had the benefit of Mr. Medlicott's 
Memoir on the southern ranges of the Himalaya, between the rivers 
Granges and Ravee, nor any of the other papers which have been 
written on the Sub-Himalayan ranges. 

Of the geology of Kashmir especially, I believe that very little 
indeed has ever been published, and that not even a geological horizon 
has been discovered. Mr. Vigne and Dr. A. Fleming reported having 
found in Kashmir " Nummulitic limestone disturbed and calcined by 
greenstone ;" this was an error of some importance, as it gave a false 
datum from which to fix the age and relations of the Azoic rocks. 
Dr. A. Fleming, in his report on the Geological Structure of the Salt 
Range, published in Selections from Public Correspondence of the 
Punjab Administration, Vol. II., 1855, has the following passage : — 

" From Kashmir, too, Mr. Vigne obtained limestone containing 
11 nummulites. This we have seen in situ on the side of a mountain 
" at the upper end of the Manus Bal lake, where it is much disturbed 
" and calcined by greenstone. It probably forms the summit of 
" many of the higher hills on the northern side of the Kashmir valley, 
" a district fraught with interest to the geologist and hitherto quite 
" unexplored." 

, When I arrived at Srinuggur, Mr. Drew, who had visited Manus 
Bal, showed me some specimens of the limestone of that locality, and 
expressed a doubt about the markings seen on the rock being nummu- 
lites ; he considered their markings to be the result of crystallisation 
and weathering ; but I could not accept this view, and regarded 
the little marks as indications of organisms. I was unwilling to 
believe that Dr. A. Fleming could possibly have made a mistake 
about nummulites, after the experience he had had of their appearances 
in the Salt Range and the Bunnoo district ; and, as Mr. Drew ac- 
knowledged that he was not familiar with the nummulitic formation, 
and the specimens shown me were very bad and ill-preserved, indeed 
merely faint marks in a coarse limestone, I temporarily admitted 
Dr. Fleming's view. I was, at the time, unable to visit Manus Bal, 
or to absent myself a single day from Srinuggur, owing to great 
sickness amongst the visitors ; but I had the good luck to discover 
abed of fossiliferous limestone and shales within a few miles of 



18GG.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. ' 91 

Srinuggur. These beds were near enough to enable me to ride to. 
them in a few hours, and I soon found that they contained the same 
forms as were known to occur in the dressed blocks of limestone 
(obtained from Buddhist ruins) of which the river-walls and river- 
stairs of Srinuggur are built, and I also found the remains of one of 
the antique quarries near my favourite locality. Ultimately, the 
rocks reported to be nummulitic were found to be carboniferous, and 
the so-called nummulites, rings of Encrinite-stems ; the volcanic rocks 
were also ascertained to be pakeozoic in age and not intrusive. (See 
para. 53, where the Manus Bal limestone is described in detail.) 

To my friend, Captain Godwin- Austen of the great Trigonometrical 
Survey, I owe my best thanks. I had wished that this paper 
might have been written in conjunction with that gentleman, and it 
would have been well for the reader, if it had been so ; but as Capt. 
Austen went to Bhotan and I to Bunnoo, such a hope had to be 
abandoned. 

In drawing up the map, I have used for its topography whatever 
materials I could procure, but I have not had the benefit of many 
recent discoveries and surveys. The compilation was made from works 
of very different values. Kashmir, Hazara and the British Trans-Indus 
districts are, I believe, tolerably accurate ; the Salt Range is less so ; 
whilst the Korakoram Chain, the Hindoo Koosh, Kaffiristan, Chitral, 
Kabul, etc. only lay claim to give a general outline and direction of the 
ranges, valleys and rivers. About the Hindoo Koosh, I much regret 
not having been able to avail myself of the maps of Kaffirstan lately 
published in the office of the Surveyor General of India. 

It may appear, on seeing how little of the Afghan mountains is 
geologically coloured, that there was no necessity of extending the 
map as far as the Hindoo Koosh, but I hope that the advisability 
of having sketched in this chain will be acknowledged, after reading 
the fourth chapter of this memoir. 

The geology of the map is partly from my own observations and 
partly from information obtained from friends and travellers ; I have 
endeavoured to enter nothing which did not appear pretty certain. 
I have been able to sift satisfactorily a good deal of the information 
obtained, by means of specimens which were either shown or given 
to me. 



02 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

I have added a few sketches of fossils which, I hope, will be found 
sufficiently well done to enable the organisms to be easily recognized. 
The forms sketched are those which have appeared to me most 
characteristic of the beds met with. 

The two parts of which this paper consists are nearly separate 
memoirs. In the first, chapters 1 and 2, a description of the mountains 
of Kashmir is given in some detail. In the second theoretical views 
are discussed; but as Kashmir is merely a small portion of the 
Himalaya, it was found impossible to understand many fossils without 
taking such general views as referred to the whole mass of the 
chain ; and, further, as the Himalayan chain is supposed by me to be 
intimately connected with the Afghan mountains, these mountains 
had also to be considered. In order to be intelligible, it became 
therefore necessary to write a cursory survey of the Afghan-Himalayan 
regions ; this is done in the 3rd chapter. It is of course very superficial 
and incomplete ; yet I hope that it may not be without some interest. 
On the data furnished by the first three chapters, the hypotheses 
advanced in the fourth are based. 

I have not entered into many details on the eocene and miocene 
formations (except incidentally), as it would have lengthened to undue 
proportion this already too long paper ; these formations deserve to 
he studied by themselves. The same remarks apply to the Jurassic 
and Saliferian rocks. In chapter 3, however, a few words will be 
found on the nature and relations of these beds. The principal object 
of this paper, in its descriptive portion at least,, has been a study of 
the older rocks, viz. Silurian and carboniferous, together with the 
volcanic and metamorphic rocks. 

I trust that the many imperfections and errors which cannot fail to 
occur in a memoir of this nature, will not be too severely criticised. 
My excuse is that this paper was prepared at one of the out-posts of 
the Punjab Frontier, where I had not the usual assistance of a Museum 
and a Library. Such as it is, I hope that it may not be without 
interest to some of the members of the Society who are fond of 
geological researches. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 93 

Chapter I. — Felstone and Porphyry. 
The mountains South-West, South and West of Cashmir. 

Baramoola is a small city, well known to the tourist in Cashmir 
and to the pedestrian coming from Murree ; it is a haven of rest, for 
here boats may be hired to take him to Srinagar, the very heart of 
the valley. From the heights above the town the traveller gets his 
first view of the celebrated vale, and in the spring of the year it is 
difficult to imagine any more beautiful landscape than it affords. It 
is here also that disappointment or enthusiasm commences, according 
to the traveller's disposition : for to many Cashmir is an overrated 
land, whilst to the scientific man, to the artist or the antiquarian it is 
a mine of great wealth. 

The town is built at the foot of a hill which has a direction west 
to east, and is cut in two to give a passage to the river Jheelum. It 
is approximatively in N. Latitude 31° 13' and E. Longitude 74° 23'. 
Its southern view is limited by a small hill, the Atala, and on 
the west a mountain of 8,467 feet, the Shumalarum, also confines 
the horizon. Thus, placed in a cradle of hills, on the banks of the 
Vedusta, it has a picturesque aspect, a damp cold climate, a celebrity 
for rain and storms, and a great name for earthquakes. 

The hills at the foot of which Baramoola is built are the extreme 
eastern extension of the great Kaj Nag Range, which, proceeding 
from E. to W. for 20 miles, bifurcates into a huge north-westerly 
branch (which I shall leave alone for the present, as I know nothing 
about it), and a southern branch which, proceeding S. S. W., divides 
again, one arm going west towards Mozofferabad, whilst the other, 
the Kircn or Kirna range, crosses the river at Ori (or rather the river 
crosses it) to be continued with the Kandi range in the direction of 
the Pir Punjal chain. 

2. The whole range of hills near Baramoola dips S. by a few 
degrees E., and in describing the rocks from S. E. to N. W., we shall 
therefore proceed from the more superficial to the deepest. 

On the left bank of the river, we find a clinkstone or felstone of a 
dark grey colour and slaty texture, and an appearance as if it had been 
drawn while in a viscid state. It has a sandy feel to the hand ; it 
breaks into long narrow flags having a close resemblance to pieces of 

13 



94 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

pine wood which have been cut and prepared for burning, and have 
weathered grey by exposure. It has a well marked stratification, 
which is cut obliquely to its plane by a slaty cleavage which forms with 
it an angle of about 113°. It has also a series of parallel joints, 
about 2 or 3 feet apart, and which cut the stratification at right angles 
but form with the cleavage an angle of 67°. The joints are usually 
lined by a coating of quartzite, and both quartzite and felstone are 
occasionally stained by iron. 

The felstone appears to be entirely composed of elongated and 
flattened granules of felspar or albite, which has a sub-vitreous lustre 
when closely examined ; it has a dark bluish-grey colour, but weathers 
ash-grey and even dirty white and some pieces which are very fissile, 
assume somewhat the silky appearance of amianthus. The colour of 
the paste appears to be due to augite ; this, by decomposition, lets free 
a certain quantity of iron which causes the surfaces of cleavage and 
stratification to be covered by a powdery, rusty incrustation. Sparingly 
disseminated in the mass are seen minute fusiform nodules of dark 
shining augite ; these nodules are never crystalline. Some strata 
are extremely thin-bedded, like sheets of paper, and fall to pieces very 
easily, ultimately decomposing into a brownish earth. Other strata 
present an alternation of very thin laminae of nearly white and dull 
albite, and a dark grey shining mixture of felspar and augite, so that, 
when the rock is broken vertically, it appears striped white and grey. 

3. The above beds dip S. and a few degrees E., with an angle of 
60° near the Atala hill, but the angle diminishes as we go towards 
the N. W., being no more than 45°, near the river at Baramoola. 
For two miles along the left bank of the Jheelum, this felstone was 
observed with, here and there, a band of amygdaloid interbedded. 
But I made too superficial an examination of the Atala to enter here 
into detail. Crossing the river to the right bank, we find that felstone 
also forms the hills which overhang Baramoola. Just over the city, 
it is similar to that of Atala, but as we proceed towards the N. W. 
and therefore see deeper beds, the character of the beds changes 
considerably. There is a beginning of separation of the minerals of 
the felstone, the dull white albite forming by itself innumerable 
penicilli having the shape of extremely elongated spindles which 
are imbedded in the grey felspathic paste. The rock has still, 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 95 

however, a well marked stratification which is rendered very conspicu- 
ous by the white penicilli being parallel to it. There are also 
cleavage and joints as before, but a great deal more quartz in the 
latter. 

The next beds, lower down, are much lighter in colour and more 
compact in structure. The paste is ash-grey, felspathic and dull 
looking, but instead of the penicilli noted before, we have here regular 
almond-shaped masses of white saccharine albite, usually about one 
inch long and two-tenths of an inch across, but often made larger 
and with the albite in the state of a fine incoherent sand. Then 
rocks, like the one with penicilli, but bluer in tint and interbedded with 
amygdaloidal greenstone and felspathic ash, containing oval nodules 
of augite, extend to the west, as far as the Shumalarum which they 
appear to entirely compose. 

The angle of dip, on the right bank of the river, is again very 
great, being about 60°, and the beds are a good deal faulted. One 
fault has a direction N. E. — S. "W. and the river runs in it at 
Baramoola. It is continued in a ravine on the right bank of the 
river, about a mile below the town. The angle of dip is not the 
same on both sides of the fault, and there has been a slight down-throw 
on the south. The Jheelum, while in the fault, is narrow but 
navigable ; at the ravine, it turns suddenly to the south, quitting the 
fault and passing over a band of rock which stretches from W. to E., 
thus forming a small rapid. From this place to Ori, where the 
Jheelum enters the Sub-Himalayan tertiary sandstones, the Vedusta 
follows its course across the much up-tilted beds of felstone, changing 
its character of a winding, placid, broad and shallow river into that 
of a boiling, rapid, deep and narrow torrent, and forming, as it were, a 
succession of small falls and cascades all the way down. The thick- 
ness of the felstone near Baramoola is enormous. I can form but a 
mere appreciation, not having followed the beds sufficiently far to 
the west ; but I am certain that it is much above 5,000 feet. 

4. The following section (marked I. on the map) is merely a 
diagram to enable the reader to understand the position of the beds. 
It is oblique and not at right angle to the dip. 



96 



Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, 



[No. 2, 



WNW 

about 5100 ft. 
above sea level. 




F £ D -•" c B 1- — 

A. Dark grey felstone, slaty, stratified and with a cleavage and 

joints. Fusiform, elongated, minute granules of augite. Many 
thin-bedded strata, about 400 feet. 

B. Felstone like A, interbedded with strata of felspathic ash 

containing nodules of augite, 30 „ 

0. Rough trachytic clinkstone or felstone, breaking in elongated 

slabs terminated by oblique, clean joints generally lined with 
quartzite, 500 „ 

D. Bluish grey felspathic paste with innumerable penicilli of 

white powdery albite, 500 „ 

E. Pale grey felspathic paste with almond-shaped masses of 

albite, either powdery or compact and saccharine. Beds of 

ash interstratified, 400 „ 

F. A succession of beds similar to D. and E. interstratified with bands of 

amygdaloid and of felspathose ash containing oval nodules of augite. 
This rock appears to form the whole of the Shunialarum, and was seen, 
as far as I could see, towards the west. 

G. Shumalurum, 8467 ft. 
H. River Jheelum or Vedusta. 

1. Baramoola. 

J. The dotted line is the Atala. 
K. Lacustrine Clay and Boulders. 

5. The rocks, which I have endeavoured to describe, are continued 
along both banks of the Jheelum as for as the fort of Ori, about twenty • 
five miles south of Baramoola. Following them on the left bank, 
(Murree Road) we first cross the Atala, and can observe, near 
the village of Mihrur, very fine narrow slabs of felstone, twelve feet 
long, used as rafters to support a roof over a holy well or spring. 
Proceeding S. W. we cross a small marshy valley, and near the 
village of Grhaut Mullah we meet a succession of spurs directed 
towards the N. W., and which are the extreme north-western 
extension of the Pir Punjal Chain. These spurs are also made up 
completely of felspathic flagstone, identical to that which I have 
described above, but the dip and strike of the beds are different 
from that of the beds near Baramoola : the dip is W. with a 



1866.] tlw Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 97 

very high angle ; but the rock is much decomposed, the vegetation 
rich, and little is seen until we reach Nausherra. Thence, the beds 
are well exposed, forming lofty cliffs over the path, of a grand and 
picturesque aspect ; they are often quite vertical and seldom form an 
angle with the horizon of less than 85°. But the same force which 
has made those strata stand on end, has also broken them and 
wheeled round enormous sections of the beds. Even a superficial 
examination shows that portions of the hills, some thousands of 
yards long, caught as it were between two faults and thus set free 
in their movements, have been made to rotate on themselves, the 
strike changing its direction from a few to ninety degrees. Thus, 
nearBuniar, the strike is N. — S. ; a little further south it is W. — E. ; 
four miles before we get to Ori it is W. 15° N. — E. 15° S. and the dip 
is southern and only 45°. At Ori the strike is again about N. W. — 
S. E. and the dip northern and 80°. But it is often difficult to see the 
stratification in these laminated rocks, as cleavages and' joints are 
generally better marked than the stratification. The general strike, 
however, is from N. a few degrees W., to S. a few degrees E., and the 
dip is northern. 

Between Nausherra and Ori, the felstone presents several ap- 
pearances. The bulk of the hills is made up of a pale grey and 
extremely laminated felstone, having much the appearance of slate, 
and being crossed by numerous veins of opaque quartz. These 
veins are sometimes so thick that they form bands of quartzite. 
Near Ori, some beds are seen having the appearance of metamorphic 
ehloritic slates. Others are made up of very thin-bedded felstone of an 
earthy appearance, and are wonderfully wavy and crimpled, whilst the 
beds above and below them are but gently undulated. It appears 
probable that these thin-bedded layers were deposited by water 
during periods of volcanic inaction, and that when the covering 
felstone contracted in cooling, the aqueous deposit was gathered in 
zigzag folds. They ought, therefore, to be considered either as an ash 
arranged by water, or as a laterite derived from the surface of decom- 
posing felstone, and having the same composition as its parent rock. 

6. About half way between Buniar and Ori, is a small Buddhist 
ruin concealed by brambles and wild roses, and built of a dark grey 
rough trachy-dolerite. This rock was obtained from a thick band 



98 



Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2 3 



which is well seen close to the ruin. It is divided into somewhat 
prismatic blocks by joints ; it is generally compact, but sometimes 
scoriaceous, and it appears to have had some influence on the cooling 
of the felstone above and below it, this being much more compact 
near the trachy-dolerite, and becoming gradually more laminated and 
slaty as we get further off. I cannot say whether the trachy-dolerite is 
intrusive, or interbedded ; but it is perfectly conformable to the felstone. 

7. At Ori, we find a small valley sunk between high mountains 
and crossed by a tolerably big ravine and by a torrent flowing from 
the S. E. to N. W. This torrent divides the hills on the S. W. which 
are miocene sandstones and shales, from the mountains on the E. and 
N. E. which are volcanic. The Jheelum describes a semi-circle 
round the extremity of the Kiren range, the beds of which cross the 
river to be continued with those of the Kandi or Kanda Range, which 
are the link between the Kirna Range and the Pir Punjal Chain. The 
river runs for a little while between the volcanic rocks of the Kirna 
and the miocene sandstones, but it very soon leaves this bed, and 
cutting a canal through the tertiary sandstones and clays, bids farewell 
for ever to rocks of a volcanic origin. 

8. I will not enter into a description of the tertiaries in this 
paper, though we shall have to see much of them incidentally, but 
as it has been said and written by many persons that the miocene sand- 
stones and clays dip under the volcanic felstone (generally described as 
metamorphic schists or quartzose mica-slate), I must correct the error, 
while we are at Ori. Both the volcanic and miocene beds are nearly 
vertical, but not quite, and dip northernly, and there is therefore an 
appearance of the miocene dipping under the felstone. On examin- 
ing the high bank of the Jheelum, however, not far from the fort, I 
could see the miocene beds bend backwards, thus showing that they 



f ELSTO NE 



R. J H EEL UM 




fig- 1. 



are superior to the volcanic rocks, but have been dressed up against 
them by a lateral pressure. The diagram (fig. 1.) shows well the folded 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Jfylian Mountains. 99 

disposition of the miocene and the bending backwards of the beds in 
contact with the felstone. These beds are partially concealed by a 
very high river-terrace of conglomerate, but this has been washed off 
in many places and the rocks are left uncovered. 

There is, in the Sub-Himalaya, sufficient evidence of miocene 
sandstone having been mostly raised by a lateral movement ; there 
appears to have been a reflection, a refoulement of the miocene 
beds towards the S. and the W., as if the enormous masses of the central 
chains had surged up through a chasm of the earth's crust and forced 
the sandstone aside, instead of lifting it up. And thus the volcanic 
rock of my diagram would have pressed against the miocene, and 
curbed up and bent back the yielding plastic beds of sandstone and 
clay. 

9. Returning now to Buniar, half way between Ori and Baramoola, 
we cannot fail to admire the remains of a Buddhist temple of con- 
siderable size and great beauty. It is built of a white porphyry, 
and of this porphyry we must now speak in detail. 

The stones of the temple were obtained from huge blocks which 
are strewed on the river terraces on both sides of the Jheelum, in the 
neighbourhood of Buniar. Some of these blocks are of enormous 
size : one I noticed is about 20 feet above ground and nearly as thick 
and "broad as it is high. No water-power could have moved such 
enormous masses, and they have evidently been brought down by 
glaciers. I have been told that Mr. Yigne supposed them to have been 
brought by icebergs floating on a huge Kashmir lake, but we need 
not go so far for their origin, as the Kaj Nag peaks, seven miles to 
the north, and the Sank or Sallar, eight miles to the south, are mostly 
composed of this porphyry. A glance at the map will easily demon- 
strate how glaciers, filling up the narrow valleys of the Harpeykai and 
the Khar Khol, brought down to the river-terraces blocks of porphyry 
detached from the summits of Kaj Nag and Sallar (13,446 ft. 
and 12,517 ft.). I had not time to visit these valleys and look 
for ancient moraines, but some blocks show strise and scratches such 
as glaciers alone can produce. These glaciers no longer exist, but their 
disappearance is only the result of a change of climate of the Himalaya, 
which is abundantly proved to have taken place at a very late 



100 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

geological epoch by the river-terraces, raised lacustrine deposits and 
other indications of diminished rain-fall.* 

10. Examining the porphyry of the Kaj Nag mountains in hand 
specimens, we find it composed of the following minerals : — 

a. — Paste of granular, white, opaque albite, fusing before the 
blowpipe without much difficulty or = 4J of Yon Kobell's scale of 
fusibility. 

b, — Small transparent crystals of quartz-like rock-crystals. 

c. — Large crystals of glassy shining albite, with a vitreous lustre 
and a lamellar cleavage. Sections of the crystals are sometimes as 
much as five inches long. 

d. — Plates of white mica ; sometimes grey. 

e. — Dark augite (or Horneblende ?) with an Iodine lustre and a dark 
greenish grey colour. It fuses = 4, without swelling or boiling. 

f. — G-arnets ; red, brittle and cracked. 

g. — Grains of magnetic iron ore ; metallic lustre ; black. 

h. — G-old ; in invisible scales. 

The paste of granular albite is hardly to be seen in the most 
crystalline specimens of the porphyry ; but it increases very much as 
the several crystals are less abundant and less well defined, forming 
rocks in which we see, beside it, only a few specks of dark augite and 
spangles of white mica ; even these occasionally disappear, and* we 
have a rock having a saccharine appearance, and entirely composed of 
minute shining grains of albite. Specimens are found in all the 
stages of transition, from the highly crystallized porphyry to the 
saccharine rock. 

The quartz is not very abundant in the most perfect porphyry, 
but it increases in some specimens, rows of small rock crystals appear- 

* The diminished rain-fall is the result of the filling up with diluvial deposits 
of the great troughs situated between the Himalaya, the Affghan mountains 
and the mountains of Central India once covered by the sea, and now repre- 
sented by the valleys of the Ganges and Indus. This filling up of the 
sea-communication once existing between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian 
Sea, converted the Himalaya's climate, then insular, or at least littoral, to an 
eminently continental one. The tremendous rain-fall at Cherra-Poonjee 
(5(H feet during S. W. Monsoons) enables us to form an idea of what the 
snow-fall must have been on the high summits of the Himalaya in the clays 
when the Bay of Bengal extended to the foot of the Siwalik hills, and the 
Arabian Sea bathed the Salt Range. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 101 

ing in the map. It becomes also amorphous and forms bands of 
considerable thickness of opaque quartzite, crossing the rocks in the 
same manner as similar bands often cross beds of shales or other 
stratified rocks. 

The mica is also scarce in some specimens, small spangles being 
occasionally imbedded in the substance of the large crystals of albite 
(c) or sparingly disseminated in the paste. But in other portions 
of the porphyry it becomes very abundant, forming tufts of plates 
which resist decomposition better than the other minerals, and stick 
out of the rock where this has been worn and rounded by exposure. 
These tufts of mica often form irregular bands. 

The augite varies from a few specks to laminar masses of 
considerable size. It is often found associated with felspar alone, the 
other minerals having disappeared, and it thus forms a rock composed 
of amorphous grains of albite and lamellar masses of augite. Before 
the blowpipe it fuses only in places, small globules of a shining black 
glass appearing on the assay. 

The garnets are sometimes wholly wanting and sometimes very 
abundant. It is very difficult to extract them from the mass, owing 
to their brittleness. They are mostly found where the porphyry is 
well crystallized and the mica abundant. 

The large crystals of albite vary in size from half an inch to five 
inches. They have two cleavages, one nearly at a right angle to the 
surface of the plate, or forming with it an angle of about 95°. The 
other cuts the first cleavage obliquely with an angle of about 115°.* 
The form of the crystals is, I fancy, uncommon, and I will describe 
one of them with its dimensions, in order to give an idea of the 
proportions of the crystals. , 

The crystal is always twin or composed of two hexagonal plates 
(fig. 2) two and half inches in diameter between opposite angles, and 
0.4 inch thick. Either four or the six edges of the plate are 
bevelled by oblique facettes, which form with the plane of the surface 
an angle of about 138°, so that one surface is considerably smaller 



* The angles of these crystals were measured with strips of paper and 
a graduated half circle ; the crystals were also much weathered ; the results 
are therefore mere approximations. If I had had the means of measuring the 
angles with precision, I would have figured the crystals. 

13 



102 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

than the other. Two such plates are applied one against the other 
by their greatest surface, but one of the plates has (apparently) rotated 
half a turn, so that A of one plate is opposite B of the other. 




Fiff. 2. 



*o 



This rotation is of course only apparent, but it appears to have taken 
place from the cleavage of the two plates being opposite, so that when 
we look at a section of the double crystal (fig. 2), one side presents 
the shining striped surface of a lamellar cleavage, whilst the other 
shows the dull rough surface of a fracture across the grain. This 
opposition of cleavage is probably clue to a play of opposite electricity 
generated during crystallization, but it gives the idea of one of the 
plates having made half a turn before applying itself against its 
fellow. % 

The perfect crystal is rarely seen ; it is generally broken across, 
and the section (fig. 2) is conspicuous on the surface of the rock, 
so that, at first sight, one may fancy the crystals to be prisms, 
and a little trouble is necessary to understand the arrangement of the 
twin plates. This made is therefore, to all appearance, a twin crystal 
of one of the numerous modifications of triclinic albite. 

By exposure to the atmosphere, the porphyry crumbles easily and 
falls to a coarse gravel which is soon converted into a very white 
sand. While the rock is still hard and sound, the large crystals 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 103 

of albite sometimes become loosened in their matrices, and, falling 
out, leave angular cavities on the face of the rock. The rock, 
when fresh and well crystallized, is however very hard : some 
varieties appear to crumble much more quickly and completely than 
others. 

II. — The grains of magnetic iron ore and the gold I have not seen 
in the porphyry,* but they are found in the sands which, I will now 
endeavour to prove, have been formed by the decomposition of these 
volcanic rocks. 

Gold is washed in most of the rivers which traverse the miocene 
sandstones and conglomerates of the sub- Himalaya, and is always 
found associated with grains of magnetic iron ore. Let us examine 
one of the districts where the washings are, I believe, most abundant, 
the banks of the Sonne river, in the districts of Jheelum and 
Rawul Pindee, especially near the villages of Pindeh Geb, Kothair 
and Mukud. Let us therefore go to Rawul Pindee and travel towards 
the S. W. along the road to Kalabagh. We find that this dreary 
road, about 120 miles long, crosses obliquely from the N. N. E. to the 
S. S.' W. the great plateau of miocene sandstone, conglomerate 
and clay (Sect. G.). 

There is a thick bed of miocene sandstone and conglomerate, 
above 2,000 feet thick, which might be called the upper miocene 
formation of the Sub-Himalaya (contemporary of the Sewalik hills 
and containing the same Mammalian fossils), whilst the sandstone 
and shales of Murree and adjacent hills, about 5,000 feet thick and 
without fossils, might be regarded as the inferior miocene. These 
two divisions of the miocene are not exactly one on the top of 
the other, but rather the upper bed thinning towards the north, 
covers in the southern edge of the lower bed in an intricated 



* A similar granitoid porphyry exists in Portugal, in the hills near Cintra 
about five leagues from Lisbon. It is there very variable in appearance and 
consistency, and is generally made up of large grains of felspar and of quartz, 
and of large plates of mica. It contains grains of magnetic iron ore, but I am 
not aware whether it contains the large twin crystals of felspars seen in the 
Kaj Nag porphyry. The Portugal rock is generally described by travellers as 
granite, but is considered by geologists as decidedly volcanic. It presents 
the character of crumbling easily after a certain amount of exposure. 



104 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

S 




Fig. 3. 

manner, as represented in the accompanying diagram (fig. 3) : 1, Upper 
Miocene with Mammalian Bones ; 2, Lower Miocene without fossils 
(excepting a few roots and stems and imprints of leaves) ; 3, Porphyry 
and Felstone, &c. 

The upper bed is therefore not seen near Murree, whilst the lower bed 
is equally absent from the great plateau of Rawul Pindee, where the 
fossiliferous sandstone is always seen to rest directly on the Nummulitic 
formation, wherever this breaks through the miocene. The bed we 
have to deal with here is, therefore, the upper miocene only. It is 
much folded and faulted, forming stray folds and many faults at both 
extremities of the bed, and rolling in broad undulations in the centre 
of the plateau. Now, if we examine the much up- tilted beds near 
Futteh Jung, Nusrulla, or else close to the Salt Range near Kalabagh, 
we find them composed of a grey or greenish calcareous sandstone, of 
conglomerate and of sandy indurated clays containing nodules of 
kunkur. These beds look like inclined and parallel walls sticking 
out of the alluvium, and separated one from the other by open spaces 
or intervals ; and one may at first sight fancy that the several strata 
have been wrenched apart at the time they were upheaved. But if 
we examine the beds where they are nearly horizontal, as in the 
neighbourhood of the Soane river near Kothair or Jubbie, we find 
that they consist of a hardly cohesiye sand, very white and composed of 
minute grains of albite and quartz, with black grains of augite and 
spangles of mica. I have been in the habit, in taking notes, to call 
this sand, Pepper and Salt sand, and I shall here make use of this 
term, as it is a convenient one. Interstratified with this sand we find 
the beds of grey or greenish sandstone, of conglomerate and of sandy 
clay noted at Futteh Jung ; and it becomes evident that at the places 
where we first observed the beds, and where they are much tilted up, 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 105 

the [topper and salt sand has been washed out from between the harder 
beds, whilst in the horizontal strata, the sand has been protected by 
one of the strata of harder rock which acted as a roof over the sand 
underneath. 

Now this pepper and salt sand is the one washed for gold. The 
washings are done during and after the rains, as the swollen waters of 
the torrents bring down to the beds of the rivers a large quantity of 
fresh sand. It is washed in the usual manner, and gives a residue of a 
black sand which is composed of shining grains of magnetic iron ore 
and grains of augite. A little more washing in a smaller vessel 
removes the augite and a great part of the iron ; and the gold, which 
is rarely visible with the naked eye, is picked up by mercury. 

If we examine the pepper and salt sand in situ, we shall very soon 
become convinced that it is nothing but the porphyry of the Himalaya 
ground down to powder, for we find in it numerous pieces of the 
porphyry not quite crushed to sand. I have found some of these pieces 
half an inch long and composed of a hard fragment of albite supporting 
specks of augite. Pieces of the large felspathic crystals I have 
seen also, and the smaller crystals of quartz are frequent and hardly 
altered and rubbed. The sandstone consists mostly of undecomposed 
albite and augite. It is not easy to describe in words the great 
similarity between the porphyry and the white sand, but their 
complete identity strikes one at once when we study the beds. 
Dr. Fleming made therefore a good guess when he wrote the following 
passage: "We have been quite unable to trace the source whence 
the gold has been derived, and are not aware that amongst the 
quartzites and quartzose mica slates (felstone is meant,) which are 
much developed in the Punjal Range, near the Baramoola Pass into 
Kashmir, and stretch west into the northern Hazara mountains, tho 
metal has ever been detected in situ. From similar rocks there can 
be little doubt that the auriferous sands have been derived."* 

And again he writes : " In the neighbourhood of the Salt Range 
the scales of gold are small and almost invisible, but we have heard 
from natives, that, in Hazara, grains of gold are sometimes found of 
a size such as to admit of their being picked out of the sand. If 

* Report on Geological Structure of Salt Range : Selections, P. Govt. Vol. II. 
3855, page 342. 



106 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

this be true, we may infer that the auriferous source is somewhere to 
the north, and that by tracing the gold stream, so to speak, we might 
arrive at a point where the drifted materials become coarser, and 
where the gold, from its high specific gravity, has been deposited in 
larger quantity."* 

That the miocene deposit of the Sub-Himalaya has been derived 
from the mountains situated N. or N. E. of it, is evident from the 
boulders contained in the conglomerates of the formation, these 
boulders being mostly volcanic rocks, such as we have seen in the 
mountains near the Baramoola, and such as we shall see in other parts 
of Kashmir. We will see, by and bye, that these volcanic rocks extend 
to the west, along the northern boundary of the Peshawur valley, as 
far at least as Jelalabad, and to the east as far, at any rate, as 80° east 
long., and probably much farther, though it appears from Captain R. 
Strachey's memoir on the geology of part of the Himalaya mountains,! 
that the volcanic rocks in the eastern portion of the Himalaya are 
more intrusive than they are in the western extremity of the chain. 

If it is indeed true that grains of gold of some size are picked out 
of the sand in Hazara, some valuable diggings might yet be found 
in the valleys situated between the spurs of the Kaj Nag range or its 
extension to the west. But I cannot help thinking that, with a 
population everywhere anxious to wash gold even in very poor wash- 
ings, auriferous sands of any economical value would have been worked 
long since, especially as the sands formed by the decomposition of a 
porphyry, similar to that of the Kaj Nag chain, and situated on 
the eastern frontier of Kashmir are searched for garnets only. 

The magnetic iron ore is tolerably abundant in the pepper and salt 
sand, and is at present wasted by the gold -washers of Kothair and 
Mukud : but it has not been always so. In traversing the great 
miocene plateau of Rawul Pindee, I noticed for many miles along 
the road, between Pindeh Greb and Jubbie, small pieces of black 
slag, often in some quantity and evidently very old, as many 
pieces were seen where ravines had cut the ground, buried a foot 

* Ditto ditto, page 344. 

f On the Geology of part of the Himalaya Mountains and Tibet, by Captain 
K Strachey, Bengal Engineers, F. G. S. Proceedings of the Geological Society of 
London, 1851. 






1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 107 

and half below the surface. Knowing nothing then of the magnetic 
iron sand, I could not conceive whence the slags came, but on seeing 
the large quantity of iron ore which is washed out of the sand by the 
gold-diggers, I was forced to conclude that a time had been when the 
iron powder was saved and smelted. It is not such a poor under- 
taking as it might appear to wash iron from sand, especially as the gold 
alone would pay the men 3 or 4 annas a day, and a very little arrange- 
ment would save the iron, It contains about 70 per cent, of metal 
of the very finest quality and the very best to make steel. It resembles 
Swedish iron, and it is the same as the Kangra iron which has been 
proved to be of excellent quality by experiments in England. It 
is very dear, selling at £14 a ton. It is probable that the smelting 
of this iron sand was discontinued from the want of fuel, which is now 
very scarce on the plateau. That fuel was once more abundant, is 
sufficiently proved by the amount of travertin seen in many places where 
no springs exist now-a-days ; and these fossil springs, if I may call the 
travertin by that name, tell us of a time when a higher jungle on the 
plateau and forests on the hills arrested a good deal of moisture, and 
wrung from the humid monsoons a portion of the rains which are 
now poured on the Himalaya. It would be, I imagine, easy for the 
local government to find out whether the magnetic iron ore is still 
smelted in some localities in the district, or when the smelting was 
discontinued, and to resuscitate the trade, the iron ore being brought 
to Mukud from the neighbouring villages, and there smelted with 
charcoal brought down in boats from the Akora Kuttuck hills or 
from Hazara. Excellent limestone is abundant near the banks of the 
Indus ten or twelve miles above Mukud. It is also abundant in the 
conglomerate on which Mukud is built. 

The smelting of this iron sand would not, of course, give profits or 
yield a quantity of metal worth mentioning in comparison to the 
results of European industry, but it might be a valuable enterprise for 
natives possessing some little capital, and might much ameliorate the 
miserable condition of the gold-washers. 

12. — Returning now to Buniar and the Kag Naj range, I must 
insist on the very changeable appearance of the porphyry. We have 
seen that it consists of a granular mass, with large crystals of albite, 
small crystals of quartz, crystals of garnet, plates of mica and lamellae 



108 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

of augite, and that any of these crystalline minerals or all of them 
may disappear, leaving a rock entirely composed of a saccharoid paste 
of albite. At other times the quartz becomes very abundant, and 
thick bands of white quartzite traverse the mass. Again, the augite, 
which is sometimes wholly wanting and at others in very minute 
specks only, may increase and at last predominate and form dark 
rocks with a semi-metallic lustre, the augite being generally collected 
in masses of aggregate plates having the lustre of iodine. It very 
often happens that the minerals are arranged in bands or layers as in 
gneiss, and this apparent foliation also varies much, and often it does 
not exist at all, whilst in other instances it is extremely well marked, 
thus gradually forming a passage to the clinkstone, described in the 
beginning of this paper. 

13. — I have not visited the high summits of the Kaj Nag : indeed, 
I have only seen a few spurs of this enormous centre of mountains ; 
but, from the road between Nausherra and Ori, one can see on the 
other side of the river, towards the tops of the hills, immense masses 
of the white porphyry glaring in the sun through the underwood which 
covers these mountains ; and Captain H. Godwin- Austen, Gr. T. S., 
who assisted in the survey of this district, informed me that the white 
porphyry of the Buddist ruin at Buniar forms the summits and 
all the central system of the Kaj Nag range. From a coloured sketch 
kindly made for me by this officer we are enabled to see that the 
porphyry forms the whole of the main chain of the Kaj Nag, a portion 
of the huge North- Western branch, and extends along the western 
or Mozufferabad branch towards Hazara. The rock passes gradually 
from the granitoid porphyry I have described to less and less crystal- 
lized rocks, until it becomes the pencillated white and blue felstone 
which we have seen at Baramoola, and finally the earthy, slate-like 
felstone of the Atala mount.* 

The summit of the Sank or Sallar, on the left bank of the Jheelum, 
I have also painted as volcanic porphyry, from my observing that the 
valley of the Apaikey is strewed with blocks of porphyry to a 

* Captain Austen described the felstone as a hard slate, but as he said 
that this. slate was identical with the "hard slate of the lofty cliffs over the 
road near Nausherra," it is evident that what was taken for slate, was an 
earthy slate-like felstone. At the time Captain G. Austen observed these 
rocks, he had not yet begun to study geology. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 109 

considerable height, and disposed in such a manner that they cannot 
have been brought from any other locality but the summits above. 
When I visited the Apaikey valley, the summits on both sides were 
covered with a thick mantle of snow, but the very shape of the peak, 
a smoothly rounded boss, was suggestive of a hill composed of 
materials which wear quickly and round easily under the influence 
of atmospheric vicissitudes. 

14. — We must now endeavour to ascertain the extent of country 
covered by volcanic rocks similar to those I have described, and I am 
again indebted to Captain H. G. Austen for the following information : 
" The so-called granite, or, as you say more properly, volcanic por- 
phyry, of the Kaj Nag is quite unlike the granite of the Deosais or 
Ladak, which is pure granite or syenite. This Kaj Nag rock is seen 
again in the mountains bounding the south-east end of the valley 
(of Kashmir) and in Kistwar ; and the whole length of the Chota 
Dhar range, bounding Badrawar to the south, is of it ; I have seen it 
nowhere else. It is so strikingly peculiar that I should certainly have 
noticed it, had I come across it in other parts of Kashmir." 

How far the porphyry of Kistwar and Badrawar extends to the 
east, I have no means of judging ;* but we have seen that the Kaj 
Nag extends towards the west into the upper part of Hazara ; and 
I have had described to me some " granite" seen a few miles north 
of Mauserah, near the entrance into the Kaghan valley, which 
appears to be a volcanic porphyry similar to that which we have seen 
at Buniar.f But it extends still further west : Dr. Costello informs 
me that a great deal of "granite" and quartz occurs in and near the 
Umbeyla pass, lately occupied by the troops under General Sir Neville 



* The "granitic" bolt between the Sutlej and the Kali rivers, loro-. 77° to 
80° 15', appears to be a continuation of the p 3rphyry of Kaj Na«-, Kistwar and 
Badrawar. In Sirmoor, Garhwal and Kum.ion it forms the centres of moun- 
tainous systems such as Chor, Dudatoli, Binsar, &c. Capt. R. Strachey 
describes it as " often porphyritic and much subject to decay." It passes into 
''mica-shist showing a distinctly laminated structure," (felstone ?) and also 
into greenstone. 

t Also " a place on the road (to Maussra) as it passes along the eastern 
edge of the Pukti valley gets its name of Chitti wat (white stone) from several 
large blocks and hillocks of white felspathic rock containing large crystals, the 
same as that of the blocks on the ridge of Buri a few miles to the S. W.,' and 
like them visible " from a great distance."— Journal of the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society of India, Vol. XIV. Part I. 

14 



110 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

Chamberlain. The General himself, in one of his dispatches, describes 
some of the hills as " granite," putting a note of interrogation after the 
word, and thus showing that the granitoid rock he noticed was 
sufficiently peculiar in its appearance to make it doubtful whether it 
was really a granite. From specimens of the mountains near the Pass, 
kindly given to me by Dr. Costello, I have no doubt that the 
so-called granite is one of the varieties of porphyry described in 
paragraph 12. It passes into a felstone composed of very elongated 
and large spindles of opaque, dirty white, and somewhat granular 
felspar and bluish semi-translucent glassy felspar, and in the 
spare felspathic paste which cements the spindles together, a few 
irregular grains are seen of a mineral having a metallic golden lustre, 
and which is probably Diallage or Bronzite. The rock has a great 
resemblance to, and is indeed identical with, the most compact sort of 
felstone seen at Baramoola. Bands of quartzite, of which I have 
seen very beautiful specimens as clear as Wenham lake ice, are also 
extensively developed, as well as enormous masses of compact gypsum 
and tabular selenite. 

Dr. Bellew, in his " Report on the Yusufzaies," describes a variety 
of volcanic rocks occurring in the ranges which separate British 
Yusufzaie from Chumla, Buneyr and Swat : " Feldspar grit" and 
" various combinations of mica and felspar," " porphyry in a variety 
of forms," "trap-rock in great variety," quartz, mica and clay-slate, 
hornblende-rock, felspar-rock and amygdaloid ; " hard trap" (green- 
stone ?) "loose, friable and crumbling" ditto, (ash?) He also de- 
scribes granite and gneiss ; but he adds that the gneiss is quarried for 
mill-stones, and, if these mill-stones, (which is very likely) are similar 
to the mill-stones of Jellalabad, they are a coarse gneissoid felstone, 
and not a gneiss. The granite again is a whitish rock, and we find 
it connected with and surrounded by, rocks undoubtedly volcanic. 
I have no hesitation therefore in regarding it as a granitoid porphyry, 
similar to that of the Kaj Nag. A great deal of slate and " primitive 
limestone'" is also mentioned in these mountains. 

Dr. Bellew concludes that these hills are " all of primitive and 
metamorphic rocks ;" but the list of rocks he gives, proves conclusively 
that they are of volcanic origin. 

These volcanic beds in Yusufzaie are capped, in some places, by beds of 



186G.] the Western Himalaya and Afyhan Mountains. Ill 

limestone, and these again by sandstone. No fossils have yet been dis- 
covered in either the limestone or the sandstone, and the age of these 
strata must therefore remain unknown for the present. Near Jellalabad 
beds of gneissoid felstone appear. This rock is quarried to make hand- 
mills which are brought down by the Povindahs and sold in Peshawur 
and the Derajat. These hand-mills are made of a coarse trachyte which 
has begun to effect a partial separation of minerals, and these minerals 
are arranged in streaks of white, granular felspar, greyish-blue 
felspar, with here and there a grain of augite. It is, therefore, again 
one of the varieties of felstone seen at Baramoola, and probably the 
same gneissoid variety quarried in Yusufzaie. 

15. — By reference to the map we observe that the Pir Punjal chain 
is the first great parallel of the Himalaya, between the long. 73° 30' 
and 76° E. It is a great chain, forming a belt of high mountains 
between the miocene districts of Jummoo, Rajaori, Poonch and Ori 
and the Kashmir valley, and at both ends of this great chain an 
immense accumulation of porphyries and other volcanic rocks, rising 
to tremendous heights, and covering some thousand square miles of 
country, are placed like two bastions at the extremities of a centric 
wall. What rocks then compose the connecting chain, the Pir 
Punjal ? The reader will easily conceive how vexed I am that I was 
prevented visiting this range, more especially as the information 
I obtained from travellers is most conflicting and unsatisfactory. Mr. 
L. Drew, who has traversed the chain three or four times, was especially 
struck with the enormous development of a great slate bar of un- 
known age. We shall see in the next chapter, how very thick and 
extensive courses of slate are interstratified with beds of trachyte, 
ash and agglomerate, in the mountains bounding the Kashmir valley 
to the North. These slates are completely devoid of fossils, but as 
I hope to be able to fix the age of the volcanic rocks with which 
they are interbedded and contemporaneous, we had better reserve 
the discussion of their age until after the examination of the fossili- 
ferous strata of Kashmir. 

But the slates form only a band or bar in the Pir Punjal chain, 
and not the whole of it. I believe, that the remainder of the rocks 
of this range are mostly volcanic ash, felstone and agglomerates. A 
friend of mine and a very trustworthy observer, in the following passage 



112 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

from a letter to me, is describing, I think, volcanic rocks, especially 
agglomerates and ash full of lapilli and volcanic conglomerates. " It 
(the lacustrine deposit of the valley of Kashmir) rests unconformably 
on trapean rocks, quartzite, quartz conglomerate, very hard and 
forming a compact mass." And again, further to the S. W. on the road 
through the Pir Punjal Pass, he says : " The rocks are principally 
mica-slate, with thick beds of a hard conglomerate having a very fine 
dark blue matrix ; this, in some places, was a mass of water-worn 
pebbles ; but in most of it these are scattered through the mass, and are 
often in that case angular and small. Up to the Pir Punjal Pass the dip is 
N. with a high angle ; having crossed the ridge N. E. this continues 
all the way to Barangulla, giving these altered sandstones, slates and 
conglomerates an enormous thickness."* The excellent observer who 
wrote the above remarks did not think, it appears, that the rocks 
were mostly volcanic in origin, but I cannot help imagining that 
his description applies, in great part, to stratified ejecta of volcanic 
eruptions, and the passage I have put in Italics is, I think, a very 
fair description of ash with lapilli. Again, I must also remark that 
the felstone of Baramoola has always been described by travellers, 
and by geologists also, as mica- slate, though it contains no mica 
and is nearly wholly made of felspar ; what has been taken for mica, 
being minute spindles of glassy albite. It certainly has a slaty 
cleavage, and the most earthy varieties have a close resemblance to 
metamorphic slate, and it is probably this fact which has misled most 
people as to the nature of the rock. It is not therefore impossible that 
some of the " mica-slate," mentioned above, is in reality earthy felstone. 
16. The position of the Pir Punjal chain is rather peculiar, abut- 
ting as it does at both ends against enormous centres of volcanic rocks, 
and being separated by a great fault (the valley of Kashmir) from moun- 
tains also composed of the same rocks. In the enormous accumulation 
of amygdaloidal ash, agglomerate and conglomerate which we shall 
see, by and bye, on the other side of the valley, there is abundant 
proof of the existence of open volcanoes in this part of the Himalaya, 
at the time the porphyry was in a fluid or viscid state. The extreme 

* I do not give the name of the person who kindly gave me the information 
quoted, as I do not agree with him on the origin of these rocks, and believe 
that he missed appreciating their true value, though his description is 
accurate. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 113 

regularity and evenness of the stratification of these cinder beds 
renders it highly probable that the showers of ejecta fell in a shallow 
sea in which the volcanoes formed islands. It appears to rne, that we 
cannot refuse to admit that the porphyry was the base of the vol- 
canoes, and indeed the matter which failed to escape through the 
vent in the earth's crust, whilst the felstone or clinkstone and varieties 
of trachytic rocks into which the porphyry always passes, are lavas 
which have flowed under the pressure of the sea. If these views 
are admitted, we have a series of volcanoes beginning at the Kaj Nag, 
and forming an arc along the north-east boundary of the valley of 
Kashmir, clown again to the mountains of Badrawar : of this arc of 
volcanoes the Pir Punjal chain is the chord. Can we wonder, huge 
though the chain is, at its being in a great measure formed by ejecta 
of volcanoes received in a sea gulf and there arranged in conformable 
layers ? The slate, as we shall see in the next chapter, was formed 
during the intervals of volcanic activity, and it is not improbable that 
the continual shower of ashes and hot stones into a shallow bay kept 
the water at a temperature too high for the development of animal 
or vegetable life. 

Since writing the above paragraph, Capt. G. Austen has informed 
me that beds of unmistakably volcanic rocks, such as amgydaloid 
and coarse greenstone, are interbedded with the slate and other rocks 
of the Pir Punjal. This is precisely what occurs in the hills north 
of the valley of Kashmir, we may therefore regard the Pir Punjal 
as a mass of volcanic ejecta interbedded with slate which was 
deposited during the periods of volcanic tranquillity. 



Chapter II. — The Mountains North and North-East of Kashmir. 

17. By referring to the map, we observe that the Kashmir valley 
is an elongated trough with its longer axis directed S. E. — N. W. The 
Jheelum has a similar general direction, as far as the Woolar Lake, 
and the smaller stream which drains the north-western end of the 
valley flows from the N. W. to the S. E. To the north-east of 
this axis, we notice long spurs of hills which descend to the water- 



114 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

edge of the Woolar Lake, the Maims Bal and the Dal and to the 
lacustrine plains of Pampur, Avantipoor, Bij-Behara and Islamabad. 
These spurs are the extreme south-western ends of a labyrinth of 
mountains which forms a barrier, nearly forty miles across as the crow 
flies, between the flat plain of the Kashmir valley and the chain of 
mountains which separates Kashmir proper from Drass, Sooroo and 
Ladak. If we consider the Himalaya as a series of parallel chains 
and valleys, we should have the Pir Punjal chain as one of the 
parallels ; traversing the valley of Kashmir and the labyrinth of moun- 
tains to the north-east of it, we meet another great parallel chain, 
which has unfortunately no general name. It has been called by 
Col. Cunningham the Western Himalaya, but the name is evidently 
objectionable, as we want the term " Western," to designate the 
whole of the Himalaya between the longitudes east 73° and 79°, or 
between the Indus and the Sutlej. It has also been called the Central 
chain of the Himalaya by several authors, but the great quantity 
of snow which covers its peaks is merely the result of its being so 
placed, that it collects and condenses nearly all the remaining mois- 
ture contained in the south-western winds, and sends these winds 
perfectly dry to the Kailas and Karakoram ranges. The beautiful 
series of snowy summits presented by this chain is therefore no claim 
to its being the central chain of the Himalaya. I am afraid no other 
rule, but that of the division of drainage, can be considered safe in 
estimating which of the many parallel chains of a same system of moun- 
tains is the central one ; and if we conform to this rule, the Kara- 
koram range is to be regarded as the central chain of the Himalaya. 
It is therefore preferable to name the chain under consideration by 
the name of one of its great peaks, and as the Kun Nun or Ser and 
Mer Peaks (23,407 feet) are well known and very conspicuous 
in the western portion of the Himalaya, I shall make use of the 
term " Ser and Mer chain" to designate the great parallel range 
which separates the basin of the River Jheelum from that of the 
Indus. 

Between the Pir Punjal and the Ser and Mer chains, we have not 
only the valley of Kashmir, but a number of independent and, as it 
were, isolated centres of mountains which, as I have said before, form 
a complicated labyrinth of hills and valleys to the north and north- 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 115 

east of the Jheelum. If we travel, on the map, from the N. W. to 
the S. E. of the valley of Kashmir, following the banks of the Jheelum, 
we shall notice a series of mountains of moderate height, encroaching 
into the valley, and separated one from the other by broad lateral 
valleys more or less filled with lacustrine deposits. The first mountain 
we meet is on the eastern side of the Woolar lake, and is called the 
Safapoor (10,309). Its foot is bathed by a small but exquisitely 
picturesque lake, (PI. 6) the Manus Bal. The next is close to 
Srinagar and is the Zebanwan (8813). Ten miles to the south-east, 
the Wastarwan, near Avantipoor, is the next summit ; then, after 
crossing the valley of Trahal, we meet the hill of Kamlawan (8601), 
over the village of Murhama, and the Sheri Bal close to the Kamla- 
wan. Crossing the broad valley of the Lidar River, we find the 
Hapatikri, a mountain which sends a spur to the S. W. to form the 
small hill of Islamabad at the foot of which the town of that name 
is built. Crossing the valley of the Arpat river, we meet with the 
Dhar (8146) and the Nawkan (9207). We have therefore, from 
the eastern shore of the Woolar lake to the extreme south-east of 
the Kashmir valley, a catenated chain of mountains composed of 
isolated summits, whilst their relations are covered by the diluvial 
and lacustrine deposits which fill the Kashmir valley, and the 
lateral valleys which open into it. This chain is therefore presented 
to us as a series of summits and not as a regular chain.* Its 
direction is that of the general parallelism of the Himalaya, viz. 
from N. W. to S. E. Ten miles, as the crow flies, to the northeast of 
this chain there is another similar one, that is to say a series of 
summits, apparently somewhat detached one from the other, but being 
in a line with the parallelism of the Himalaya. These mountains are 
from the S. E. to the N. W.— the Liwapatoor, the Wokalbul (14,310) 
the Girdwali (14,060), Batgool (14,423), Boorwaz (13,087), Handil 
(13,273) Saij Aha (11,334). West of the Saij Aha, this catenated 

* I need hardly say that the catenated appearance of the chains described 
in the text is in great part dne to erosion, and that this great erosion is only 
what was to be expected, if we remember that the whole rain-fall of the 
southern slope of the Ser and Mer chain has to find its way to the valley of 
Kashmir across these catenated chains, and that the Ser and Mer chains re- 
ceive a tremendous snow-fall. I use the word " catenated," in the same 
sense as it is used in Anatomy, to designate the arrangement of the lymphatic 
glands of the neck, viz, like the beads of a necklace or rosary. 



116 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

chain becomes blended with the first one I have indicated. Ten miles 
again to the north-east of the series of peaks just enumerated, is 
another chain of detached peaks or centres of mountains, arranged 
along a line parallel to the two others and to the general direction 
of the Himalaya. From the S. E. to the N. W. we have the follow- 
ing summits or centres of mountains : the Rajdain (15,389), the 
Gwasbrari (17,839) the Harbagwan (16,055), the Basmai (15,652), 
the Kotwul (14,271), the Haramook (16,903) and the numerous 
peaks which, with their complicated spurs, separate the valley of 
Kashmir from Gurais and Tillail. 

Between all these catenated chains, connecting spurs or branches 
are to be seen spreading in all directions, and it is extremely difficult 
to give the direction of the resulting masses of mountains. But the 
geology of these mountains will help us a good deal to understand 
their topographical grouping. As we see these mountains on the map, 
we should be disposed to consider them as long spurs of the Mer and 
Ser chain descending towards the S. W. ; but we shall see that all, 
or at least most of these summits, are composed in their centre of 
rocks which have once been in a fluid or viscid condition, that is of 
porphyry, greenstone, basalt and amygdaloid ; that these melted 
rocks are covered by enormously thick layers of ash, agglomerate 
and slate interbedded, and that on the top of these beds of ejecta 
fossiliferous strata rest quite conformably. It becomes therefore 
evident, that the summits represent separate and isolated centres 
of volcanic action, no doubt much displaced by the last upheaval of 
the Himalaya, but yet preserving their relations to the beds of ejecta 
which were collected around their feet and on their slopes. We have 
therefore a linear arrangement of volcanoes, or at any rate of volcanic 
fused matter, (for some of the collections of melted minerals may not 
have reached the surface and never had a vent), this linear arrange- 
ment forming three parallel lines, and these lines being parallel to the 
general N. W. — S. E. direction of the Himalaya. I believe that 
similar lines of volcanoes or collections of volcanic matter are to 
be found between several of the great parallel chains of the Himalaya, 
but whether they are thus general or not, the ones in Kashmir are 
sufficient to prove that during the Palaeozoic epoch, the volcanoes of 
the Himalaya had an arrangement more or less linear, and that the 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 117 

great lines of fracture on which these volcanoes were situated, had 
the same direction as that of the Himalaya of our time. 

18. Beginning with the southernmost line of summits, I will 
now describe in some detail the hills which compose it. I shall begin 
with that nearest to Srinagar, viz. the Zebanwan. 

The Zebanwan is a mountain of 8813 feet at its highest point, with a 
general direction from E. to W. (Map B). Its eastern portion is nearly- 
due E. — W., and is 2J miles in length. It then turns to the S. W., at 
the same time throwing out long spurs to the N. W. to embrace the 
eastern shore of the Dal. The Zebanwan keeps its N. E. — S. W. 
direction for 3 J miles, when it bifurcates into two branches, a southern 
one, small and short, and a W. N. W. one, 2J miles long. It is at 
the end of this W. N. W. branch that the Tukt-i-Suliman rises, a very 
conspicuous little hill, seen from nearly eve*y part of the valley. 
Still further to the W. N. "W., 2J miles from the Tukt, the hillock 
of Hurri Parbut rises out of the lacustrine alluvial. It is evident 
that the Tukt-i-Suliman and the Hurri Parbut are only continuations 
of the W. N. W. spur of the Zebanwan, and appear as detached hillocks 
on account of the thickness of the lacustrine deposit. (Sect. A). 

The following detailed section of Hurri Parbut, the Tukt-i-Suliman 
and the W. N. W. spur of the Zebanwan is at a right angle to the 
axis of these hills. It will give, I hope, a good idea of rocks which 
we shall meet again and again, and which I will, therefore, endeavour 
to describe now with some precision, as they are nowhere better seen 
or more conveniently studied. 

Section of Hurri Parbut, Tukt-i-Suliman and W. N. W. spur of 
the Zebanwan. (Sections A, B, &c). 

Direction of chain : S. 65° E.— N. 65° W. General strike of beds S. E.— 
N. W. General dip of beds, north-easterly. The Section follows the direction 
of the range and consequently cuts the dip at an angle of about 65° instead 
of 90°. (See Sect : A). (Section II. of General Map). See also Map B. 

Hurri Parbut. This hill is a succession of hard layers of trachy-dolerite 
and soft layers of other rocks. The trachy-dolerite is rough, compact, very 
hard and dark. I have never seen it scoriaceous. It is sparingly amygda- 
loidal, containing sometimes a few large geodes filled with white quartz. 
These beds are nearly vertical, with a dip east-north-easterly, forming with 
the horizon an angle seldom under 75°. The most westerly beds are nearly 
vertical, whilst the most easterly layers are more sloping. There are seven or 

15 



118 Mr. Verehere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

eight thick beds of this trachy-dolerite separated one from the other by the 
following rocks : (a) A slaty basalt, hard when fresh, but very soon falling into 
foliated debris. It reminds one somewhat of the earthy variety of the felstone 
of Baramoola. It is grey in colour, (b) an ash of a dirty-looking felspathic paste, 
full of rounded or oval nodules of dull augite or hornblende. These nodules 
are probably amygdaloidal in origin, being due to a bubbling of a hot paste 
of ash and water. It desintegrates very quickly into a yellow earth or a grey 
gritty soil on which grass grows well, soon concealing the rock below. 

These beds of slaty basalt and ash are well stratified, and fill up all the 
spaces left between the layers of trachy-dolerite ; this last rock forms promin- 
ent ridges or saddles on which the several works of the fort are built. 

A marshy alluvial plain intervenes between the Hurri Parbut and the 
Tukt-i-Suliman. 

Tukt-i'Suliman. The western extremity of this hill (as it appears above 
the lacustrine deposit) is a little knoll which has received the name of Rustun 
Ghurree. 

1. Rustun Gurree : Compact greenstone either greenish or bluish ; hard ; 
fracture conchoidal. Either no amygdala or a few large ones, about the size 
of a pigeon's egg, often irregularly shaped, composed of white opaque quartz 
arranged in concentric layers and never crystallized.* Strike S. E. — N. W. j 
Dip N. E. = 50°. This is a hard rock and forms a prominent boss of a barren 
character. It is quarried for building purposes, but is too hard to be dressed, 
and as it breaks in angular pieces, it is altogether a very unsatisfactory building 
material. This bed has a thickness of about 60 ft. 

2. A dirty yellowish -grey felspathic ash, full of geodes of dark augite. 
It decays fast, the nodules of augite, after partially decomposing and 
colouring the whole mass ochre-yellow, drop out of their niduses and leave 
a spongy mass of yellow earth somewhat resembling pumice, but not in its 
hardness. It is used as a good clay for pottery. It is much better developed 
on the northern than on the south-eastern side of the hill. In one section 
it is no more than 10 ft. 

3. Resembling greenstone but much more amygdaloid. It is hardly seen on 
the southern aspect of the hill, where it is covered by vegetable earth and a 
cemetery ; but it is well seen on the lake side near the water gate,.. . 20 ft. 

4. Tukt-i-Suliman : A mass of amygdaloidal greenstone, sometimes 
compact, as at the base of the Rustun Gurree, but more generally showing 
dark specks of augite or hornblende in the mass. The amygdala of white 
quartz invade it, either as large and scarce geodes disposed here and there 

* These amygdala of white quartz occasionally fall out of their matrices 
and are to be seen in numbers, half-buried in the soft silty mud of the lake near 
the village of Drogehand. Should this mud one day dry up into a rock, a false 
amygdaloid will be produced, all the more difficult to distinguish from fused 
amygdaloid, as the mud of the lake is entirely formed of the debris of volcanic 
rocks. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 119 

irregularly in the rock, or as smaller geodes mixed among long cylindrical and 
twisted branches of quaz-tz running through the mass. (See figs. 1, la. plat. X.) 
I must confess, I had some difficulty in understanding these branches ; they look 
precisely like the ai-ms of a canal or like small rhizomes, and they sometimes 
have the form of worm-burrows ; they begin with thick branches or trunks about 
the size of the finger and throw out smaller twigs ; they are often 6 or 8 inches 
long, and are cut obliquely by both stratification and cleavage. I have come to 
the conclusion, after examining a great many of these cylinders, that they are 
gas-vents, similar to the amygdala in origin, the imprisoned gas, in its efforts 
torraohthe surface, having had sufficient strength to force a long passage 
though the viscid paste.* Dip 55° to 60° about 600 ft. 

5. Amygdaloidal greenstone, graduating to trachyte ; with innumerable 
small geodes, rounded and pressed together. The greenstone becomes rough 
and gritty and passes into a trachyte, it is much less amygdaloidal ; and on 
the other hand, where the rock is excessively amygdaloidal, the paste is a 
dark brownish black rock, which is cleaved into, well defined slabs, and breaks 
easily into prismatic fragments. This bed forms a depression between harder 
layers. The stratification is easily seen by the several courses of the rock 
superposed one on the other ; but of course it is not seen in the thickness of 
each course about 200 ft. 

6. Pale bluish greenstone, hard, compact, with conchoidal fracture ; it is 
closely spotted with irregular dots of hornblende. At the base of each compact 
layer, there is a margin 1 or 1£ foot thick and very amygdaloidal, the 
geodes being filled with quartz. It is a very hard stratum ... about 150 ft. 

7. Closely set amygdaloid. The paste is a greenish felspar, sometimes 
very 'compact and then dark, and cleaved into slabs half an inch thick . 
sometimes light in shade and with the amygdala rather irregular and nearly 
touching one another. In many specimens, the felspathic paste shows 
a division of the felspar into a bluish or greenish mass and patches of white 
felspar ; but there is no crystallization. Dip 70° nearly due E. The fels- 
pathic paste decays pretty quickly and thus this bed forms a depression 
on the hill sid.e 50 ft. 

8. This is the stratum on which the celebrated Buddhist ruin is built ; it 
is the highest summit of the Tukt-i-Suliman (6263 ft.) It is composed 
of very hard, dark greenstone, with amygdala of white quartz, occurring 
sparingly. Beds of lighter coloured greenstone, with specks and nodules of 
augite are interstratified. A great many well defined long cylinders of quartz, 
either white or black or smoky, such as I have described as gas vents, are 
seen here. This stratum is a hard saddle or ridge ; nearly vertical, and 
dipping easterly 60 ft. 

* I have since read that Dr. MacCulloch observed in Little Cambay, one 
of the Western Islands of Scotland, amygdaloid containing elongated cavities 
similar, I believe, to those which are here described. 



120 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

So far, the rocks have been purely igneous. We now meet an 
alternate succession of igneous rocks produced by the decomposi- 
tion and arrangement under water of volcanic minerals. Ash, 
agglomerate and other strata of volcanic eject a become also much 
more abundant. 

9. A dark blue slate, in places clayey, in others calcareous, and effervescing 
slowly and feebly with acids. It decays soon and forms a depression. It 
contains no trace of organisms 15 ft. 

10. A lumpy brown rock composed of a coarse felspathic paste which 
weathers chocolate-brown and contains a great number of lapilli, mostly black 
and basaltic-looking. It shows thin, lenticular beds of pale grey felspathic 
ash containing innumerable geodes, filled, some with quartz, some with dark 
augite (?) This stratum is not very hard, and rounds by weathering, so that it 
forms a smooth round boss and not a sharp saddle. It is about ... 30 ft. 

11. This bed is interesting and presents a very peculiar appearance. 

The rock is a pale grey trachyte in which crystals of dull white 
alb'ite have imperfectly formed and arranged themselves in tufts 
of imperfect crystals forming more or less a star or section, (see 
fig. plate X.) When the rock is polished, (such as is seen in the 
pavement of Srinagar where it is polished by people walking over 
it*) the starry disposition of the crystals is evident enough, though 
in the fresh broken specimen it is rather confused. The rock is « 
passage between a trachyte and a felspathic porphyry. I have 
never seen or read a description of this variety of volcanic rock, 
and I therefore propose to call it " Soolimanite." On the north- 
western flank of the hill, this bed of Soolimanite is better seen than 
on the other side, and there presents some layers which show well the 
nature of the rock. Some of these layers, rather darker than those 
we have seen on the other side of the hill, contain the starry crystals 
well developed in the centre of the beds only, whilst above and 
below, that is near the lowest and uppermost parts of the beds, the 



* The stone is not abundant, and very few pieces of it are seen in the pave- 
ment of Srinagar. I have seen two however, one in the vegetable market 
near the great Musjid, and the other between the first bridge and the gate of 
the Shere Ganie on the left bank of the Jheelum. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 121 

Fio\ 4. crystals disappear and are replaced 
© o- •••■» • „"^ * .-» o -' by amygdala filled with, quartz 
^ ^fj. ^ -^ sf ^ * .* ^ ^ (fig- 4.) Other beds again of compact 
</*-'*"- *"* :*, < trachyte show neither starry crystals 
nor amygdala in their centres, but 
have their deepest layers invaded by 
large amygdala, and their upper- 
most portion full of small geodes, 
„ . . having besides a scoriaceous aspect 
- (fig. 5). 
Fi 8- 5. I n t i ie middle of this bed of Sooli- 
manite, some of the cylindrical tubes of quartz described before as 
gas-vents are well developed, branching in all directions through the 
rock.— Dip E. 70° about 30 feet. 

12. Slate of various colours, laminated and very false-bedded, often squeezed 
and twisted. It has been folded, the lower part being nearly vertical with a dip 
westerly, whilst the upper part dips east 65°. The centre of the fold is much 
contorted and gathered in zig-zags, and in these contorted parts a great nfany 
gas- vents (branching cylinders of quartz) are well seen ; some as large as the 
finger, others of the usual size, viz. a crow's quill 200 ft. 

13. A band of Soolimanite like 11. The slate of No. 12, has evidently 
been metamorphosed by the action of heat emitted by the band of Soolimanite 
which covers it. There must have been a considerable period of inaction 
between the two out-pours of Soolimanite to enable the slate to become collect- 
ed, and it is evident that the slate was yet in the state of a silty mud at 
the time of the second eruption and was set bubbling by the heat of the 
Soolimanite. 

I may here remark that I am satisfied that many of the layers 
of laterite, cellular slate and ash, which we shall see in this 
section, are nothing but true sedimentary deposits metamorphosed 
and rendered amygdaloidal by the bubbling or boiling of the 
waters which covered them. I had thought at one time, to try and 
distinguish the beds of ash and volcanic mud which were probably 
formed as I have just explained ; but I found the work too uncertain 
and requiring too much time to be worth prosecuting. But no doubt 
can be entertained that, besides the slate and laterite, many of the 
beds of the mountains of Kashmir which appear to be volcanic ash 
or dust, are in reality metamorphosed sedimentary layers. 



122 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

The Soolimanite has a thickness of , 15 ft. 

14. The band of Soolimanite gradually passes into a felspathic ash, 
often friable, but often also hard and compact and full of oval nodules of 
dark augite, vaiying in magnitude from the size of a pea to that of a pin's head. 
Occasionally the ash passes, along the strike, into a hard compact quartzite. 
The whole bed appears irregular and lenticular, and has been probably formed 
by ejecta falling into shallow pools of water ... 15 ft. 

15. A calcareous rock which is not seen on the hill side, but gives 
out, on the brow of the hill, a good deal of nodular muddy carbonate 
of lime (kunkur). Here and there a brown ferruginous rotten ash (or 
metamorphosed calcareous shale ?) crops through the grass on the top of the 
hill. It effervesces feebly with acid, and is probably the rock which gives 
out the kunkur. This layer, which is probably squeezed out of its place near 
the foot of the hill by the gradual curving of the strike of the harder rocks, 
is, at the top of the mount, at least 20 ft. 

16. A thin band of amygdaloidal greenstone 12 ft. 

17. Slate, grey. On the western side of the bed it dips W. N. W. 65°. 
In the centre it is much folded ; on the eastern side it dips E. S. E. 75°. 
This angle, however, diminishing quickly to 65° 20 ft. 

18. Greenstone alternately coarse and fine 20 ft. 

19. Slaty basalt, dark bluish black, fracture conchoidal. It dips E. a few 
degrees S. 70° 30 ft. 

20. A crumbling, brown, lumpy metamorphic mud, slightly amygdaloidal. 
It decays rapidly into a dirty yellow coarse gravel. It is interbedded with bands 
of agglomerate, the lapilli being mostly basalt 50 ft. 

21. Sandstone, hard, rough, quartzose and micaceous ; apparently much 
altered by heat. No organisms 3 ft. 

22. Coarse quartzose grit, very hard and rough. It appears to be composed 
up of angular grains of quartz, variously coloured, cemented together by a 
siliceous paste. It may be a siliceous deposit in which crystallization of the 
purer quartz has begun to take place ■ 15 ft. 

23. Sandstone like 21. Dip. S. E , 10 ft. 

24. Blue compact slate, becoming gradually first coarser and more like a 
shale, and then more silty or like yellow and grey clay-slate. The stratification 
is best seen by the coloured markings which indicate it to be only 25° and E. 
The bed has probably been squeezed out of its place 150 ft. 

25. Coarse yellow sandstone with a calcareous cement. Cleavage well 
marked. No organisms 20 ft. 

26. Slate, thin bedded and falling into angular fragments. It is mostly 
deep blue with bands or ribbands of yellow and grey. The dip is more regular 
than that of the slates seen before. It is nearly due E. with an angle 
of 40° \ 200 ft. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 123 

27. Slate, fissile. It differs from the preceding by decaying nmch more 
quickly by exposure, the whole bed being covered by small debris. It dips 
W. on its western side, and E. on the eastern, whilst the centre of the fold is 
zigzagged 30 ft 

28. Slate, compact and dark blue 8 ft 

29. Slaty shale, grey and dark, dipping W. a few degrees N. at an angle 
of 55°. It is continued (underneath) by coarser shales which form an anti- 
clinal (not easily seen on account of debris and of the decayed state of the 
shale). On the other side of the anticlinal the dip is nearly due E. 60°. The 
extent of outcrops of this layer (not its thickness) is about 5 to 600 ft. 

30. Metamorphosed slate, fissile and greyish blue j much jointed ; the joints 
are yawning, sometimes a foot apart ; they strike W. E. vertically. The stra- 
tification dips E. S. E. with an angle of 50°, but that is much falsified by the 
stratum inwrapping the end of the spur. This bed presents in its middle, 
thin layers as follows : 

a. Soft, yellow quartzose sandstone, nearly friable, 8 inches, b. Dirty 
quartzite, 8 inches, bb. Do. with veins of pure white opaque quartz, 1 foot. 
c. A hard, brown, baked quartzose with spreading veins of quartz, 6 inches. 
Total 3 feet. The whole outcrop of the bed (not its thickness) is about 130 ft. 

Here ends the Tukt-i-Suliman, and between this hill and the foot 
of the W. N. W. spur of the Zebanwan passes the road from Srina- 
gar to the Nishat Bagh. (Sect. A). 

The W. N. W. Spur of the Zebanwan. Ascending this spur in the 
continuation of the section, we have the following beds : 

1. Slate more or less laminated, with large yawning joints striking W— E. 
The stratification is well shown by the colouring of the slate j it dips W. 45° ; 
inwrapping the end of the spur. 

It may be here remarked, that the beds of slate, ash and fossili- 
ferous rocks nearly always present this inwrapping arrangement 
at the end of spurs and when they cross a spur; it appears that 
these beds had plasticity enough to bend all round when upheaved by 
inferior rocks. A fine example of this inwrapping arrangement is 
seen in the limestone which terminates the spur of the Zebanwan 
over the village of Zeeawan : the limestone, in endeavouring to 
arrange itself around the band of volcanic rock which upheaved it, 
has split into slices from 5 to 15 feet thick, diverging like an open 
fan. (Sect. C). 

To come back to our section, the slate has a tendency to break into 
prismatic pieces, and the joint-surfaces are coated with a yellowish or 



124 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

dirty white quartz. This hed is evidently a continuation of the last 
bed of the Tukt-i-Suliman (30 of section A), and the road passes over 
a synclinal, which would be very evident, were it not for the inwrap- 
ping arrangement of the slate at both extremities of the bed. As we 
go up the hill, we observe that the bed forms a small eminence of its 
own, being separated by a fault from the western beds which have a 
general south-easterly dip. It extends for about a thousand yards 
along the southern aspect of the hill, wheeling round and, as it were, 
lining the foot of the spur, its dip becoming gradually more southerly 
until it is S. W. 

2. Following our section, we find, after the fault, the same alter- 
nate disposition of felspathic ash with nodules of augite, of dark 
slate more or less laminated, baked and metamorphosed, and of vol- 
canic agglomerate full of dark coloured lapilli. It would be tedious and 
unprofitable to give a minute description of each bed, especially as 
the enumeration would be a long one, each bed being seldom more 
than 10 feet in thickness. No greenstone was seen for more than 
half a mile ; the ashes are always tolerably compact when not in a de- 
composed state, and always invaded by innumerable nodules of augite. 
They are always well stratified, and it appears therefore evident that 
the whole of the ejecta fell into water, by which they were arranged 
in well defined strata. The amygdaloidal condition of nearly all 
the rocks, whether ash or slate, seems to indicate that the water was 
raised to a high temperature during the volcanic eruptions ; and the 
want of animal remains in the slate beds and amongst the agglome- 
rates is in accordance with this hypothesis. 

It goes on, as I said before, for above half a mile, alternating ash 
and slate, with occasionally a dirty-brownish bed of rotten and cal- 
careous ash decomposing very fast and throwing out, on its surface 
and also between its joints, a large quantity of kunkur. The strike 
of the beds turns gradually to true N. S. and the dip is E., the angle 
with the horizon being between 60° and 70°. Beds of laterite now 
begin to appear, of a yellowish grey colour and resembling indurated 
clay. They are a little harder than slate, sparingly amygdaloidal, 
and the geodes are very small and filled with quartz. They break 
into small cuboid fragments. These laterites are interstratified with 
beds of dark slate, and lying over them we get the following strata : — 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afyhan Mountains. 125 

•. A band of greenish-grey trachyte with small rounded geodes of chalk- 
white albite. It weathers somewhat reddish on its outside and wears in 
rounded masses. It reminds one very much of some of the felstone of Bara- 
moola. Strike N. 15° W.— S. 15° E. Dip Easterly 40°. But this stratum 
varies very much along its strike, becoming in places a ferruginous, rotten, 
augitic amygdaloid ; in others a sandstone made of big rounded grains of 
quartz, of hornblende and of other volcanic minerals, with a calcareous cement 
which effervesces powerfully with acids. This sandstone foxuns slabs 1 to 1£ 
inch thick, and superposed one over the other like bricks in a wall. Again a 
little further on, it is a fine, very compact, smooth laterite, passing gradually 
into a more sandy variety containing very minute spangles of white mica 
hardly visible in the day time, but which shine well by candle light, and also a 
few small rounded nodules of a pale green senii-lucent mineral. The variations 
of this bed along the strike seem to indicate a very shallow shelving shore or 
a pool of water, the bottom of which had been frequently disturbed by the 
appearance of lavas or other heated matter. The bed is about 15 feet thick 
at the outcrop. 

xi. Then the slate, blue and compact, comes again, with occasional thin 
beds of sandstone or dark-stone : a coarse grained highly ferruginous amyg- 
daloid, a sort of peperino, forms a bed 15 feet thick, and on the top of this, 
here and there, are patches of grey laterite. The slate and the sandstone 
alternate repeatedly in beds of more than live feet each, and this goes on for 
a thickness of about 160 feet. 

xii. A ridge of coarse, brown, slightly micaceous sandstone, in superposed 
slabs like a built wall, now makes its appearance. It strikes S. W. — N. E. and 
dips easterly 45°. This strike S. W. — N. E., meeting the strike of the preceding 
layers x and xi which is N. 15° W. — S. 15° E., leaves an open angle or yawning 
on the northern flank of the hill, and this is filled up by laminated slate, much 
broken and of various colours,, a good deal of it being yellow. It is the yielding 
of this soft slate which has allowed the hard and unyielding sandstone to take 
a direction to the S. W. instead of to the S. 

The thickness of this sandstone ridge is about 45 feet, and that of the slate, 
which fills up the gap or yawning on the flank of the hill, about 40 feet. 

xiii. Slate, hard but much cleaved ; about 80 feet. 

xiv. A ridge of very compact and massive baked clay, having a conchoidal 
fracture and large distant joints. It is yellowish grey in colour, with bands of 
lighter yellow : one would take it for a light-coloured basalt, if it were not for 
its trifling hardness, which is about that of slate. It appears to be a clay 
made up of silty mud, derived from basaltic and other volcanic rocks and 
baked after formation. Perhaps it would be best named " Massive Laterite." 
The joints and the surface are covered with a rich brown iridescent oxide 
of iron or a black crust of the same material. This rock is nearly vertical, 
and is near a fault of considerable extent which cuts the hill right across > 

16 



126 



Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, 



[No. 2, 



Fault. 




and this proximity to a large fault might perhaps account for the metamor- 
phosed appearance of the clay. 

The fault is about 500 
feet wide, and is filled with 
zig-zagged slate, ash and 
laterite. A very great deal 
of kunkur is found all over 
the ground. This fault goes 
right across the hill, from 

„. n near the ruin of Pari Ia« 

I'lff. O. 

hal to the small spur over 
1. Slate. 2. Massive Laterite or Baked Clay. , „ , ,. 

3. Slate, Ash and Laterite in the fault. ^ vllla S e of Pandrettan. 

4. Amygdaloidal Greenstone. 

East of the fault, the rocks are very different ; they are rocks similar to 
those we saw at the foot of the Tukt-i-Suliman ; viz. greenstone and amygda- 
loid, and there has been therefore a downthrow on the west of the fault. The 
strike is very different on both sides of the fault. We have seen that on the 
west side it is S. W. — N. E. with an eastern dip ; the greenstone and amyg- 
daloid strike S. E— N. W., dipping to the N. E. 

There is no occasion to describe these greenstones and amygdaloids 
again, as I have done so before at the foot of the Tukt-i-Suliman. But 
we must notice here a very great quantity of what I have called gas- 
vents ; the amygdaloidal greenstone is in some places completely per- 
forated by these vents which are sometimes filled with quartz, 
sometimes with augite, and sometimes left empty. (See figs. 1. la, 
PL X.) 

20. Crossing the broad ravine above the village of Pandrettan, a 
ravine in which once flourished a Buddhist city of which the ruined 
walls are still to be traced, we notice a spur composed of dark and 
brittle basalt, much jointed but not columnar. It is interstratified 
with a volcanic ash, similar to that seen in the Rustun Glurree. The 
end of the spur presents a fine example of beds of ash and laterite 
inwrapping or infolding subjacent beds : the spur is narrow and the 
layers of ash and laterite are bent down on each side of it, just as a layer 
of paste laid across a ruler would by its weight bend on each side of 
the ruler. The dip of the beds is N. E., and consequently the strike 
is obliquely across the spur which has a W. south-western direction, 
and when we look up the hill, facing to the N. E., we can then see the 
beds of ash and laterite cropping out one above the other, like steps, 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 127 

and forming arches along the strike. This curvature of course falsi- 
fies the dip on both flanks of the hill, the dip becoming northern on 
the south eastern flank of the spur, and south east on the other 
flank. 

The lowest portion of the spur forms a little mound on which may be 
seen the remains of a gigantic Buddhist figure. The figure is that of 
a woman, but it is now prostrate and headless. It is a huge block of 
limestone. There are many other Buddhist remains at Pandrettan, 
all built of that rock : amongst others, a small temple in a tank is 
well worthy of a visit. 

From Pandrettan to Panchhooka, we have a succession of thick 
beds of dark basalt, cleaved and jointed but never columnar, and 
greenstone and amygdaloid, with a few beds of compact ash 
containing oval nodules of augite. The basalt is the only rock 
which has not been described before. It is best seen in a little spur 
which descends to the Jheelum, hardly half a mile east of the 
Buddhist figure on the little knoll. It has sometimes a very black 
and conchoidal fracture, and at other times a pale pitch and bluish 
colour. It breaks into prismatic blocks which are quarried at the 
place where the spur hangs over the river. It does not appear 
to be amygdaloidal, but the greenstone into which it passes is. 
sparingly so, the geodes being large and filled with quartz. It is 
difficult to ascertain the stratification or superposition, owing to the 
well marked cleavages and joints, but by observing the beds of com- 
pact ash occasionally met with, it is found to be easterly at a very 
high angle with the horizon. All the way from the stone quarry, at 
Alwajin, to that portion of the village of Panchhooka, designated on 
the map as " Large Cheenar Trees," there is a succession of these beds, 
but the angle of dip diminishes gradually as we travel eastwards and 
is only 45° at Panchhooka. There we find the following beds : — 

A slaty basalt, dark and heavy, dipping to the E. a few degrees S. at an 
angle of 45° with the horizon. It has a cleavage dipping dne W. with an angle 
of 45°, and vertical joints striking S. W. — N. E. It is succeeded by a coarse 
trap, a sort of trachyte showing a certain amount of crystallization, the 
rock having a granitoid or rather gneissoid appearance. The augite and the 
glassy felspar are the only minerals tolerably crystalline, the remainder 
being a paste which is sometimes nearly white, or yellow and rough; 
sometimes greenish-grey and conchoidal in fracture, or blue, indigo-blue and 



128 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

French grey. There is much in these strata to remind one of the starry- 
trachyte or Soolimanite of the Tukt-i-Suliman, but the starry arrangement 
of elongated crystals of albite is never perfectly seen. 
A layer of amygdaloid covers in the trachyte. 

From Pandrettan to Panchhooka, we have been examining the beds 
of the southern spur of the Zebanvvan. The W. N. W. spur may be 
considered to end or rather to begin over Pandrettan, and from thence 
eastwards we cross the digitations of the southern spur. A glance at 
the horizontal section (Map B) will render any further explanation 
unnecessary. 

Here ends our section through Hurri Parbut, the Tukt-i-Suliman 
and the W. N. W. portion of the Zebanwan. 

21. We will now examine the south-south-eastern flank of the 
Zebanwan, following a section from near Panchhooka towards 
the E. N. E. (See Map B.) (Section III. of General Map or 
Map A.) 

We meet first a long slender spur proceeding from the main range 
of the Zebanwan to the S. S. E., and as this spur is very interesting, 
I have called it the Zeeawan spur from the name of a village situated 
close to its extremity. fSect. A, B and C). 

* The Zeeawan spur is composed, high up the hill, of the same 
basalt, amygdaloid and greenstone which we have seen in the preced- 
ing spur, but towards its end it is made up of enormously thick beds 
of volcanic agglomerate. This agglomerate is composed. of a cement 
having the shining appearance of a slag, but not in its vesicular arrange- 
ment. It contains lapilli of nearly all the rocks which we have seen 
before, viz. greenstone, basalt, amygdaloid, slate of various sorts, and 
pieces of both felspathic and augitic ash. These lapilli are quite 
angular and crammed together so close that in some places the cement 
can hardly be seen. This cement appears to have at first coated the 
fragments with a thin layer of a dark shining paste, and then glued 
them together with a coarser material ; or it is very possible that this 
coating is a superficial melting of the lapilli, and that the cement is 
a lava. However this may be, this agglomerate forms the greater 
portion of the spur. A confused stratification is discernible, dipping 
to the E. S. E. at a higher angle, and cut at right angles by well 
marked joints ; thus huge blocks are separated from the mass and 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 129 

strew the ground at the foot of the spur. Towards its end, the spur 
bifurcates into two digitations, the most westerly being entirely made 
up of agglomerate, whilst the most easterly presents the following 
section : — 

Section of the end of the Zeeawan spur above the village of Zee- 
awan. (See Sections B. and C.) 

1. Volcanic agglomerate with a shining, dark, semi-vitreous cement. It is 
interstratified with bands of amygdaloid and thin layers of peperfno. 

2. Quartzite, white, opaque, stratified ; it breaks into cuboid fragments^ 
owing to numerous well-marked joints. It is sometimes yellowish, but 
usually quite white. It is a conspicuous layer and deserves to be remembered 
as it always occurs between the volcanic rocks and the beds of limestone to be 

thereafter described.* , _ ,., 
Io ft. 
3. Compact basalt, of a dark colour and breaking in prismatic pieces. It is 
often scoriaceous on the surface of layers 20 ft 

4. Compact amygdaloidal greenstone 3 f t 

5. Grey id i-blue basalt; heavy; much fissured 5 f t 

6. Coarse yellow sand, with numerous water-worn pebbles' of the basalt 
No. 5 imbedded in the sand. The pebbles are lenticular in shape, such as are 
seen on the shores of lakes and sluggish rivers, and unlike those rounded 
by torrents. 

7. Sandstone, grey and bluish, but weathering to a fawn-colour. It contai 
a few water- worn pebbles similar to those seen in the preceding layer. 3 ft. 

8. Slate, greyish-blue ; fissured and foliated 5 f t 

9. Sandstone of rolled grains of quartz 3 ft 

10. Slate, as before. , g f " 

11. Compact and dark rock, much jointed and breaking "in" flat square 
pieces. Either a baked clay or a laterite. It is all broken to pieces on the sur- 
face of the bed 

12. A conglomerate of water-worn pebbles of trap united by a calcareous 
cement. The pebbles are not lenticular, but rounded 2 ft 

13. Dark shales containing debris of fossils not determinable. ' 10 ft' 

_ 14. Limestone; dark greyish-blue; coarsely crystalline; in places very 
impure, argillaceous and shaly. It is a mass of fossils 5 fl# 

wJ/^ n T reached the fossilifer °us strata, I shall not, in charity to the 
reader give the section of the spurs of the Tukt-i-Suliman and Zebanwan 
which face the little lake or Dal But the map (see Map B) wUl eS 
anyonew^hingtoknow the geology of these spurs to satisfy hS Liositv 
LlmSn't K ^° l0glZe l° rthe "™»***"«* ^e section /of the TukS 



ns 



] 30 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

15. Dark brown calcareo-ferruginous shales, exfoliating in thin plates and 
undergoing quick decay. It weathers nearly black. Extremely rich in 
fossils 10 ft. 

16. Limestone , 10 ft. 

1 7. Dark brown calcareo-ferruginous shale 15 ft. 

18. Limestone 10 ft. 

19. Sandy shales, very dark nearly black ; do not effervesce with acids j 
very rich in fossils 10 ft. 

20. Limestone ; less coarse than preceding ; very fossiliferous. . 15 ft. 

21. Limestone ; hard and arenaceous ; separated by thin layers of shale 
which weather dark brown and appear in relief on the section of the 
bed 5 ft. 

Any further bed which may exist is concealed under Eboulis. 

22. When I first met with this bed of limestone, I was particularly 
delighted, as I had seen no limestone in Kashmir, except the huge 
carved blocks of the Buddhist ruins near Srinagar and at Pandrettan. 
I was told that the fine bluish-grey limestone of these ruins 
was no longer to be found in the country, and that nobody could 
guess whence the stone had been obtained. Even some of the Sur- 
veyors of the Kashmir Series, Gr. T. S. corroborated this opinion, 
which appears to be the received one amongst the natives. I could 
see at a glance that here I had the very stone, and in examining the 
bed I came across the remains of an old quarry. I subsequently found 
some much larger Buddhist quarries of limestone, as we shall see by 
and bye. 

Misled by Mr. Vigne and Dr. A. Fleming, who, as I have said, 
stated that they obtained nummulites from the Kashmir valley, I 
began to look diligently for these foraminifers. I found indeed a few 
rounded bodies which might be taken either for nummulites or 
rings of crinoid stems. I did not at first hit on a very good 
portion of the bed for fossils ; those I found were extremely weather- 
ed, and I could only pay flying visits to Zeeawan. But I tried once 
more to discover nummulites, when lo ! I came across a Productus ! 
The following genera were found to be abundant : Productus, 
Athyris, Orthis, Strophomena or Leptsena, and Spirifers amongst 
the Brachiopods. Very few lamellibranchiates and gasteropods 
were seen, but an immense number of Bryozoa, especially two or 
three genera of Fencstellides — viz, Acanthocladia and Fenestella and 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 131 

innumerable inviduals of what has been called Vincularia multangu- 
laris (Portlock), but which some say is not a Vincularia at all. 
Some gf the fossils are familiar to every body : the Productus 
semi-reticulatus (Martin), P. costatus (Sow.), the Athyris Roissyi 
(L'Eveille). Other fossils are interesting on account of their rarity, 
and first amongst these is the claw of a crustacean, the pincers of 
which are two and a half inches in length. Though the pincers are 
neither teethed internally nor flattened into organs of natation, we 
may, I think, refer the fossil provisionally to the genus Eurypterus, 
if it is not even a true Limulus. (See PL V. fig. 4.) 

23. "We have therefore, resting on the volcanic rocks, beds of 
carboniferous limestone. These beds are of great thickness, and they 
change their characters very considerably as we follow them 
upwards. I have divided them into three great divisions, and I 
have called these by the names of the localities where they were 
found to be well developed. The lowest bed, which we have just 
seen, I have called the Zeeawan bed, from the village of Zeeawan. 
The next above will be called the Weean bed, from the village of 
Weean near which it is well developed ; and the uppermost division 
I have named the Kothair bed,* from the name of a small district 
at the foot of the mountains where this upper bed is well seen. 
I have preferred adopting these names to the plan of using the desig- 
nations of Lower, Middle and Upper, as further observations may 
render it desirable to sub-divide any division into two or more sec- 
tions, in which case the terms lower, middle and upper would become 
inconvenient. In the present state of our knowledge of the geology 
of Kashmir and the N. W. Punjab, we may nevertheless remember 
with advantage, that the Zeeawan is the lowest, the Weean the middle, 
and the Kothair the upper bed of the mountain limestone. 

24. To come back to our section near Zeeawan : we must first 
notice the inwrapping disposition of the beds around the end of the 
spur. The general strike of the volcanic rocks is N. N. E. — S. S. W. 



* So few fossils were found in the Kothair bed, that it is not possible to 
place it, with any certainty, in the carboniferous ; the same reason prevents 
its being placed in the Permian or Triassic. The place of this bed as the 
uppermost carboniferous is therefore only temporary. See the remark after 
the list of fossils found in the Kothair bed, Chapter II., para. 50. 



132 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

and the dip E. S. E. High up the spur, this dip forms a considerable 
angle with the horizon, but it diminishes gradually as we descend 
towards the plain ; at the bed of quartzite it is about 45°„ and at 
the limestone it is generally 40°. But these rocks, that is from the 
quartzite upwards, appear to have been upheaved by a narrow band of 
hard rock catching them in the centre and pressing them upwards in 
that central point, whilst the sides of the beds were unsupported. 
Instead of yielding softly and shaping themselves into a carapace- 
like coating, as slate and ash would have done, the limestone and the 
shales have separated into thick bands or slices, and these bands have 
spread themselves out like a fan. At the small end of the fan there 
has been a considerable crushing of the beds one against the other, 
and enormous blocks, indeed whole pieces, of the limestone courses 
have been squeezed out of place ; whilst, at the circumference of the 
fan, the beds have been parted from one another, and in some places 
we can see the layers of limestone separated by open intervals two or 
three feet wide. (See horizontal section, Sec. C.) 

25. I will now try to define the character of the Zeeawan bed of 
carboniferous limestone : — Its lithological characters are, that it is a 
rough, coarse and semicrystalline limestone of a dark bluish-grey colour, 
weathering a rich grey. If we break it, we find it made of innumerable 
irregular grains of a darker limestone united by a lighter cement more 
or less crystalline. It is full of debris of fossils ; indeed I am not quite 
sure that the darker grains are not the debris of the organisms or 
excrements of animals. It is foetid. Portions of it are arenaceous or 
rather shaly, and these, when exposed to the air, decompose partially, 
becoming soft and crumbling. The stone is soft to work and cuts 
with great ease, except where there are too many large fossils. It 
contains an immense number of minute crinoid-stems converted into 
spar : it breaks obliquely to the surface and gives flashes of light 
at certain angles. It is interstratified with courses of rich-brown 
calcareous shale, often of a bright rust-colour, and generally much 
decomposed and with bands of a black, not calcareous, sandy shale : 
it is also full of fossils, these being apparently converted into oxide of 
iron. Finally, it contains limited short lenticular layers of a much 
paler limestone, in thin-bedcled and false-bedded patches having 
somewhat the appearance of a fine mortar or cement. 



1806.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 133 

The characteristic fossils of the bed are the following : — 
Product us Costatus (Sowerby). 

„ SemireticuJatus (Martin). 

„ Cora (D'Orbigny). 

,, Humboldtii (D'Orbigny). 

!Flemingii (D'Orbigny). 
Longispinus ( Vernenil) . 

Athyris, Sp. PI. IT. fig. 1 & la. A. Subtilita (Hall)? 

„ Eoissyi ? (Verneuil) PL II. fig. 3 & 3<i. 

Sp. Nora (A. Buddista, Verchere) PI. II. 2, 2a 2b. 
Spirifer (Sp. Vercherii (Verneuil) PI. I. fig. 1, la & lb. 

Spiriferina octoplicata ? Sowerby, PL I. fig. 2, (fee. 

Orthis Crenistria, Phill. 

Strophomena AnaJoga, Phill. ? PL II. tig. 1. 
Fenestella Sylcesii (Koninck). 

,, Megastoma (Koninck). 

„ Sp. PL V. fig. 1. 

Vincularia Multangularis (Portl.) 

Acanthocladia, Sp. PL V. fig. 4. 

We shall have therefore no difficulty in identifying this bed wher- 
ever we meet it, as the Bryozoa make a great show and immediately 
attract attention. The coarse granular limestone is unlike that of 
the other beds we shall see hereafter ; the rich brown shales arc also 
peculiar to the Zeeawan bed, and even the position close over the 
glaring white quartzite would assist us, if necessary. 



11 



134 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. VII. List of species of 
Unio and Anodonta described as occurring in India, Ceylon and 
Burma.— By William T. Blanford, A. B. S. 31., F. G. S. 
[Received 5th September, 1866.] 

There are few genera in the whole range of natural history more 
puzzling than Unio and Anodonta. Every naturalist who has at- 
tended to them has been struck by the great variation of which the 
different species are susceptible, though it is to be regretted that this 
knowledge does not appear to have had much influence in restraining 
some naturalists from recording as distinct species isolated specimens 
which reached them from distant countries, and which only differed 
from other specimens in characters of very doubtful specific value. 

Although the Unio aides of the Indian waters are far behind those 
of some countries, and especially of America, in the amount of vari- 
ation which they exhibit, amply sufficient is shewn to render them 
very difficult to classify. And as the question of variation is one of 
the most important, especially at the present day, in the whole range 
of zoological science, those animals which, in the wild state, exhibit 
the greatest amount of variation, are peculiarly worthy of study. 

In endeavouring to classify the Indian shells, one great difficulty 
that I have found, has been the determination of described types. 
Descriptions of Indian Unionidce are scattered through many works, 
not easily procurable in India. There are, probably, yet a few to 
which I have not had access, but as I have been able to compile a 
list, comprising, I believe, a very large majority of the published 
forms, I think that I shall be aiding any one who, in India, may be 
engaged in the same study, by printing the list, with references to the 
original descriptions and to figures, whenever such exist, and by 
adding such remarks as appear to be necessary. 

I also hope to be able to publish figures of a considerable propor- 
tion of the species named ; in some cases, copies of the original illus- 
trations ; in others, drawings of authentic specimens. I shall feel 
greatly indebted to any one who will aid me in this endeavour by 
furnishing me with typical forms, or with any specimens from distant 
parts of the country. In all such cases, a small series of the varieties 
and different ages is desirable. 



1866.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 135 

The present list, therefore, is merely an instalment of what I hope 
may be an illustrated monograph of Indian Unionidce. 

It is not my intention at present to enter at all fully into the 
question of the limitation of specifie forms. I would merely point 
out, that some of the described species are certainly within the ordi- 
nary limits of variation of others described as distinct. Thus out of 
one tank in Calcutta, I have taken specimens unquestionably belong- 
ing to U. Corricuius, Lea, others which were nearer to U. lamellatus, 
Lea, and young specimens representing U. bilineatus, Lea, whilst 
other forms again appeared to appertain to U. anodontina, Lam., (or, 
at least to the species figured as such in Krister's monograph) which 
by Lea is classed as a variety of U. marginalis, Lam. Yet all these 
forms were unquestionably identical, being united by numerous inter- 
mediate varieties, all living together in the same small pond. 

Lea's figures in the Journal of the American Philosophical Society, 
and the Transactions of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia, are so good and characteristic, that the difficulties which might 
otherwise exist in identifying forms discriminated by such minute 
and variable characters are obviated. Benson's species, of which only 
descriptions exist, are far more difficult to identify, and Gould's, 
which are but brief! }'- described, still more so. Krister's monograph, 
in Martini and Chemnitz's Conchylien Cabinet, contains figures of but 
few Indian and Burmese Unios, and of those, several are incorrectly 
named. 

For convenience sake, the species of Unio inhabiting India proper, 
Ceylon, Assam, and Burma will be separately enumerated. The 
species referred to Anodonta are so few that subdivision is unnecessary, 
especially as none occur in India or Ceylon. No typical form of the 
genus is known to exist in the Indian or Burmese area. 

The following works are referred to in the ensuing pages by the 
abbreviations appended in each case. 

Mull. — 0. F. Muller, Historia Vermium, 1774 (not procurable in 
Calcutta). 

Chemn. Conch. Cab. — Martini and Chemnitz systematisches Conchy- 
lien Cabinet. About 1780? (not procurable in Calcutta). 

Gmel. — Caroli a Linne Systemata naturae. Tom. I, Pars. VI, 1789. 

Lam. — Lamarck, Histoiredes Animaux sans vertebres, Vol. VI. 1819. 



136 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

Gleanings in Science, Vol. I., Calcutta, 1829. 

Kuster, Mart, and Chem. — Systematisches Conchylien Cabinet von 
Martini und Chemnitz, 2nd edition, by Dr. H. C. Kiister and others. 
Vol. IX. Part 2, commencing in 1843 : unfinished. 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. — The Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, London, 3rd series, Vol. X. 1862. 

Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. — Transactions of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society held at Philadelphia, new series, Vol. IV. 1834 ; Vol. V. 
1837 ; Vol. VI. 1839 ; Vol. VIII. 1843. 

Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. — Journal of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. IV. 1858-60 ; Vol. V 1862-63. 

J. A. S. B. — Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. III. 
1834 ; Vol. IV. 1835 ; Vol. V. 1836. 

Proc. Post. Soc. Nat. Hist. — Proceedings of the Boston Society of 
Natural History, Vol. I. 1843-44, (not accessible in Calcutta). 

Gould, Ot. Conch. — Augustus A. Gould, Otia Conchologica, de- 
scriptions of shells and mollusks from 1839 to 1862, Boston, 1862. 

S. Hanley, Supp. to Wood's Ind. Test. — Supplement to Wood's 
Index testaceologicus, 1855 (not accessible in Calcutta). 

Genus UNIO, Retzius. 

I. — India. 

No. 1. — Unio Corrugatus, Mull. sp. Rivers of Coromandel. 

Mya corrugata, Mull., p. 214, No. 398. 

Unio corrugata, [a.] Lam., VI., 78, No. 34. 

"U. corrugatus, Kuster, Mart, and Chem., p. 289, pi. 97, figs. 3, 4. 

There is the greatest conceivable confusion about this species and 
the next one, and it is far from clear what Midler's type was. I 
cannot obtain access to his work in Calcutta, but Kuster copies the 
description thus : — 

Testa rhombea, viridescens, tenera, pellucida ; (umbonibus corruga- 
tis ;) valvulm intus siriis radiantibus subtilissimis notantur. 

The figures are, I suppose, those of Chemnitz's types ; they are 
two in number, one representing the exterior of a subequilateral, nearly 
elliptical shell, measuring 36 mm. by 24 in its two diameters, and the 
other the interior of a far more inequilateral shell, also subelliptical, 
rather smaller than the first, and having every appearance of being a 



3 



1866.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 137 

thick form, with strong lateral teeth. The first shell is subalate pos- 
teriorly, and the posterior margin is very bluntly biangulate, the 
anterior margin is rounded at the end, but the slope thence to the 
umbo is almost a right line ; the second shell is perfectly rounded both 
before and behind. The shell of which the interior is figured corre- 
sponds so ill with Miiller's description, being neither rhombic nor 
thin, that it may certainly be neglected. The figure moreover is ill- 
executed. 

Lamarck's description is a little different from Miiller's : " Unio testa 
ovato-rJiombed, tenui, viridi, umbonibus rugosis, rug is undulato-flexuosis 
sublongitudinalibus. Of the variety a he adds testa viridis, pubis 
carina Icevigatd. His variety b is said to be the next species, U. 
rugosus. 

The type shell in Mons. de la Serre's cabinet in Paris, which, by 
the politeness of M. Chenu, the Curator, I was enabled to examine in 
1862, is a thin broadly ovate form with small teeth, and a well 
marked posterior wing. It measures 40 mm. from anterior to pos- 
terior margin, and 33 from the umbo to the ventral margin, the latter 
diameter being thus much greater in proportion to the former than 
in Krister's type. The valves are inequilateral and much broader 
behind than before, the anterior margin rounded, sloping away below 
to the ventral side ; posterior margin bluntly biangulate, the two 
angles rather wide apart. The form is common in Southern India 
and Ceylon, and appears to have been generally accepted as the type. 

Both Lamarck's and Chemnitz's types are quite distinct from 
Benson's U. favidens, which has been confounded with them. 

No. 2. — Unio rugosus, Gmelin. Rivers of Coromandel. 

Mya corrugata magna, Chemn. Conch. Cab. X. 346, PL 170, f. 1659. 

M. rugosa, Gmel. p. 3222, No. 32. 

Unio corrugata, [b.], Lam. VI., 78, No. 34. 

Unio rugosus, Kiister, Mart, and Chem. p. 290, PL 97, f. 5. 

Both this and the preceding species probably inhabit the Cauvery or 
neighbouring streams. Kiister's figure represents an elliptical sub- 
equilateral shell, with strong angulate sulcation at the umbones, 
extending to within no great distance of the ventral margin. Gmelin's 
original description is the following : — 



138 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

M. testa ovali rugosd, extrinsecus virescente, intus rnargaritaced : 
cardinis dente primario crenulato, laterali longitudinal), alterias 
duplicate 

No. 3. — Unio marginalis, Lam. Bengal. 

Lam. VI. 79, No. 41. 

Kiister, Mart, and Chem. p. 239, PI. 80, f. 4. 

This species is probably the most widely distributed of all the 
Indian forms. It is extremely variable, and I am inclined to believe 
that many of the species to be hereafter enumerated are merely 
varieties of it. I have examined the type and compared a shell from 
Pegn with it, which will be figured. It agrees very well. Krister's 
figure represents a variety with unusually prominent umbones, and 
rather longer from the hinge to the ventral margin than usual. 

TJ. marginalis is by no means confined to India. It abounds, as I have 
already mentioned, in Pegu. One of Lamarck's forms came from Ceylon, 
and Kiister appears much disposed to unite to it a species from the Nile 
in Egypt. Lamarck's type was said to inhabit rice-fields in Bengal. 

No. 4. — Unio anodontinus, Lam. Bengal. 

TJ. anodontina, Lam. VI. 80, No. 47. 

U. anodontinus, Kiister, Mart, and Chemn. p. 240, PL 80, f. 5. 

Lea has classed this shell as identical with TJ. marginalis, Lam. 
If Krister's figures in the Conchylien Cabinet can be trusted, the two 
shells differ more than any one of Lea's three species, bilineatus, lamel- 
latus, and Bengalensis do from each other, or from marginalis. Most of 
the Bengal specimens of marginalis, however, are intermediate between 
the two forms figured by Kiister as marginalis and anodontinus. 

The locality given by Lamarck for this species is Virginia. 
I unfortunately omitted to examine the specimen when I had the 
opportunity of doing so. There is. I believe, no question but that 
the shell was really from India. 

No. 5. — Unio favidens, Bens. Ganges valley and Burhampooter 
valley, Assam. 

Benson, Gleanings in Science, I, PI. 8, f. 1. 

„ Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X. 188. 

This species has been frequently confounded with TJ. corrugatus, 






1866.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 139 

Lam. It differs totally from all tlie shells referred to that species, 
and all its numerous varieties are easily distinguished both from 
Lamarck's and Chemnitz's types of corrugatus. U. favidens is more 
inequilateral, it is a thicker shell with much stronger and broader 
cardinal teeth. The type, too, is more angulate, both anteriorly and 
posteriorly. The following varieties of U. favidens, with their 
localities, are described by Mr. Benson in the Ann. and Mag. Nat. 
Hist. Vol. X, pp. 188, 189. 

Unio favidens, type. Bhitoura on the Ganges between Cawnpore 
and Allahabad. 

1 var. marcens, Burhampooter river, Assam. 

2 ,, trigona, Nujeebabad in the north-west of Rohilkund. 

3 ,, Deltce, Jellinghy river, Bengal. 

4 ,, Chrysis, Dojora river, Kareily G-hat near Bareilly. 

5 ,, viridula, " Jheel" between Humeerpore and Someer- 

pore, Bundelkund. 

6 ,, densa, Ganges river above Chunar. 

No. g. — Unio Ceruleus, Lea. — Hoogly river, 100 miles above 
Calcutta. 

Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. IV, 95, PI. 13, f. 25. 

Benson, J. A. S. B. IV. 450. 

Kiister, Mart, and Chem. p. 228, PI. 77, fig. 4. 

The two figures agree perfectly. The type is a very thin shell, 
with fine lamellar teeth. Specimens exist in the Asiatic Society's 
Museum, brought from Bhagulpoor. The form is widely distributed 
in N. India ; I have even a variety from Sind. 

No. 7. — Unio bilineatus, Lea. Hoogly river with the last. 

Symphonota bilineata, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., IV. 98, pi. 11, f. 19. 
Benson, J. A. S. B. IV. 452. 

Benson, (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 3, Vol. X., pp. 187, 195) shews 
that this is merely the very young form of U. marginalis, Lam. He 
is unquestionably correct. The " two delicate lines passing from the 
beaks to the posterior region" are, like many other umbonal mark- 
ings, characteristic of young shells, and disappear gradually with age. 
The remains of them, much blunted, are often to be detected on 
adults. 



140 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

No. 8. — Unio olivarius, Lea. Granges valley. 

Lea, Trans. Ann. Phil. Soc. IV, 108, pi. 16, f. 38. 

Benson, J. A. S. B. IV. 453. 

Kuster, Mart, and Chem., p. 244, pi. 82, f. 2. 

The locality given by Lea is Burrill river, India. Kuster, who 
appears to be indebted for all his Indian species described by Lea to 
Dr. von clem Busch, gives Burrill river, Indiana (!), North America, 
as the locality. Mr. Benson says — " It is widely distributed in the 
Gangetic region, and is most abundant in the Rohilkund streams." 
The variety figured by Kuster differs from Lea's type is being more 
inequilateral, much shorter anteriorly, and more obtuse posteriorly, 
and of a light green colour instead of pale olive. Indeed, it is by no 
means clear that the specimen figured is not a variety of U cceruleus. 
I do not know if there be such a river as the Burrill, but the locality 
for the original type is very probably the neighbourhood of the Burail 
Range, north of Cachar, as the shell was received by Lea from a 
Dr. Burrough who collected extensively in Assam, and who supplied 
the original specimens, from which Hylohates Hoolock was described, 
to Dr. Harland.* This is not far from the localities whence the closely 
allied U. NuttalUanus, Lea, and U. involutus 7 Benson, were obtained. 

No. 9. — Unio Corrianus, Lea. Calcutta. 
Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. V. 65, pi. 9, fig. 25. 
Kuster, Mart, and Chem., p. 229, pi. 77, fig. 5. 

Two completely distinct shells are figured by the two authorities 
above referred to. Lea's original type is a young form of one of the 
common varieties of marginalis, approaching U. anodontina of La- 
marck ; Kuster 's, on the contrary, is a form allied to U. c&ruleus, but 
thicker, and with broader hinge teeth than that species, so that it is 
more diverse from 77. marginalis than even cceruleus is ! Krister's 
specimen was derived from Dr. von dem Busch, who, in this and 
other instances, appears to have utterly confounded different forms. 

* See Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. IV. p 52. It 
is a disgrace to the science of England as represented in British India, and a 
lasting memorial of the disregard of natural history which has always been a 
characteristic of the British Government of India, that so remarkable an ani- 
mal as the Hoolock should have been first recognised by an American natu- 
ralist at so late a date as 1834. Had India belonged to France, the United 
States or Russia, the study of its fauna would not have been left to the 
unaided efforts of private individuals. 



I860.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 141 

No. 10. — Unio Bengalensis, Lea. Bengal. 

Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. VI. 3, pi. 2, f. 3. 
Kiister, Mart, and Chem., p, 228, pi. 77, f. 2, 3. 

In this case again, two totally distinct shells are figured, and again 
the authority for Krister's appears to be Dr. von dem Busch, whose 
collection furnished the specimen figured in Martini and Chemnitz. 
Lea's type is a very peculiar variety of U. marginalia, very much 
11 longer" (that is wider when measured from the umbones to the 
ventral margin) in proportion to the breadth than usual. I have not 
met with it. It was obtained by Lea from Dr. Burrough who pur- 
chased it in Calcutta, and believed that it inhabited the Granges, It 
has better claims to distinction than most of Lea's " species."* 

Krister's type is a much thicker, more tumid shell, with far 
stronger teeth and impressed cicatrices, much more inequivalve and 
different in almost every character. I cannot recognise it as any 
form with which I am acquainted, and I much doubt its being Indian 
at all. At all events it is nearer to U. corrugatus than to U. mar- 
ginalis. 

No. 11. — Unio lamellatus, Lea. Bengal. 
Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. VI. 19, pi. 6, f. 16. 

This is another variety of the U. marginalis type, perfectly inter- 
mediate between the two last named, and approaching the type more 
nearly than either. Lea's shells were probably immature. In the 
younger shells of marginalis, the hinge teeth are more lamellar than 
in the adults, and the principal character of this " species" and of the 
two preceding is the lamellar teeth. 

I have not met with the exact type of this shell, but it doubtless 
inhabits the neighbourhood of Calcutta. Specimens resembling it in 
every way except in being rather less long (in the dorso-ventral dia- 
meter) in proportion to their breadth are common. 

No. 12. — Unio Rajahensis, Lea. Rajah's Tank, Calcutta. 

Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. VIII., 239, pi. 23, fig. 53. 

The above is the locality quoted. I am unable to discover what 

* In a letter to my brother, Mr. Benson suggested a doubt as to whether 
this species were Indian. Taking into consideration the circumstance that 
nearly all the shells in the Calcutta bazar are foreign, this suggestion appears 
highly probiible. 

18 



142 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

t ank is referred to. The shells inhabiting the Seven Tanks shew a 
considerable difference. The shell is a small, subrotundate, thick 
form, approaching some of the varieties of U.favidens, Bens., and has 
much the appearance of being stunted and distorted, a very common 
occurrence in tanks, and especially in those of Calcutta, probably in 
consequence of their being slightly brackish at times. Two speci- 
mens, agreeing well with Lea's figures, exist in the Asiatic Society's 
Museum. A very similar shell inhabits the Nerbudda. 

No. 13. — Unio Shurtleffianus, Lea. Sina River, India. 
Lea, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. III., 302, pi. 27, f. 17. 

The Sina river runs past Ahmednugger in the Deccan. It is an 
affluent of the Bheema, one of the principal feeders of the Kistna. 
This shell has somewhat the form of Unio cceruleus, but is thicker. 
Unfortunately the volume containing the description of this shell does 
not appear to exist in Calcutta, so I cannot tell whether specimens, 
which I possess from the neighbourhood, belong to the type form or 
not. In such extremely variable shells as Unio this is a matter of 
considerable importance. 

No. 14. — Unio Merodabensis v. d. Busch, Province of Merodah in 
Bengal. (!) 

v. d. Busch. MS. in Kuster, Mart, and Chem., p. 233, pi. 78, fig. 4. 
I give the locality of this ridiculously named species as it is 
quoted in Kuster. The locality is doubtless Moradabad in Rohilcund. 
Kuster gives as a synonym ? U. flavus, Benson, and adds the remark : 
" Whether this species be Benson's described U. flavus, I cannot 
ascertain, as I have not access to Benson's work. The name would be 
ill-selected, as the shell is by no means yellow." 

Of course Benson's species thus referred to is U. favidens, of which 
the present appears to be a variety, very close to Mr. Benson's var. 
trigona. The name Merodabensis is so utter a barbarism, that it will be 
satisfactory to be rid of it. For the little series of blunders attending 
the description of this type, Dr. v. d. Busch again appears to be 
responsible. 

No. 15. — Unio Sikkimensis, Lea. Sikkim. 

Lea, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 2nd Ser. IV. 251, pi. 39, f. 131. 

I have some doubt about the locality assigned to this species. It 



1866.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 143 

approaches the S. Indian forms of the corrugatus type (Lamarck's) in 
outline, and is barely distinguishable from two shells in the Asiatic 
Society's collection, which are labelled from Ceylon. It is a stouter 
shell than the Lamarckian corrugatus* 

No. 16. — Unio Nagpoorensis, Lea. Ambajiri tank, Nagpoor. 
Lea, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. Ser. 2, IV. 270, pi. 45, f. 150. 

This species is barely separable from some varieties of Unio favidens, 
Bs. It is, however, a rounder, thinner shell, forming a link, both in 
character and locality, between that species and Unio corrugatus. 

No. 17. — Unio Wynegungaensis, Lea. Wynegunga river, east of 
Nagpoor. 

Lea, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 2nd Ser. IV, 271, pi. 45, f. 151. 

Except in greater thickness, and stouter hinge teeth, there appears 
no distinction of the slightest importance between this " species" and 
the last. The type abounds in the Godavery and its feeders, and 
is, as usual, variable. The locality given by Lea is Wynegunga 
river, East of Nagpoor in the Deccan, Bengal, which is equivalent 
to talking of Philadelphia in New England, Virginia. However it is 
hardly fair to expect American naturalists to have accurate information 
on Indian geography, when an English naturalist of repute confounds 
the Khasi hills in N. E. India with the Nilgiris in the S. W., and 
when a second, in a work solely devoted to Indian zoology, perhaps 
the most important work on any branch of Indian Natural History, 
exclusive of botany, ever published in England, confounds Saharun- 
poor with Serampoor on the Hooghly. After this, the discovery made 
by the Times newspaper, a few years ago, that a spur of the Hima- 
layas is visible from Calcutta is not so surprising. A distinguished 
French naturalist, five or six years since, placed Kattiawar in Cochin 
China, but it is only fair to add that this was before the French expedi- 
tion to the latter country, and that French naturalists have already done 
not a little towards making us better acquainted with the Molluscan 
fauna of that little known region. 



* Since writing the above, I have learned that the locality is correct. The 
shell was collected by Dr. Bacon. 



144 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

No. 18. — Unio Theca., Bens. Kiver Cane near Banda, Bundelcund. 
Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X. 186. 
I have not seen this form. It belongs, according to Mr. Benson, 
to the Corrianus type of Unio marginalis. 

No. 19. — Unio macilenttis, Bens. Choia Nuddy, near Bijnore, 
Rohilcund. 

Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X. 187. 

A rather thin species resembling c&ruleus, but with stout hinge 
teeth, resembling those of U. favidens. I am unacquainted with the 
type, but a very similar form is common in the Damuda and its 
tributaries in Bengal. 

No. 20. — Unio triembolus, Bens. B. Kamgunga, near Moradabad. 

Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X. 190. 

A thick shell with large hinge teeth. A massive species which 
inhabits the Nerbudda, and the shells of which are found fossil 
associated with the bones of extinct mammalia in the gravels of the 
river valley, may be a variety of this species. I have never seen the 
type. 

No. 21. — Unio plagiosoma, Bens. River Cane near Banda, Bundel- 
cund. 

Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X. 191. 

No. 22. — Unio l^virostris, Bens. Near Chunar, in streams and 
tanks. 

Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X. 191. 

No. 23. — Unio Pinax, Bens. Gungun stream, near Moradabad, 
Bohilcund. 

Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X. 192. 

The three abovenamed species appear all to be allies of U. favidens. 
They probably pass into each other. 

No. 24.— Unio Leioma, Bens. Deccan ? near Bombay. 
Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X. 192. 

The locality of this shell is uncertain. I have no species from 
Western India which agrees with the description. 



18G6.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 145 

No. 25. — Unio occatus, Lea. Bengal. 

Lea, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 2nd Ser. V. 398, PI. 50, fig. 304. 

A compressed form, with strong teeth, fairly intermediate between 
ccevuleus an&favidens, and allied to U. macilentus, Bs. and U. plagio- 
soma, Bs. but more compressed than either. It especially requires 
comparison with U. macilentus, of which it may be a compressed fomu 

No. 26. — Unio Gerbidoni, Eydoux. Coromandel. 

Said by Lea to be the same as Unio ccevuleus. 

No. 27. — Unio Bonneaudi, Eyd. South India. 

No. 28. — Unio Gaudiciiaudi, Eyd. Bengal. 

No. 29. — Unio Keraudrenii, Eyd. Chandernagore. 

I am indebted for all my information as to the above four species 
to Mr. Benson. I have not access at present to the work in which 
they are described. 

In Kuster's monograph of Unio in Martini and Chemnitz another 
species is described from the " East Indies," U. Exanthematicus, Kiister, 
p. 243, pi. 81, fig. 2. The authority, however, for the locality is Dr. 
v. d. Busch, whose general accuracy, after the instances given above, 
may be open to doubt ; the " East Indies" in a Natural History sense, 
not many years since, denoted any country between Africa and 
Kamschatka, and the peculiar pustulated surface of the shell, from 
which the name is derived, is unknown in any Indian species. I 
think it is probably not a native of the Indian Peninsula. 

U. discus, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. IV, 74, PI. 18, /. 57, was at 
first stated to be from India, on, however, palpably insufficient 
grounds, the original specimen having been purchased from a dealer 
amongst a lot of shells from India. The shell is so distinct from any 
known Indian species, that I had concluded that the locality was 
assigned to it in error, before I found that in a subsequent volume of 
the Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, Vol. VIII., p. 234, note, Lea mentions 
his having ascertained that the locality was the River Moctezuma in 
Central America. 

Mr. Benson mentions (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, X., 195,) 
his having received from the Malabar Coast a shell which he refers to 
U. consobrinus, Lea. 



146 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

Unio spuria is said by Lamarck to be from Southern Asia. Mr. 
Benson states (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, X., 189,) that the 
young of U. favidens approaches the figure given by Wood of Mya 
spuria, which is, I suppose, the same species. It is not clear that 
Lamarck's type was Indian. Mr. Benson also (1 c. p. 189) refers to 
Mya radiata, Chem. as being from Malabar. Mya radiata, G-melin is 
by Lamarck, Lea and Kiister, said to be American, and even in 
Kuster I can find no allusion to Chemnitz's species. 

It is only right to acid too that some of what Woodward most 
justly terms " the worthless fabrications of Rafinesque" (Man. Mol. 
p. 136, note,) came from India. No scientific purpose can be served by 
recalling the names from the oblivion in which they are happily buried. 

II. — Assam. 

No. 30. — Unio involutus, Benson. Assam. 

S. Hanley, Supp. to "Wood's lad. Test. 

I only know of this and the succeeding three species from reference 
being made to them by Mr. Benson in the Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
for 1862, 3rd Ser. X., 186. The work in which they were originally 
described is not procurable in Calcutta. U. involutus is said to be 
thin and tumid and to represent U. oUvarius, Lea, in Assam. 

No. 31.— Unio Corbis, Bens. Assam. 

S. Hanley, Supp. to Wood's Ind. Test. 

No. 32. —Unio Radula, Bens. Assam. 
S. Hanley, Supp. to Wood's Ind. Test. 

No. 33. — Unio Scobina, Bens. 
S. Hanley, Supp. to Wood's Ind. Test. 

U. fluctiger, Lea (teste Benson) Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 2nd Ser. IY. 250, 
pi. 39, f. 130. 
„ Kuster, Mart, and Chem., p. 237, pi. 80, fig. 1. 

Mr. Benson (in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, X., 186) states 
that U. fluctiger, Lea, is a synonym of U. Scobina. Krister's figure 
of fluctiger differs from Lea's type, and the shell is stated to be from 
S.America. As, however, Krister's specimen was from Dr. v. d.Busch's 
cabinet, very little reliance can be placed upon the assigned locality, 
especially as Lea, who did not know whence the shell came, sug- 
gested that it was, possibly, South American. 



18GG.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 14? 

Kiister's type is narrower anteriorly and has rather different, coarser 
plication posteriorly, than Lea's. It may be a different shell. 

No. 34.— Unio Nuttallianus, Lea. Assam, teste Benson. 

Lea, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. III., 310, pi. 30, f. 25. 

The locality is simply stated to be India by Lea. Benson, Ann. 
and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, X , 194, states that he has received' speci- 
mens from Assam. The volume containing the description of this 
shell is not procurable in Calcutta. 

No, 35.— Unio Jenkinsianus, Bens. Burhampooter River, Assam. 

Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X., 185. 

An ally of U. marginalia, distinguished by " the very tumid form, 
the sloping posterior end, absence of a wing, the short ligament, and 
the nature and position of the teeth." (Bens. 1. c.) In the Asiatic So- 
ciety's collection there is a shell from Bhagulpoor perhaps referable as 
a variety to this species. 

No. 36.— Unio pachysomia, Bens. Burhampooter Biver, Assam. 

Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X., 186. 

" An inflated form of the ccerulcus type." (Bens. 1. c.) Mr. Benson 
also states that he has received a distorted variety from Calcutta. A pe- 
culiar tumid form which is not uncommon in Calcutta tanks is doubt- 
less referred to. It agrees generally with the description given. This 
form therefore adds one more to the Bengal list. 

No. 37.— Unio Smaragdites, Bens. Burhampooter Biver, Assam. 
Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, 3rd Ser. X., 190. 
A shell allied to U. favidens. 

\ Besides these forms a variety of U. favidens, Bens. (yar. martens) has 
already been quoted as occurring in Assam. Mr. Benson also records 
the receipt of a variety of U. cceruleus (J. A. S. B. VI. 750) and of a 
small variety of U. marginalis (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd Ser. X. 
186) from that region. 

III. — Ceylon. 

No. 38.— Unio Layardi, Lea. Ceylon. 

Lea, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 2nd Ser. IV., 243, pi. 36, f. 122. 

This is a shell of the marginalis type with a convex dorsal margin, 
and generally rounded outline. It appears to be a fairly distinguish' 
able form, though very close to Bengalensis and lamellatus. 



148 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

No. 39. — Unio Thwaitesii, Lea. Ceylon. 

Lea, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 2nd Ser. IV., 246, pi. 37, f. 125. 

This shell only differs from the last in having a rather straighter 
hinge line, and being slightly more inequilateral. If such differences 
are to rank as specific, half a dozen " species" might be manufac- 
tured out of any tank in Calcutta. The separation of these two forms 
is perfectly unjustifiable in a genus like Unio. 

The above are the only species that I can trace specially described 
from Ceylon. Lamarck's variety b. of Unio marginalis described as 
var. testa minore, breviore, and 75 millimetres broad was also from 
Ceylon (Lam. VI. 79). Sir Emerson Tennent, in his work on Ceylon, 
enumerates only U. corrugatus besides U. marginalis. He, however, 
adds that Mr. Cuming possessed six species from the island, which 
had been sent to Mr. Lea. U. Thwaitesii and U. Layardi are doubt- 
less two of these, as they were from Mr. Cuming's cabinet, but no 
mention is made of the others by Mr. Lea. 

IV. — Burma. 

No. 40. — Unio Tavoyensis, Gould. Tavoy. 

Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. I., 140. 

„ Ot. Conch, p. 190. 
Kiister, Mart, and Chem., p. 166, pi. 48, f. 2. 

'* Closely allied to U. corrugata, Lam. which is less rounded and 
less corrugated" (Gould, 1. c.) More nearly allied to Lamarck's than 
to Chemnitz's type of U. corrugatus. Kiister's figure agrees well with 
Gould's description, but represents a young shell, not mature. The 
specimen figured was from the collection of Dr. Sturm (and not from 
that of Dr. v. d. Busch). 

No. 41. — Unio crispatus, Gould. Tavoy. 

U. crispata, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. I„ 141. 
„ Ot. Conch, p. 191. 

No. 42. — Unio foliaceus, Gould. Tavoy. 
U. foliacea, Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat, Hist. I., 141. 
„ Ot. Conch, p. 191. 

An ally (variety ?) of U. marginalis, Lam. <c Closely allied to U, 
Bengahnsis and Corrianus } Lea." (Gould, 1. c.) 



1866.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, 149 

So. 43. — Unio exolescens, Gould. Tavoy. 

Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. I., 141. 
„. Ot. Couch, p. 191. 

Apparently, from the description, another ally or variety of the U. 
marginalia type. 

No. 44. — Unio generosus, Gould. Tavoy. 

Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. II., 220. 
„ Ot. Couch, p. 201. 

I believe I possess this species. Specimens were sent to me by Mr. 
Theobald from Pegu, which agree with the description fairly, except 
that they are smaller than the type. 

No. 45. — Unio luteus, Lea. Newville, Tavoy. 

Lea, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. III., 302, pi. 27, 17. 

I have not access to the description or figure of this species. 

No. 46. — Unio crispisulcatus, Bens. Bangong R. near Thayet 
Myo, Pegu. 

Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1862, 3rd Scr. X., 193. 

I am indebted to Mr. Theobald for specimens of this shell. It ap- 
pears doubtful whether it be more than a variety of U. erispatus, 
Gould, to which Mr. Benson does not refer in his description, and 
with which he was possibly unacquainted. Gould's description is very 
: brief, and gives the idea of a more coarsely sculptured shell ( " rugis 
angulatis radiantibus undique crispata"} besides being somewhat 
shorter ("from the dorsal to the ventral margin) in proportion to its 
breadth, but these are not necessarily specific distinctions. 

No. 47. — Unio Pugio, Bens. Ava and Pegu. 

Benson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1862, 3rd Ser. X., 193. 

A solitary valve was sent to Mr. Benson by Mr. Theobald, who gave 
the locality as Ava. I eubsequently found the same form in the Mya- 
noung district of Pegu, and Mr. Theobald has since obtained larger 
varieties, I believe from Prome. It is a well marked type, extremely 
inequilateral, and with a peculiar acuminate form posteriorly. 

As already observed, the type form of Unio margincdis, Lam. 
abounds in Pegu. I found unusually fine specimens in large swamps 
about Henzada and Myanoung in the Irawady valley. The type gra- 
dually passes by insensible gradations into a much less transverse 

19 



150 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

form, almost subquadrate. The posterior portions of the valves were 
often covered by the remarkable fresh water Bryozoon Hislopia of 
Carter, apparently a new species. 

I have other species from Pegu, but I am unable at present to com- 
pare them with the numerous named forms described by Lea from 
Siam, many of which probably extend to Burma. 



Genus ANODONTA, Brugiere. 
No. 1. — Anodonta soleniformis, Bens. Assam. 
Benson. J. A. S. B. V., 750. 

The type specimen is in the Asiatic Society's Museum (now the 
Imperial Museum). There is also an A. soleniformis, D'Orbigny, but 
Mr. Benson's name is the oldest, as it was published in 1836. 

Mr. Lea has described a species from Siam, evidently very closely 
allied to this, as Mycetopus emarginatus, Lea. (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil. 2nd Ser. V., 398, pi. 50, f. 305). As the animal has not been 
observed, it may be doubtful if it is really a Mycetopus. At the same 
time the character of both the Siam and Assam shells are so distinct 
from those of any true Anodonta, that perhaps the best provisional 
classification is that adopted by Mr. Lea. Specimens of A . solenifor- 
mis with the animal living are a peculiar desideratum. 

No. 2. — Anodonta Salweniana, G-ould. Salween R., Burma. 

Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. I., 158. 
Ot. Conch, p. 193. 

A very peculiar broad shell, belonging to Monocondylfsa. (See 
next species.) I have never seen this form. 

No. 3. — Anodonta inoscularis, G-ould. Salween B., Burma. 

Gould, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. I. 158. 
Ot. Conch, p. 193. 

Subsequently in the same volume, p. 161, Dr. G-ould suggested 
that this species might be the type of a new genus which he named 
Pseudodon. This name is by Adams quoted as a synonym of Anodonta, 
but the type species is not quoted under that genus, nor, so far as I can 
detect, under any other. In Otia Conchologica, Gould, in describing 
the genus, adds in brackets " perhaps equivalent to Monocondyloea, 
D'Orb." So far as the shell is concerned, this is undoubtedly the 



I860.] Contributions to Indian Mai neology. 151 

correct position of these species, if the hinge teeth are trustworthy- 
indicators of generic affinity. H. and A. Adams, in the Gen. Rec. 
Moll., include under Monocondylaea, M. Vondenbuschiana, Lea, from 
Java,* described by Lea as a Margaritana (Baphia of Adams) and 
several species of the genus have been described from Siam and 
Cochin China by French and American naturalists. 

I have received from Mr. Theobald fine specimens obtained in Pegu 
which correspond admirably with Margaritana Vondenbuschiana, Lea, 
and unquestionably belong, I think, to that *species ; and also shells 
which appear to belong to a variety of Anodonta inosctdaris, agreeing 
with the type in size, shape and every character of importance ; and 
not only are the two forms unmistakeably congeneric, but I even 
think it probable that specimens might be met with to unite them 
specifically, as they differ in no essential character, except the very 
different degree of development of the cardinal tooth, which in 
Vondenbuschiana is scarcely raised, while in the specimens which I 
refer to inoscularis it is sometimes nearly a quarter of an inch high. 

There are in the Asiatic Society's collection, also, two forms which 
appear to me certainly varieties of M. Vondenbuschiana. One of them, 
however, agrees more closely with the figure of M. Cumingii, Lea 
(Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 2nd Ser. IV, 235, pi. 33, f. 114) a Ma- 
lacca shell, which only differs from Vondenbuschiana in unimportant 
minutias. 

M. Vondenbuschiana is described and figured by Lea in Trans. Am. 
Phil. Soc. VIII, 222, pi. 18, f. 39, and also in Kuster. 

Were there nothing but the form of the hinge teeth to connect the 
South American species of Monocondylcea with the Burmese and Java- 
nese Pseudodon and Margaritana, especially having regard to the very 
diverse form of the shell, I should suspect them to be in reality distinct 
types. But there is one little peculiarity which appears to tend to 
unite them. At the termination of the portion of the hinge line in 
which, by close inspection, flattened obsolete representations of the 
lateral teeth may be seen, there is a very peculiar expansion of the 
end of the ligament which covers a small sinus in the inner surface of 
both valves. This is very well shewn in Lea's figure of Margaritana 

* Yet they state, " All the species of this genus known are from the river3 
of South America." 



152 Contributions to Indian Malacology, [No. 2, 

Vonderibuschiana,) and also in both Adams's figures of different species 
of Monocondylcea from S. Am erica. The same occurs in Anodon and 
in the type species of Margaritana of Schumacher,* (if. margaritifera, 
L.). I have not had an opportunity of examining the animals of the 
Burmese species of Monocondylcea ^ and therefore cannot say if the 
gills are free or not. 

Besides the above forms, a minute species of Anodon is stated by 
Mr. Benson to inhabit ponds in Bundelcund, J. A. S. B., V. 750. 

P. S. No. 2a. — Unio spurius, Gm. Tranquebar. 

Mya spuria, Gm, vol. I, Pt. VI, p. 3222, No. 16. 

Unio spuria, Lam. VI, 80, No. 45. 

Mya spuria, Wood, Ind. Test. p. 12, pi. 2, No. 35. 

Since writing the note on this species at p. 146, T have found that it 
was described originally as from India. GTmelin refers to Schroeter 
Einl. in Conch. II, 617, No. 9, pi. 7, f. 5, so perhaps the name may 
have been given by Schroeter, though that by no means follows from, 
the reference. The description is very brief : " M. testa rhombed I'viridi, 
nations glabris" and the shell is said to be like corrugatus, but near- 
ly twice the size and perfectly smooth in front of the beaks ( u praeter 
vulvae regionem tota glabra" Grm. 1. c). Wood's figures are all poor. 
The shell can scarcely be a young form I think, if considerably larger 
than corrugatus. 

Mya radiata,f I find, is attributed to Malabar by Gmelin, (p. 3220,) 
from whom Wood appears to have only copied his localities. The species 
is, I think, correctly attributed to Chemnitz by Mr. Benson, although 
other authors give G-melin as their authority. Gmelin's description 
runs thus — " M. testa ceguivalvi pellucida tenuissime transversim stri- 
ata viridi flavicante livido radiata ; valvis altero latere latissimis, alterp 
angustissimis ." I know of no form of Indian Unio to which this de- 
scription would be applicable, and I cannot help suspecting that the 
writers who have applied the name to an American species may very 
possibly be right. Wood's figure, also, does not recall any Indian 

* It is by no means clear that Margaritana and Monocondylcea are more than 
subgenera, or even artificial sections of Anodonta. M. Vondenbuschiana is inter- 
mediate between the second and last in characters of the shell, and there is no 
known essential distinction in the animal. 

f The Linnaean genus Mya, like most Linnsean genera, was an artificial group 
to some extent Besides Mya as now understood, it comprised Unio and seve- 
ral other genera. 



1866.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 15!J 

species; for it is evident from the above description that the radiating 
lines shewn do not refer to stria? but to coloured markings. Mr. 
Benson's shell from Malabar was striated. 

Good collections of the Unios of both Coromandel and Malabar are 
greatly needed to determine all these doubtful species. 

Monocondylzea crebristhiata, Anthony. Pegu. 

American Journal of Conchology, I., 205, pi. 18. 

Monocondyl.ea Peguensis. Anthony. Pegu. 
- Am. Jour. Conch. I., 205, pi. 18. 

I am indebted to Mr. Theobald for the above quotations. The 
shells are the two Monocondylcea above referred to, the first being 
that referred by me, though with some doubt, to Anodonta {Pseudo- 
don) inoscularis, Gould, the second to Monocondylcea Vondenbuschiana, 
Lea. So long as it is the practice of naturalists living in foreign 
countries, and, necessarily, imperfectly acquainted with the fauna of 
distant regions, to give a "specific" name to every animal or frag- 
ment of an animal which reaches them, lists of synonyms must multiply; 
and as everybody will contend for the distinctness of his "species," 
false notions as to the nature and value of specific distinctions must 
prevail. Thus, in the same paper, one of the numerous varieties of 
Melania variabilis, Benson, is called 31. gloriosa, Anthony. Now it 
is worthy of remark that Mr. Benson, who has examined far more of 
the Mollusca of Burma than Mr. Anthony can possibly have seen, has 
not for years described a single Melania from that country as new, 
and has only described two species of Unio, although he had speci- 
mens of all Mr. Anthony's supposed new species. I can only add 
that it would be easy for me to describe, from the materials I possess, 
20 or 30 forms of Unio (and nearly as many more of Melania) with 
as good claims to distinction as one-half at least of those already pub- 
lished from India and Burma ; but were I to do so, I cannot help 
thinking that, while burdening science with additional names, I 
should have added nothing to the knowledge of the fresh water mol- 
lusca of India. Amongst fresh water shells I am convinced that 
forms pass into each other far more than amongst land shells, that 
" species," in the usual definition of the word, have no existence, 
that all the characters relied upon for distinguishing " species" of 
Unionidtf in especial, the form and thickness of the hinge teeth, form 



154 Contributions to Indian Malacology . [No. 2 



of the shell, prominence of the umbones, shape of the muscular im- 
pressions, colour of the nacre, characters of the epidermis, &c. vary 
ad infinitum — in short that species must be described like genera and 
grouped around types, not distinguished by characters. 

I see from a notice in the Paris Journal de Conchyliologie that, in 
the same volume of the American Journal of Conchology, Mr. Conrad 
proposed a new genus Trigonodon for Monocondyl<%a crebristriata of 
Anthony, from which, as I have stated above, Anodonta inoscularis, 
Gould, is at the best but dubiously separable specifically. But the 
last named shell is the type of Gould's genus Pseudodon, and Gould 
himself suggested the identity of that genus with D'Orbigny's Mono- 
condyloma* Unless Mr. Conrad has procured the animals of the Pegu 
forms, and shewn them to be distinct from those of South America, 
(and I scarcely think he can have done so,) I cannot believe that any 
useful object is attained by inventing these generic appellations. Even 
if Trigonodon be not Pseudodon over again, (Mr. Conrad appears to 
have already furnished one synonym before for Pseudodon, viz. 
Monodontina,) there has been no distinction of any generic value 
shewn between the shells of Burmese and Malay species of Monocon- 
dyl/za and those of S. America ; and bearing in mind that there are 
some genera of more restricted distribution than those belonging to 
the Unionidce, e. g. the Tapir, and amongst Mollusks, Cyclophorus 
and Megalomastoma, common to the two regions, it would, I think, 
be more scientific to examine the animals of the Burmese shells allied 
to Monocondylcea, before founding new genera to comprise them. 

There is of course the possibility that Mr. Theobald may have been 
misinformed as to the respective names of the two species, and that 
the type of Trigonodon is the form I have referred to Monocondylcea 
Vondenbuschiana. I can only add that the specimens of the same shell 
from the same locality sent to me by Mr. Theobald, do not differ 
more from Krister's figure of V. d. Busch's original specimen of M. 
Vondenbuschiana in Martini and Chemnitz, than that figure does from 
Lea's. 

Unio Pegtjensis, Anthony. 

American Journal of Conchology, Vol. I. 

I cannot learn what species has been thus named I hope to be 
able to refer to the volume before long and to return to the subject. 
* Ot. Conch., p. 194. 



1866.] 



Contributions to Indian Malacology. 



155 



Two Indian species of Unio in the Musee d' Histoire Naturelle at 
Paris have received MS. names from Valenciennes. I am unable to 
ascertain at present if these names have been published or not. 



Corrigenda in Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. VI., in this volume : 



31, 


line 


2, 


from bottom, for 


Kimery read Kimety. 


32, 


jj 


7, 


JJ 


top, „ 


Fordoni 


„ Gordoni. 




»j 


8, 




bottom, „ 


Hattiwar 


„ Kattiawar. 


34, 




2, 


JJ 


jj jj 


inwardly 


„ conoidly. 


35, 


?> 


15, 


JJ 


top, 


subgesta 


„ subjecta. 


37, 


JJ 


12, 


JJ 


bottom, 


supply " it" after nulla. 


M 




9, 


JJ 


u 


omit the word South. 




88, 


JJ 


10, 


JJ 


top, „ 


oblong ovate, Achatina read oblong ovate 














Achatinae. 


)> 


>J 


17, 


JJ 


>j jj 


Basilens 


, Basileus. 


» 


JJ 


12, 


JJ 


bottom, „ 


Abjrceus 


„ AlyccBus. 






8, 


JJ 


jj 


Recleiz 


„ Recluz. 


39, 


lines 21 


16 & 11, from bottom, for Basilens 


, Basileus. 


j» 


line 


17, 


from bottom, for 


Wynand , 


, Wynaud. 


jj 


» 


14, 


jj 


jj >j 


Paulghat cherry 


, Paulghatcherry 




J3 


5, 


3} 


jj jj 


of that N. auris , 


, of JV. auris. 


5J 


jj 


2, 


„ 


jj jj 


base by , 


, barely. 


41, 


>> 


11, 


jj 


top, „ 


slighly , 


, slightly. 



In the previous number V. of the Contributions, an important error occurs 
N. conula, n. s. for N. Conulus (J. A. S. B. XXXIV, 73, )865). 

In the same page, Phoung ditto, Arakan, should be Phoung Do, and three 
pages further, p. 76, line 12, a semicolon is omitted, altering the sense. The 
passage should read " a vertical lamina in front, and a second, slightly oblique, 
just behind ; the first giving out" &c. instead of "just behind the first." The 
only other erratum of importance is in page 81, line 20, where " re-entering 
lamellar parietal" should be " re-entering parietal lamella." 



156 Scientific Intelligence. [No. 2, 



Scientific Intelligence. 

The following is from Mr. Blyth : — 

I have already elucidated* sundry species of iEgialites (or Ring 
Plover) and may now further add that I have since made out the 
Charadrius pusillus of Horsfield to be the same as JE. ruficapillus, Gould, 
figured in his Birds of Australia : Horsfield's specimen being in winter 
dress, and his name of course standing for the species. 

The Indian Neophron (281) will have to rank as N. ginginianus, 
Latham. The Spilornis of Ceylon and of all S. India is the same as S. 
Flgini, Tytler, and will bear my prior name Spilogaster (J. A. S. 
XXI. 351) being distinct from the Malayan S. bacha, with, which Pro- 
fessor Schlegel identifies it. Falco babi/lonicus is the F. peregrinoides 
apud G. R. Gray, as suggested in p. 282. The Cat noticed as Felis 
macrocelis in p. 283 seems, after all, to be of a different and smaller race 
than one received from Asam also in the Zoological Gardens. It has 
now T been more than three years in the garden, and has only a slight 
fulvous tendency even yet, while the other is much more fulvescent, 
and is also of heavier build. I think that the larger only has the very 
elongated canine teeth. Neither seems to be the true Diardii (vel 
macrocelis) of Sumatra and Borneo ; and I suspect that the larger and 
more fulvous animal (which the Society's Museum has from Sikhim) 
should rank as F. nebulosa, C. H. Smith, figured in Griffith's English 
edition of the Regne animal. There is also great variation in the F. 
aurata, Tern, (murmensis, Hodgson, and the young F. Temminckii, 
Vigors.) A rufous specimen in the India Museum has strongly deve- 
loped body-markings, akin in type to those of the macrocelis group ; 
others (alike from Sikhim, Malacca and Sumatra,) are deep rufous 
without trace of body-markings ; and thirdly, there is the blackish 
race, which is designated F. nigrescens, Hodgson, in the second edi- 
tion of the British Museum Catalogue of Mr. Hodgson's collections. 
These Cats w T ould seem, in fact, to be in process of specialization, 
which is carried on a further stage in the F. Sivinhoei of Formosa, as 
compared with the other races akin to F. Diardii. Lastly, F. CharlA 
toni may be a race not strongly specialized apart from F. marmorala. 
* Asiatic Society's Journal, vol. XXXIV. p. 280. 



18 GO.] Bcientific Intelligences 157 

The whole of these constitute a group of E. and S. E. Asiatic Cats 
per se, which have not the peculiar clubbed tail of F. uncia, with 
which Dr. Gray associates them. To the species of birds to be ex- 
punged from Jerdon's Indian series (p. 282), may be added Olocoris 
penicillata, for which 0. longirostris of Kashmir, Kooloo, &c, has 
hitherto been mistaken. 0. penicillata of W. Asia is smaller, with 
much longer ear-tufts, and the black of the cheeks is continuous with 
that of the breast. Have I told you that Carpophaga cwprea y Jerdon, 
is well distinguished from G. insignis, Hodgson, having the neck and 
lower parts much more ashy, while both differ from G. badia, 
(Raffles), of Sumatra ? Of G. pusilla, nobis, I have seen more spe- 
cimens from S. India, where perhaps it co-exists with the large G. 
cenea ; and both cuprea and pusilla are very likely to inhabit the 
mountains of Ceylon. Grauculus Layardi, nobis, (papuensis apud 
Sykes,) of S. India and Ceylon, is very distinct from G. macci of 
Bengal, &c, much smaller, with the wings strongly banded under- 
neath. The Malayan G.javensis is a miniature of G. macei, of the 
same small size as G. Layardi. As many as four races have been 
confounded under Pycnonotus jocosus, (L.,) a name which must be 
retained for that of China, which I have not seen. The Bengal bird 
will stand as emeria of Shaw (pyrrhotis, Hodgson). The Tenasserim 
and Penang race is monticolus, M'Clelland. That of S. India will be 
named by Gould, and it has no white markings on the rectrices. In the 
Zoological Gardens are apparently two new species of Pheasant. One 
is a female, of a duplicate race to nycthemerus, being of the true silver 
Pheasant type. The other is a male ; very like lineatus of Burma ; 
but the markings of the upper parts more resemble those of nycthe- 
merus ; it has no white along the ridge of the tail, and no white 
streaks on the flanks. Some think it a hybrid ; but, if so, it can 
only be between lineatus and nycthemerus. The tail, however, is 
shaped exactly as in the former, whereas it should be considerably 
more lengthened, if the bird had nycthemerus for one parent ; and its 
legs also should in that case be larger, and shew some trace of the 
crimson colour of those of nycthemerus. I am, therefore, disposed to 
consider it as a true wild race of Kallij, probably from some more 
eastern part of the Indo-Chinese peninsula. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY 



Part II.— PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 
No. III.— 1866. 



Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains, a geological 
paper by Albert M. Verchere, Esq., Bengal Medical Service ; with 
a note on the fossils by M. Edouard de Verneuil, Membre de 
VAcademie des Sciences, Paris. 

(Continued from page 133.) 
Leaving with regret the Zeeawan spur, we will continue our 
examination of the Zebanwan mountain along its southern aspect. 
(See Map B.) (Section III. on General Map.) 

We first cross a considerable mass of volcanic rocks, well stratified, 
and which we will not stop to describe, as they are similar to the 
felspathic ashes, black slates and the amygdaloid seen before. They 
present, however, a few layers of a coarsely crystalline limestone, 
without fossils and interbedded with layers of ash ; some of this lime- 
stone is quite black and remarkably well crystallized in small crystals 
of jet-black spar. It would be a valuable ornamental marble, if found 
in some quantity. I have only seen it in thin and small patches, 
accompanying an amygdaloidal dust-stone of fine texture, but much 
decayed and nearly as black as the limestone. These patches of black 
rock are well seen on the slope of the long .spurs which descend 
towards the S. E., from the highest summits of the Zebanwan. These 
volcanic rocks dip easterly, and their inclination is not more than 20° 
to 25°. 

20 



160 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

Having crossed a ravine, we arrive at the spurs over Zowoor, where 
we find the following beds along one section, from W. S. W. to 
E. N. E. We begin with No. 4 of the Section : the Nos. 1, 2 and 3 
refer to the volcanic rocks and black limestone just described. 

~1 Amygdaloidal greenstone, dips E. S. E. 

<2 Asa interbedded with thin beds of highly crystalline azoic limestone, 

^•3 Ash interbedded with black crystalline limestone in thin patches. 

4. Amygdaloid ; dip E. S. E. 20°. 

5. Quartzite, white and stratified. It becomes gradually sandy and coloured 
blue, yellow or grey in places, 15 ft. 

6. Crystalline limestone with the debris of fossils, undeterminable, 5 ft. 

7. Lenticular beds of coarse granular limestone, full of Athyris sp. ? (see 
PI. II. fig. 1 and la) and Productus Flemingi, 1 foot. 

8. Limestone ; grey, weathering brown, presenting abundant sections of 
Ortlioceras and a few Fenestellides, 10 ft. 

9. Coarse limestone ; Fenestellides, Producti, &c. passes into. 

10. Calcareo-ferruginous, brown shales with some fossils : 9 and 10, 
about 40 ft. 

These beds 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are therefore the same beds as there seen at 
Zeeawan, or they are in other words, Zeeawan limestone. They all dip E.S.E. 20°. 

11. Limestone, thin bedded and shaly : no fossils, 5 ft. 

A fault occurs here, and the following beds are seen on the eastern side 
of it. 

12. Limestone of the Zeeawan bed brought up again. It presents the 
same succession as above, viz. an Orthoceras bed, a Eenestellide bed, and a 
brown shale bed ; the Fenestellide beds are, however, less abundant, and 
the lenticular Athyris ones were not seen, 40 ft. 

27. Resting on this limestone, we find other beds of limestone 
having a very different aspect. In fact we have the beginning of the 
Weean bed of carboniferous limestone. The fauna changes consider- 
ably : no Producti are found, no Fenestellides, no great flat Orthidce, 
but instead a very great number of small bivalves, much broken and 
comminuted, and here and there in lenticular beds, where fossils of 
one or two species have been heaped together, some small Brachio- 
poda of the genera Spiriferina and Terebratula ; some large mussel- 
shaped bivalves which are probably Anthracosice or some other near 
sub-genus of Gardinia ; some large and sometimes extremely gibbose 
Aviculo-pectens ; some Pectens four inches across ; Goniatites and 
an innumerable variety of Encrinite stems of all sizes. The appear- 
ance of the rock will be noticed as we get on with our section. 






1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 161 

13. A light blue limestone, argillaceous and compact, weathering rugose 
like frosted glass, but without losing its fine, lustreless, clay -like, pale blue colour. 
It contains many remains of fossils in a bad state of preservation,... 30 ft. 

A fault from N. N. W.— S S. E. ; downthrow S. W. The fault is met near 
the end of the spur by another running W. S. W. — E. N. E. The end of the 
spur, detached, as it were, by these two faults, strikes S. E. — N. "W. and dips 
N. E. 20°. The rock of this detached bed is a shaly limestone ; the fossils are 
small and ill-preserved ; they occur in patches, one or two feet of the bed pre- 
senting a great number of remains, whilst hardly a trace of organisms is to be 
seen for some yards. It is about 50 feet thick, 50 ft. 

Another fault from N. N. W.— S. S. E. ; downthrow S. W. The effect of 
this fault has been to bring up again the bed of Zeeawan limestone, and we 
therefore have the following bed to the N. E. of the fault. 

14. A coarse micaceous marly slate, without fossils, and passing gradually 
upwards into sandy shales of a dark brown colour and containing Producti, 
Orthidce and Spirifers in a very bad state of preservation. These dark shales 
are identical in appearance and in some of their fossils with the brown shales 
of the Zeeawan bed, but the Bryozoa, so extensively developed in other 
localities, appear to be totally absent, and some small bivalves, which are 
found in the Weean bed and have not been seen in the Zeeawan bed, were 
discovered here.* These differences however may be easily accounted for by a 
difference of depth of the sea at the time the Zeeawan limestone and shale 
were deposited. The sandy and coarse micaceous slates seem to indicate a 
shallow sea with a drifting current on a shelving coast, a physical arrangement 
which may be a tolerable habitat for the large Brachiopoda, but unsuitable to 
the delicate Bryozoa. 

This Zeeawan bed is succeeded by a shaly limestone, similar to that 
which is seen before the fault, that is to say Weean limestone. It 
has a well marked cleavage, due probably to its argillaceous impurities, 
and this cleavage is not unfrequently more conspicuous than the stra- 
tification. 

The end of the spur is, like the preceding spur, cut off by a 
transverse fault W. S. W. — E. N. E. and the detached end dips 
E.N. E. 20°, whilst the body of the spur, above the transverse fault, 
dips E. S. E. 20°, the cleavage noted above dips N. W. 70°. 

The thickness of these two beds together is about 100 feet ; they form the 
whole of the spur above the village of Koonmoo, 100 ft. 

28. Above Koonmoo, in the angle formed by the divergence 
of the two arms of the spur, is a spring with a Zyarat called Shokum. 

* A similar mixture of Zeeawan and "Weean fossils is found in some parts of 
the Rotta Roh in the Punjab. See Chapter III. para. 60. 



1G2 Mr. Vercherc on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

The rocks which are above this spring form a little knoll very insigni- 
ficant geographically, but interesting for its fossils. These are often 
converted into haematite, sometimes crystalline, sometimes powdery. 
The rock of the bed is mostly a -hard, cherty, pinkish limestone, and 
in this are lenticular beds of a soft, granular, pale french-grey lime- 
stone, with innumerable minute black dots which are the crystallized 
stems of a very slender crinoid. These minute rings are sometimes a 
round plate and sometimes a five radiated star. The rock is sometimes 
coloured pink by iron, and then the crinoid-rings are dark red instead 
of black. It is foetid and it contains the large Anthracosice (PI VI. 
fig. 3,) and the Aviculo-pectens mentioned before, and also the 
little shell PL VIII. fig. 5. This spur contains also a very com- 
pact, dark, nearly black limestone, with a very fine grain, but with 
only a few fossils and encrinite -rings. It is a similar bed which has 
furnished the blocks of which the beautiful black marble pillars 
of the Shalimar Bagh are made of. It takes a fine polish, and is 
evidently very durable. It is probable that this bed of black 
limestone crosses over to the valley of the Arrah river, and has been 
quarried there for these pillars.* 

The remainder of the little spur is made up of calcareous, micaceous sand- 
stone without fossils (?). The thickness of the beds forming this spur, ia 
about 60 ft. 

Then we have again beds of limestone, shaly and sandy, much cracked and 
fissured, and with only the debris of fossils. The harder portion of the rock is 
blue, and is traversed by innumerable white lines cutting one another in all 
directions. It dips E. S. E. 20°. 

It is succeeded by a bed of blue argillaceous limestone, weathering rugose, 
and traversed by thin streaks of yellow, ochrous limestone, and containing 
fossils in abundance, amongst others a plaited Spiriferina, which appears 
common in some layers, whilst it is rare in others. Crinoid stems are also 
very abundant, occurring as it were in patches. 

The above mentioned bed is covered in by a grey micaceous sandstone, 
weathering pale brown and containing the fragments of fossils, but no Spiriferince, 

The total thickness of the three last beds mentioned is above . . . 150 ft. 

Crossing the dry bed of a torrent and a great deal of rubbish which 
apparently covers a fault, the sixth spur is reached, and presents the 
following layers : 

* These pillars are generally described by travellers as black porphyry, a 
mistake which a very little attention would have prevented, as the sections of 
fossils are to be seen on the polished surface of the columns. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 163 

a. The bed with the spur brought up again after the fault, 20 ft. 

b. The micaceous sandstone, thin and false-bedded, with well marked 
cleavage, 16 ft. 

c. Foetid pale brown, calcareous sandstone, viz. false-bedded ; no fossils ; 
dips. E. S. E. 30° ix ft. 

d. Shales; no fossils, 1 f 00 t. 

e. Limestone, compact and dark grey, and weathering brown. It is much 
shivered, and is divided by innumerable white lines crossing each other. No 
fossils except what appear to be worm-burrows filled with sandy ochre, 15 ft. 

/. Very argillaceous limestone of a pale blue colour, with patches of a dirty 
yellow or pale brown colour, 3 ft. 

29. I consider that these beds are the top of the Weean division of 
the carboniferous limestone of the Himalaya, as the following beds 
show a very great difference in their fauna, which is nearly entirely 
confined to gasteropods and corals, the gasteropods presenting a great 
variety of shape and size. The corals of the CyatJiojiItyUidce are 
abundant and of considerable dimensions. The crinoid stems, some of 
them minute and starred, continue to be seen everywhere. The beds 
characterized by gasteropods and corals form the Kothair bed, which 
we shall see better developed elsewhere. 

Continuing our section, we have therefore, resting on the argilla- 
ceous limestone, the following layers : 

g. Limestone, fine grained, blue, compact and argillaceous, with patches of 
dirty yellow. It contains many fragments of fossils, nearly entirely gasteropods. 

Some of these are two inches in length. Starry rings of crinoid stems 
abundant. The limestone becomes gradually of a richer blue colour, some 
portions being indeed light blue ; it weathers rugose like frosted glass. The 
upper part contains no gasteropods, but fossil roots and rootlets the size of 
the finger. It is about 25 feet thick, 25 ft. 

This is all we see here of the Kothair bed, as a fault running N. S. 
brings up again the .Weean bed ; but this patch of the Kothair 
is interesting, as showing its relation to the Weean bed, a relation 
which I have not been able to trace so well anywhere else. The 
Weean and Kothair beds are quite conformable. 

On the other side of the fault we find : 

a. A limestone, bluish-grey and compact ; weathering sandy and dull 
grey. It is divided in layers by several sandy partings. It contains only 
a few encrinite stems and dotted white patches which are probably decomposed 
fossils. It is shivered and traversed by innumerable white lines, 20 ft. 



164 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

b. Brown foetid limestone, full of a transverse species of a plaited Spiri- 
ferina and a globular T&rebratula. It is probably a lenticular bed, and takes 
the place of the Spirifer bed noted above, , 3 ft. 

c. Limestone like a. 

The end of this spur is cut by a transverse fault in the same manner 
as we have seen in the preceding spurs. The cut off beds are much 
disturbed, being vertical at the tops of the ridge, and dipping N. E. at 
high angles along the slope. 

Beyond this is I have not examined this fine section of the lime- 
stone of Kashmir. I was never allowed to visit it again, as I was 
suddenly ordered away from Srinuggur, my professional services being 
required elsewhere. Had I had time, I intended to follow the section 
across the range into Nawan and down to the bottom of the Harrah 
Valley. 

30. From the brow of the last spur which I have visited, a fine 
view is obtained of the next spur, which is remarkable for a great 
twist of the strata which compose it. The limestone is extremely 
white and resembles chalk-cliffs at a distance. We shall, however, 
see this white limestone at Manus Bal, and find that it is probably 
a portion of the Weean bed altered by heat. We shall find it similarly 
altered at Islamabad. 

The whole mass of hills of Nawan appears to be limestone. The 
summits of Boorwaz and Batgool appear behind the range, present- 
ing high rugged peaks of porphyry. To our right, the limestone 
forms a small chain which advances for some miles into the Pampur 
valley, and behind this chain a long line of mountains, also entirely 
composed of limestone, runs N. — S. to join the Wastarwan. (See 
maps B. and C.) 

31. The little chain which descends into the Pampur valley 
terminates over the village of Weean. At its extremity, the Weean 
limestone, or middle bed of carboniferous limestone of Kashmir, is 
well developed, and we will now proceed to examine this locality. 
It is, to me, the classical ground of the Weean limestone, as the 
Zeeawan spur is that of the Zeeawan Bed. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 165 



Section of the hills above the village of Weean in the Pampicr valley. 

(See fig. 7.) 

The little hillocks above the villages of Weean and Kohew, are 
separated from the main hill by a fault running W. — E. The beds 
have moreover been folded on themselves and dip due W. (at Weean), 
with an angle of 55°, whilst in the main hill the dip is to the N. E. 
with an angle between 20° and 30°. This does not, however, prevent 
the section of the little hill near Weean being a very good one for 
study. We shall proceed from E. to W. 

1. Impure arenaceous limestone with fine spangles of mica. It is very 
shaly in the centre of the bed and there very much decayed. It 
changes its aspect repeatedly, adding here more sand and mica, there more 
clay, 100 ft. 

2. Limestone, argillaceous ; in blue and yellow patches, 4 ft. 

3. Blue limestone, weathering brown and rough. It is arenaceous near 
its upper part. It contains a very few fragments of fossils, 20 ft. 

4. Finely crystalline limestone ; nearly saccharine ; grey and 
rough, 15 ft. 

5. Like 3, 8 ft. 

6. Limestone in blue and dirty yellow patches ; fossils much 
broken, 12 ft. 

7. Flesh colour limestone ; hard, cherty and magnesian, 4 ft. 

8. Sandstone, micaceous, grey, calcareous and muddy. It decays faster 
than the other beds and forms a depression on the hill-side, 2 ft. 

9. Limestone, patchy blue and brown. The hardest and roughest por- 
tions are full of the debris of fossils, 25 ft. 

10. Sandstone, soft and wearing off" quickly, forming a depression 20 ft. 

11. Limestone, hard and grey ; it is brecciated and weathers 
mammilated, 30 ft. 

12. Marly and sandy limestone, compact and hard, dark grey and weather- 
ing into a granular surface, having the appearance of a sandstone. The debris 
of fossils, 40 ft. 

13. Fawn-coloured limestone, very muddy ; it weathers ochrous and decays 
fast, forming a depression on the hill side, 15 ft. 

14. A wall of very hard, crystalline, dark greyish-blue limestone with 



166 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

patches coloured brown. It weathers a dirty dark yellow, and becomes extremely 

rough and pitted by exposure. The organisms it contains are quite indistin- 

. , .. 3 ft. 

guishable, ' 

15. Fawn-coloured limestone like 13, 20 ft - 

16. A wall of very hard and compact limestone, grey and very arenaceous. 
Where it is tolerably free of sand, it is bluer and contains the debris of fos- 

., 15 ft. 

sils, 

17. Sandstone, pale and calcareous, with bands of crystalline carbonate 
of lime. It decays fast and forms a depression, 10 ft - 

18. A well marked wall of dark greyish-blue limestone, very rough and 
pitted; it is arenaceous and in places cherty, 5 ft - 

19. Sandstone, micaceous, very false-bedded and very muddy. It efferves- 
ces with acid along the scum-markings of the false bedding only, ... 15 ft. 

20. A very arenaceous and argillaceous limestone, extremely variable in 
its appearance, but being generally of a pale clayey yellow. It is formed of 
extremely thin layers of two distinct rocks, one being a yellow marl, and 
the other a bluish grey arenaceous limestone, and these thin layers are also 
very false-bedded. When we make a vertical section of a hand specimen, we 
have a striped rock; and in a horizontal one, a succession of regularly round- 
ed patches of bluish grey and sickly yellow. This alternation of very thin and 
very false-bedded layers of rocks of two different colours is the cause of the 
patchy appearance of many beds of the Weean group. But it is rarely 
so well defined as in this present layer. In other places, the bluish limestone 
forms irregularly-rounded balls or nodules cemented together by the yellow 
marl, or the marl forms lumps imbedded in the limestone. Then again mi. 
caceous sand forms, here and there, small false-bedded layers or bands in the 
rock : and lenticular beds of a hard, brittle, pale yellowish, limestone, full of 
the fragments of bivalves and of small crinoid stems, are also found. But all 
these varieties of rock constitute a thick course of impure limestone, GO ft 



) 



Total ... 425 ft. 

We have now arrived at the little ravine which indicates the centre 
of the fold of the beds ; on its other side the same beds are repeated in 
an inversemanner as far as the bed 16 of the above section ; the re- 
maining beds have been denuded from the western branch of the fold. 
This fold deserves notice, as showing well how completely beds may- 
be reversed in their position. It is probable that the beds nearest 
to the ravine are the deepest or oldest, whilst the bed which we have 
numbered No. 1, in the section, is the most superficial. If the hill 
had been denuded to half its present height above the village, the beds 






Sketch Section of the lulls alovc Wecan and Kohew, hearing N.; to illustrate the descriptive Section of these mountain*. (Not drawn to scale.) 




1866.] tlic Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 167 

would appear to succeed one another with considerable regularity 
from W. to E., and one bed, No. 1, would appear the deepest ; but 
the top of the hill having been preserved, the beds can be seen plainly- 
bending and folding themselves in two. There is a circumstance which 
renders it extremely easy to follow the beds along the hill-side and 
it is this, that the layers 16, 17 and 18 form a sort of broad ribbon at 
their outcrop ; 16 and 18 being composed of dark grey walls of lime- 
stone which, from their hardness, are prominent 2 or 3 feet over 
the general surface of the slope, whilst 17, the layer between them, 
is a pale sandstone, decaying fast and forming a sunken furrow be- 
tween the two walls. This broad ribbon, about 30 feet wide, can 
be followed with the eye for miles. The layers 7, 8 and 9 also form 
a ribbon, but less well marked than the other, being paler and not 
so sharp. Now, these two ribbons are of the greatest assistance 
in following the twists and foldings of the beds. We have seen 
that the ribbon 16, 17 and 18 ascends the eastern branch of the fold 
over Weean and curves over at the top of the hill, where its beds are 
perfectly horizontal, and then descends along the western branch. Wo 
see the two ribbons forming near the village of Kohew an anticlinal 
similar to that of Weean, but not quite so sharp, and the description 
of the ribbon also shows us plainly that the beds of the Weean 
hillocks are reversed. There is a great fault between the main hill 
and these two little hillocks of Weean and Kohew •, on the north 
of the fault, the beds dip to the N. E. at a high angle, and all the 
soft and marly layers have decayed and tumbled down in eboulis* 
but the hard ribbon has remained, and can be traced along the 
hill showing the outcrop of the beds. All the way up to Nawan 
we can see the beds of limestone dipping N. E. and we can infer the 
existence of many faults across the range from the reappearance of 
the ribbon on the top of each small spur which descends in the 
Kohew valley. We see these pieces of ribbon plunge under the soil 
of this small valley to emerge on the other side (fig. 7), giving us 
the strike of the beds of that long chain of limestone hills which 
connects Nawan with the Wastarwan Mountain ; ,but although I have 

* The French word is so convenient and expressive, that I do not hesitate 
to use it, as no English word expresses equally well the broken materials of 
beds which have slipped. 

21 



168 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

not visited that long chain of hills, and have not travelled up the 
Kohew valley, I was enabled in following these ribbons, to see 
that it is composed of the variety of limestone which I have called 
the Weean Bed. 

We shall observe these ribbons wherever the Weean limestone 
is well developed ; they are to be seen in the section I have 
given, between Zeeawan and Koonmoo, on the southern aspect of 
the Zebanwan. I did not mention them there, because they 
make but little show near these localities ; but we shall see them 
well marked near Mutton, in the eastern portion of the valley of 
Kashmir. 

32. I will now try to characterise the Weean Bed of carboniferous 
limestone. 

It is a very arenaceous and argillaceous limestone, the sand being 
either in thin grey bands, or mixed with the general paste of 
the rock. A sandy, marly clay, yellow, dirty-yellow, pale brown 
or brown, forms thin and very false-bedded films in the rock, so 
that this is striped when bisected vertically, and patchy bluish and 
yellow when divided horizontally. The hardest beds are brittle, flesh- 
coloured and generally full of bright red minute crystals of haematite, 
and the fossils are here replaced by a powdery or semi-crystalline 
haematite which, however imperfectly, preserves their outlines. The 
harder rock is never blue, and the blue variety of rock is suffici- 
ently muddy to have a soft, velvety, lustreless appearance like a 
fine clay, and not the clean brittle fracture of a pure and hard 
limestone. It has in places all the appearance of a very dirty dark- 
grey mud dried up, and it is then full of fossils and extremely foetid. 
It contains lenticular beds of a very pale, nearly friable limestone, 
containing black specks which are the rings of stems of very minute 
crinoids, and this variety of soft limestone is the habitat of large 
bivalves. One single bed of limestone may be mistaken for Zeeawan 
limestone, bluish-grey, coarse hard and semi-crystalline, but it 
contains innumerable Foraminiferce transformed into yellow ochre 
very large Pectens, and an incredible quantity of fragmentary 
Crinoidea. Indeed, it is the great number of those small rings of 
crinoid stems, always crystallized, which causes the rock to resemble 
the limestone of the Zeeawan Bed. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 169 

Everything in the Weean bed tells of a shallow sea formation. 
The rocks in some localities, to be described hereafter, have been 
much altered by heat or other forces soon after their formation. We 
shall see them thus altered at Manus Bal and at Islamabad, and 
also at the Kafir Kote in the Punjab district of Bunnoo. It appears 
that considerable disturbances occurred while the Weean Bed was 
still in a soft state. But this subject will be examined more carefully 
in another paragraph of this paper. 

The fossils differ a great deal from those of the Zeeawan Bed. In 
most layers they are mere debris hardly to be recognized. When 
they do occur, they are always crowded together in limited beds. 
The Spiriferince and Terebratidce appear to have lived in shallow 
lagoons, in creeks in the sand, in pools on a flat marshy shore, 
and the large bivalves on sandbanks and shallows. The following 
fossils appear to be characteristic of the Weean Bed, as they 
are not found either in the Zeeawan Bed below or the Kothair bed 
above. 

Sjpiriferina Stracheyii (Salter) ? 

,, Stracheyii (Salter) ? var. altior, (Verch.). 

Solenopsis imbricata ? (Koninck). 

Solenopsis sp. PI. VI. fig. 1. 

Cucullwa ? sp. PI. VI. fig. 4. 

Anthracosia ? (King) — Cardinia, sp. PI. VI. fig. 3. 

„ ? Cardinia ovalis ? (Martin) PI. VI. fig. 3. 

Axinus, sp. n., allied to A. obscurus. 
Aviculo-Pecten dissimilis (Fleming). 

„ „ sp. n. (.4. circularise Verchere,) Plat. VII. 

[fig. 1, la, & lb. 

„ sp. ? PI. VI. fig. 6, 6a, 6b. 

„ sp. ? PI. VI. fig. 7, 7a. 

„ sp. ? PI. VI. fig. 7, 7a, 7b. 

„ „ sp . n . ? (A. Testudo, Verch.) PL VII. fig. 3, 3a. 

„ „ sp n.? (A. Gibbosus, Verch.) PI. VII. fig. 4, 4a. 

Goniatites } sp. like G. Henslowii (Sowerby). 

Entomostracce -Gypridinicz ? 

Foraminifera. 

Crinoidea ; Cyathocrinites and Pentremites. 



170 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

A small bivalve, giving on section the appearance of a pair of 
spectacles is also found, but I never could detect the shell entire, 
although it is often the only fossil to be discovered. 

33. But to the positive evidence afforded by these fossils, we 
must add the negative evidence : I mean we must remember that 
this is a bed of carboniferous limestone, and that notwithstanding 
we have no examples of the genera Productus, Orthis, Euomphalus 
Bellerophon, and Orthoceratites, and that there are no large Spiriferce or 
Fenestellides. Neither have we the Gasteropods and Cyathophyllides 
which- characterise the uppermost or Kothair bed, more by their 
number and variety, than by any species well defined by me. I am 
anxious to insist on the absence in the Weean group of these fossils, 
which are generally regarded as eminently carboniferous, because 
it has been found difficult to determine the age of rocks belonging 
to the Weean bed, when seen apart from the Zeeawan Bed ; thus 
the limestone of Manus Bal, which belongs to the Weean group, has 
been twice reported to be nummulitic. 

34. The next mountain to examine is the Wastarwan. It is 
a fine hill, its summits rising above Avantipoor, a small city on the 
Jheelum celebrated for its Buddhist ruins. An inspection of the 
map will be better than any description I can give of the position and 
relations of this mountain. It is a centre of elevation, with spurs 
descending in all directions, like the spokes of a wheel. I never 
ascended it, but I travelled along its northern and its western sides, 
and the following is a description of what I saw. 

Section from Reechpoora towards the E. as far as longitude 73° 5'. 
across the northern spurs of the Wastanoan : (See Map C.) 

The spur which descends to near Reechpoora is entirely composed 
of Zeeawan limestone with the characteristic fossils. The bed forms 
a sharp anticlinal of which the two arms slope or dip N. E. and S. W. 
respectively, striking N. W. to S. E. The beds of limestone inwrap 
the end of the spur, the layers seen above the little Buddhist 
ruin dipping nearly due N. The anticlinal is so sharp that the 
courses of rock have separated, and caves, now converted into holy 
quarters for a few fakirs, are to be observed on both sides of the 
anticlinal. 

35. Proceeding eastwards, after crossing the bed of a stream, we 



18G6.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 171 

observe near Banda, a small Zyarut up the ravine above Ladoo, 
some very fine beds of limestone of which the following is the 
section. 

Proceeding from the bottom of the ravine up the side of the spur 
we find. 

1. Slates, so much decayed and broken that it is impossible to see their 
dip and strike. They are identical with those which we have seen inter- 
bedded with volcanic ash and agglomerate in the Tukt-i-Suliman and tho 
Zebanwan, and they are very extensively developed in the Wastarwan. They 
are, as we have seen, more or less metamorphosed, often slightly amygdaloidal 
and always devoid of organisms, very thick. 

2. Augitio ash, very amygdaloidal, the geodes being filled sometimes with 
dark augite, sometimes with bluish-white opalescent quartz. It strikes N. W. 
by W. and dips north-easterly. About 25 ft. 

3.' Trachyte, sparingly amygdaloidal ; coloured brown outside by 
iron, 10 ft. 

4. Metamorphosed slate, foliated, jointed, disintegrating, 20 ft. 

5. Compact basalt, 4 inches. 

The debris of volcanic rocks form a breccia over tho basalt ; but this bed 

is very irregular and lenticular. The basalt is replaced in some places along 
the strike by a dull, light-olivo-coloured laterite or baked clay, about one foot 
thick. 

6. Quai'tzite, sometimes pure, opaque, white ; often translucent, bluish or 
smoky ; never crystalline. It gradually invades the laterito mentioned above, 
and forms ribands of dull olive and pure white quartz, 2 & 3 ft. 

7. Zeeawan limestone with usual fossils ; dips N. 15°, 40 ft. 

8. Zeeawan brown shales, 10 ft. 

9. Fine blue clay-slate ; calcareous and breaking in large thin slates. It 
contains no fossils, 10 ft. 

Extensive old quarries remain here, showing how fine and free 
a limestone the Zeeawan bed can give, when quarried in portions of 
rock which are not weathered. The quarries are far from exhausted, 
or rather the amount removed is insignificant compared to what 
remains ; blocks of any size and very sound could now be procured 
easily from the old quarries. It is a great pity that the Maharajah's 
government do not work this and other quarries for the limestone they 
want, instead of destroying the interesting Buddhist ruins which 
cover the valley, especially as the style of architecture now in favour 
in Kashmir is perfectly hideous. 



172 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

Traversing a ravine we meet the spur which descends towards the 
village of Mandikpal, and the following section is met with : 

1. Amygdaloidal greenstone. 

2. Amygdaloid. 

3. Quartzite. 

4. Rotten Augitic ash. 

Some of the ground is covered with ths debris- of the ash, so that its relation 
to the next bed is not seen. 

5. Limestone, argillaceous, pale bluish-grey, weathering fawn-coloured : after- 
wards patchy blue and brownish. It is thin-bedded and breaks in slabs about 
one to one and a half inch thick. It contains an abundance of Goniatites of 2 or 
3 species. The bed is about 30 ft. 

The dip of these several layers of rock is N. N. E. 25°. 

This is the only locality where I have seen Weean limestone resting 
immediately on volcanic rocks. 

From Mandikpal, our section goes through a succession of limestone 
ridges which, from the appearance of the ribbons described at the 
hillocks over Weean and Kohew (para. 31), are conjectured to 
be Weean limestone, but I had not time to visit them. The general 
dip of their beds is north-easterly. 

36. The western aspect of the Wastarwan I shall describe from 
S. to N., that is from Avantipoor to Reechpoora. It is a series 
of spurs with a general westwardly direction, and at the end of one 
of these spurs is a little knoll which I shall call for convenience sake 
the " Pampur knoll." 

The following is the section of these spurs from S. to N. (see 
Map C). 

1. The whole of the spurs between Avantipoor and Tangur are composed 
entirely of volcanic rocks, viz., amgydaloidal greenstone, coarse basalt and 
ash, and black slate without fossils. The limestone is first seen about three 
quarters of a mile south of Barus, where two spurs approach very near the 
river Jheelum. 

2. As we ascend the most southern of these spurs, we find, resting confor- 
mably on dark amygdaloidal greenstone, a bed of white quartzite about 2 feet 
thick, 2 ft, 

3. A coarse and rough trachyte, 12 ft. 

A fault N. N. E.— S. S. W. It opens towards the northern end, whilst the 
edges of it are crushed one against the other at its southern extremity. On 
the northern side of the fault we find : — 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 173 

1. Quartzite, bluish grey, gTitty and rough, 2 ft. 

2. Trap, having a shaly appearance. A great deal of kunkur is seen along 
the line of fault, 1 ft. 

3. Quartzite, excessively irregular and having a very peculiar appearance : 
it is divided in meshes like a very coarse travertin, or rather like lead "which 
has been dropped in cold water while in a melted state. There is however a 
certain pretty well marked stratification or superposition of courses. The 
rock looks like a siliceous paste which had solidified suddenly when in a sate 
of ebullition. It first dips W. about 50°, increasing gradually to the vertical 
and then inclining the other way, dipping S. E. 80°. It, however, soon becomes 
vertical and gradually dips again W. 50°, 40 ft. 

4. Pale trachyte. Dips W. 50°, 15 ft. 

5. Limestone, crystalline and metamorphosed ; no organisms. Weathering 
rough ; much stained by iron-oxyde, 3 ft. 

6. Zeeawan limestone with the usual fossils; dips W. 40°, 50 ft. 

7. Zeeawan brown shales, 10 ft, 

8. Slate ; coarse, micaceous. Squeezed by proximity to a fault ; no fossils ? 
A fault, from N. E. — S. W. with a downthrow or the southern side. The 

slates are partially in the fault. 

37. If we ascend the next spur, Barns spur, from the south, pretty 
high up the little ravine, and make our way to the monumental 
" Ling" which crowns the hill,* we see nothing but trap and 
ashes which have been brought up again on the northern side of the 
I fault. The top of the hill is covered with grass and debris which 
prevent the rocks being seen in situ, but many pieces of ash, amyg- 
; daloid and white quartzite are seen loose on the earth, showing that the 
usual quartzite bed exists here. On the western and north-western 
, aspect of the hillock, the rocks are uncovered and we have the follow- 
ing series. 

ITrap and volcanic ash 
Quartzite 

Here two beds are covered by vegetable earth, as mentioned above. 

II. Zeeawan limestone with usual fossils. Dips W. 50°, 40 ft. 
2. Greyish-blue limestone without fossils, 15 ft. 

3. Beds concealed by vegetable earth and by lacustrine deposits 30 ft. 

4. Shaly limestone with few and broken shells 40 ft. 

* This is, I believe, one of the largest, if not the largest " Ling" or " Em- 
blem of Creation." It measures 14 feet in circumference and was about 20 
feet high. The base is hexagonal ; the preputial line is in relief, and appears 
to have been carved. This monster ling is now broken in two or three pieces,, 
and the upper half is prostrate on the ground ; the hexagonal base and about, 
6 feet of the body of the ling are still standing. 



174 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

5. Limestone, very impure and containing immense numbers of a Spirifer of 
large size, veiy similar to Spirifera Vercheri, De Vernueil PI. I. (fig. la. lb. 4 ft. 

6. Limestone with a few fossils, 30 ft. 

7. Limestone, filled with. Productus costatus (S. W.) often extremely depressed 
by pressure. Many other fossils associated with the Productus, such as Athyris 
Spirifera, and a species of Chonetes, &c. The limestone is arenaceous and mica- 
ceous, often so much so that it passes into a calcareous sandstone. This passes 
gradually into the next bed, the fossils becoming less frequent and the rock 
less sandy. 

8. Shaly limestone. The beds 7 and 8 are together about, 60 ft. 

All these beds are evidently, from their fossils, members of the Zeeawan 

group. The series is continued by beds of the Weean limestone. 

9. Sandstone, grey, then pale brown. It contains lenticular beds of lime- 
stone. The bed is much disintegrated and overgrown with grass 
Goniatites, ? 

10. Flinty -looking, shining limestone of a bluish grey colour. Divided by 
pastings of shale, thin and irregular. It weathers rugose and contains no 
fossils, 15 ft, 

11. Calcareous slate, thin-bedded and exfoliating, 1 ft. 

12. Flinty limestone like 10, 3 ft. 

A lacustrine deposit covers any further bed which may exist. 

The total thickness of this section is about 260 feet. The Zeeawan 
bed is nowhere so thick as it is here, being about 220 feet thick from 
stratum 1 to 8. 

The remainder of the section is Weean limestone, but only partially 
seen here. 

38. The end of the spur, immediatly north of Bams, presents also 
some Zeeawan limestone, but it was not examined. The two following 
spurs are entirely composed of volcanic ash and agglomerate. 

39. Then comes the long spur which ends in the somewhat 
detached hillock which I have called the Pampur knoll. We find 
in this spur the beds we have just seen above Barus, precisely in the 
same position and relation. The similarity is so complete that it is 
evident that the Barus beds once extended to the Pampur knoll with- 
out a break, but that a great portion of this limestone has been 
denuded. 

The volcanic rocks, in the long spur, are well stratified and rather 
thin-bedded as they approach the limestone. They dip W. N. W. 
with an angle of about 45°. The Zeeawan bed rests on quartzite 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 175 

and presents the same beds full of the gregarious fossil Spirifera trigona- 
lis (?) and of Productus Costatus : the distance between these beds is the 
same as it is at Barus. On the top of the Zeeawan beds are seen 
Weean beds, but they are much more complete than at Barus, having 
a thickness, from the top of the Zeeawan bed to the foot of the knoll, 
of about 660 feet. But I believe there are probably some faults 
which cause beds to be repeated, and that the Weean bed is not quite 
so thick ; about 500 feet. 

The Pampur knoll gives the following approximate section fiom 
east to west. 

1. Coarse grey limestone. 

2. Slaty grey limestone. 

3. Patchy blue and yellow or pale brown limestone. 

4. Compact blue limestone, argillaceous. 

5. Patchy blue and dirty yellow. 

These beds are together about 100 feet thick. They dip W. with an angle 
of 60°. 

6. Flesh-coloured limestone, 

7. Shaly coarse blue limestone. 

8. Flesh-coloured limestone. 

. These 3 beds are together about 80 feet. Dip as above. 

Other layers are buried under lacustrine deposits. This little 
hillock was examined very superficially, owing to want of time. No 
i fossils were seen except the small broken bivalves mentioned above, 
and which are so common in all the rocks of the Weean group. 

40. The spur seen half way between the Pampur knoll and 
Reechpoora, is tipped with Zeeawan limestone, but was not examined 
in detail. 

41. Here ends our survey of the Wastarwan. I need not say 
that the central ridges and summits are entirely composed of volcanic 
accumulations. Black basaltic rocks are abundant, and by their 
disintegration, and the rearrangement by water of the black mud 
they gave in decaying, a great quantity of black slate was formed 
which is seen interbedded with beds of ash and agglomerate. These 
volcanic rocks do not require to be described, as they are identical with 
those of the Zebanwan Mountain, All the rocks of the Wastarwan 
present a stratification or superposition; on the northern slope it 

22 



176 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

has a general dip to the N. E., whilst on the western aspect of the 
hill its dip is generally westerly. There is therefore a sort of 
anticlinal towards the centre of the hill, following a direction from 
the N. W. to the S. E. We have seen how this anticlinal affects the 
limestone at Reechpoora, a locality which happens to be at the end 
of it. 

42. The next mountain we meet, travelling towards the S. E. 
along the banks of the Jheelum, is the Kamlawan (8601) which 
terminates over the village of Murhamma. The mountain is com- 
posed, like the Zebanwan and the Wastarwan, of volcanic rocks. 
Melted rocks predominate in the centre of the system, whilst 
ash and laterite compose, in a great part, the most extended spurs. 
Slate is intermixed with the beds of volcanic cinders, and over 
these carboniferous limestone rests conformably. But the limestone 
of the Kamlawan appears to have been extensively denuded, and is 
only found in a small bed which makes but little show. The follow- 
ing is a section of the spur immediately over Murhamma. Direction 
of the spur N.— S. Strike E. S. E.— W. N. W. ; dip S. S. W. 
(See PI. 11. Section D.) 

1. Trachy-dolerite, coarse and dark, here and there amygdaloidal ; it has 
large joints regularly disposed, at right angles to the stratification and yawn- 
ing, giving it a somewhat columnar aspect. This bed appears to extend from 
the top of the hill, to the beginning of the spur now under consideration. It 
is of very great thickness, and, making allowance for faults, it cannot be less 
than 2000 feet. 

2. Baked clay-stone or compact laterite, grey, smooth, much jointed ; it 
dips S. S. W. 70°. It has a thickness of about 200 ft. 

3. Limestone, crystalline, coarse and metamorphosed. It contains a few frag- 
ments of fossils, not recognizable and mostly transformed into spar, 3 ft. 

A fault, 

4. Grey laterite or baked clay, like No. 2, 200 ft. 

5. Amygdaloid, 20 ft. 

6. Sandstone, or perhaps volcanic dust-stone j no fossils, 5 ft. 

7. Coarse grit of rounded grains. 

8. Basalt, fine and dark brown. The beds 7 and 8 are together 150 ft. 

9. Sandstone or duststone, like 6, 5 ft. 

10. Beds covered with grass and earth. Pieces of white quartzite and 
rotten ash seen amongst the grass, 100 ft. 

11. Limestone of the Zeeawan group with Produ&tidce, Fenestellida, 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 177 

Orthidee, etc. It is much fractured and fissured, and is evidently but the rem- 
nant of larger beds removed by denudation. It dips S. S. W. 50° and it is 

about,... 25 ft. 

Any further beds which may exist are covered by the lacustrine deposit, 
which is here 150 feet above the level of the Jheelum. 

The Sheri Bal is a small mountain close to the Kamlawan, 
to which it is united by a connecting ridge. It is entirely composed 
of the same semi-columnar trachy-dolerite which forms the bulk of 
the Kamlawan. The compact, smooth, grey, laterite or baked clay- 
stone, described in the section as No. 2 and 4, is seen extending on the 
flank of the hill, both to the west and to the east. It forms a conspicu- 
ous belt along the side of the Sheri Bal, appearing, from the high 
angle of its dip, to rest against the trachy-dolerite. Some of the 
volcanic and azoic rocks, described in the section of the Kamlawan 
as superior to the laterite, were seen on the slopes of the Sheri Bal, 
but no limestone was observed, it having probably been denuded. 

43. Crossing the valley of the Lidar River, we find the next 
mountains to be the Hapatikri and Saijnarh group. The whole of 
this system of hills appears to be composed of limestone. It is 
continued to the S. W. by a low ridge, which is mostly buried under 
lacustrine deposits, but rises above these at Islamabad, forming 
a small hill at the foot of which the town is built. 

The following section (fig. 8) will, I hope, give a good idea of the 
rocks composing these hills. The section is above the celebrated Tank 
of Mutton, near which locality the lacustrine deposit is about 120 feet 
thick. Above the lacustrine we find : 

1. A limestone, coarse arenaceous and apparently much metamorphosed. 
It contains hardly any trace of fossils, excepting very crystalline rounded 
bodies which are altered stems of crinoids. The rock is divided into sub-beds 
by shaly or clayey partings, which are very false-bedded and very hard. Only 
a few feet of this rock appear above the lacustrine. 

2. Limestone, jointed and cleaved ; but hard specimens have a remarkably 
compact, smooth appearance, like hornstone. 

These 2 beds dip E. N. E. 20°. 

3. The bed No. 2 becomes gradually bluer and more argillaceous and less 
cleaved ; towards the top of the bed it is the patchy blue and brownish rock 
which we have seen before repeatedly. It contains traces of fossils, but no 
shells sufficiently well preserved to be recognized. It has an enormous thick- 



178 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3 



ness, varying however a good deal in places. There are remains of a Buddhist 
quarry in this bed. 

The three beds have together a thickness of about 200 ft. 

4. White and friable sandstone, apparently a compressed quartzose sand 
without cement. It dips N. E. by E. 25°. It contains traces of fossils. It is 
remarkably well seen near the Karaise or Irrigation Canal which is cut on the 
flank of the hill.* It is a thin bed and presents variations of color and aspect. 
It is only one and half foot thick, 1| ft. 

5. Argillaceous blue limestone, , 2 ft. 

6. Yellow sandstone, calcareous, not very hard, much disturbed and faulted, 
the faults, which are small and short, being at right angles to the strike. The 
sandstone has a thickness of about 10 ft. 

In this sandstone, which, by the bye, does occasionally pass into 
lenticular patches of impure arenaceous limestone, a great many sections 
or outlines of large bivalves and some small ones were seen ; but no 
shell in a tolerable state of perfection could be obtained ; I, however, 
made drawings of the outlines presented by these bivalves, on the 
weathered flank of the rock. When I first saw these outlines, I did 
not know of the large Anthracosice, Pectens and Aviculo-pectens 
which exist in the Weean group, and it appeared poor and ungrateful 
work to copy them. Soon after, however, I found the Aviculo- 
pectens and other bivalves represented at PI. VI. fig. 3, and PI. VII. 
fig. 4, 4a, and my sketches of the sections came in very opportunely, 
proving, in the absence of better fossil evidence, the Weean nature 
of the Hapatikri limestone. 

7. Very hard and brilliant white quartzose sandstone, , 10 ft. 

8. Sandstone, yellow and soft, like 6, 5 ft. 

These sandstone beds are remarkably wavy and undulated, as if they had 

suffered from lateral pressure. The limestone above and below participates 
but very triflingly in these undulations. 

9. Sandy limestone, blue and compact. The debris of small fossils, 10 ft. 

10. Dark shales, slightly carbonaceous. In this bed, casts of roots of 
trees with a concentric arrangement and, in rare cases, the vegetable cells 
filled with coah were seen. The roots are generally thoroughly petrified ; they 
are numerous and mostly horizontally (to dip) arranged ; they are branching 
and have generally a starry disposition like Stigmaria. Some pieces of these 

* This canal was apparently intended to bring some of the waters of the 
Lidar to the Martand plateau ; but it was never finished, and it is now falling 
into ruin. It is said to have been begun during the reign of the Mogul Emperors 
of Delhi j it is a work of considerable extent. 



I860.] the Western Himalaya and Afyhan Mountains. 179 

roots show a sor.t of epidermis, somewhat scaly like Lepidodendron. Large 
trunks were not seen. The bed is very thin, only 1| foot, and is covered 
by a bed of limestone 25 feet thick. It appears therefore probable that, 
owing to littoral oscillations, the vegetable covering of the shale was denuded 
during the progress of the sinking of the coast and previous to the deposit of 
the limestone, 1 & 2 ft. 

11. Argillaceous bmestone, compact and weathering white. 
Shaly partings, , 25 ft. 

12. Calcareous sandstone, of a compact structure and a dark blue color 
when fresh, but weathering reddish in an irregular and patchy manner, the 
redder patches being due to shaly masses which are seen here and there 
imbedded in the sandstone : these shaly masses sometimes form lenticular 
thin beds, as thin-bedded as sheets of paper. No fossils, 10 ft. 

13. Grey limestone ; no fossils, t 6 ft. 

14. Limestone, patchy blue and pale brown, 15 ft. 

These two beds of limestone are not quite conformable to the sandstone and 

preceding beds ; they are nearly horizontal, with a trifling dip of about 3° 
to the E. N. E. This is probably duo to littoral oscillations or earthquakes. 

15. Sandstones, greyish-brown and pale, 2 ft. 

16. Limestone, 4 ft. 

17. Very arenaceous, grey limestone, weathering a deep yellowish grey ; 
it shows no organisms. It dips E. N. E. 20°. It does not appear to participate 
at all in tho faults and folds noted before. It has resisted atmospheric influence 
well and forms a prominent and striking wall near the top of the hill. . It 
is about 20 ft. 

18. Pale blue sandstone, marly and shaly, weathering greyish-brown and 
patchy. It decays fast into a yellow sandy marl and forms a furrow at its 
outcrop, 15 ft. 

19. Compact limestone, very hard and cherty. It is fawn-coloured, but 
sometimes greenish blue. It contains no fossils, 5 ft. 

These three beds, 17, 18 and 19, form at their outcrop a ribbon 
similar to those described at Weean. Another ribbon is formed by the 
layers 14, 15 and 16, which appear to be the equivalent of the ribbon 
7, 8, 9 at Weean. (?) 

20. Sandstone, brown, hard and micaceous, 2 ft. 

21. Limestone in blue and brown patches, 4 ft. 

22. Sandstone, shaly and much fissured. Color grey or brownish-grey. It 
is hard, cherty and calcareous. It has a slaty cleavage, cutting the stratifica- 
tion obliquely by striking W. E. and dipping N. with an angle of 60°. It 
contains a few fossils. This bed varies a great deal, being sometimes a pure 
enough sandstone, at other times a sandy shale, and again a coarse sandy slate. 
It goes to the top of the cliff 20 ft. 



180 Mr. Yerchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

This section gives a thickness of Weean limestone and calcareous 
sandstone, of 360 feet. 

When I ascended the Hapatikri, I unfortunatly did so above Mutton, 
and only carried my section as far as the top of the hill at that place, 
that is as far as layer 22. A little swelling of the surface concealed 
from me the summits to my right, and I thought that layer 22 was 
the highest of the hill. From the top of the Islamabad hill, 
about four miles to the S. W., I could see, while sketching fig. 8, 
that the summit of the Hapatikri is considerably above the layer 
22. Two dark layers or ribbons are well seen near the highest 
summit of the Hapatikri, and it is not impossible that some faults 
bring up again the same beds. It is, however, probable that some 
beds of the uppermost or Kothair Bed exist near the summit of 
the hill, as I found amongst eboulis and lose stones near Martand 
some corals, which are, I believe, highly characteristic of the Kothair 
bed. (PL VIII. fig. 4, 4a.) 

44. The Sketch- Section (fig. 8) shows that all the ridges of the 
Saijnarh are well and regularly stratified limestone and calcareous sand- 
stones ; I did not, however, visit these spurs. Behind the Saijnarh and 
the Hapatikri are seen the rugged volcanic mountains which bound Kash- 
mir on the east, separating the waters of the Jheelum from those of the 
Chenab. The Arpat river brings down boulders from these mountains, 
and the lacustrine conglomerates, wiiich are so extensively developed 
at the point where the Arpat and other streams leave the mountainous 
gorges to emerge in the open valley, give us a good idea of the 
composition of these mountains. All the boulders and pebbles, both 
of the bed of the river and of the conglomerates, are volcanic rocks, 
of which many varieties of amygdaloid are the most frequent. I 
never saw a single pebble of granite, syenite or gneiss, but quartzite 
is common, as well as limestone. That the pebbles and boulders 
of the conglomerate have been brought down directly from these 
mountains by torrents and rivers, and have not been drifted to where 
they are by the waves of the ancient great lake of Kashmir,* is 

* The valley of Kashmir has been a huge lake since the appearance of man 
in the Himalaya. It is probable that a lake filling up the whole of the 
valley existed before that period, and that it was drained or tapped by some 
cause or another, allowing the valley of Kashmir to dry up nearly to the same 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afjlian Mountains. 181 

sufficiently proved by the shape of the boulders, these being rounded 
and ovoid in form, and not worn into the flat lenticular stones which are 
found on the beach of lakes, and which are so much appreciated by 
persons fond of making " ducks and drakes in the water." 

45. I have said before that a spur of the Hapatikri extends to 
Islamabad, concealed under the lacustrine plateau (see fig. 8,) for 
a few miles, but appearing as a small hill over the town. The 
following is a section of this Islamabad Hill, from the S. W. to the 
N. E., beginning with the lowest strata exposed to view. The general 
dip of the beds of this hill is N. Easterly. 

1„ Marly limestone ; bright blue ; debris of fossils, 15 ft. 

2. Ditto ditto ; white; no fossils, 20 ft. 

3. Ditto ditto ; grey ; often reddish. Enormous number of Foraminiferce 
forming ochrous bands in the rock, 1 ft. 

4. Arenaceous, dark grey limestone, divided by partings of shaly pale- 
yellow limestone, veiy false-bedded and very thin. Eich in the debris of fossils, 
but very few in a good state of preservation, 25 ft. 

These four beds dip N. E. 15°. 

5. Limestone having a slaty cleavage and joints, white or pale grey, cherty 
in appeai'anco, Fossils very numerous, but in comminuted fragments, 10 ft. 

6. Marly, yellow, limestone. It is often flesh-coloured, and then shaly in 
appearance and weathering with a rough pitted surface, 2 ft. 

7. Limestone like 4 ; full of the debris of fossils, 1 ft. 

8. Limestone, brown and cherty ; debris of fossils, If ft. 

9. Very pale blue limestone, often white ; vejy hard and rough ; weathers 
rugose like frosted glass. Thin and false-bedded ; fragmentary shells, 15 ft. 

10. Sandstone; yellowish white or greyish-white, 6 inches 

11. Coarse, gritty limestone, full of the debris of fossils ; great abun- 
dance of ForaminifercB, crinoid stems, Fusus (?) and fragments of a small 
bivalve, 3 ft. 

12. Marly, dark grey-blue limestone ; slaty cleavage, 3 ft. 

extent as it is now, and that the valley then became populated. The lakes, how- 
ever, began to fill up again, and the whole of the valley was again converted iuto 
one immense lake. This in its turn was tapped and drained to its present 
state. The earthquake, which broke up the barrier or dam at Baramoola, is 
reported by tradition to have been the beneficient act of the Hindoo god 
Kashyapa. The Mahomedans, however, say that it is Kashaf, Solomon's 
minister, who performed the wonderful work, and it is very probable that both 
Hindoo and Musulmans borrowed the tradition from earlier inhabitants. 

I hope to be able to prepare before long a paper " On the Lacustrine deposits 
of Kashmir," in which the proofs of two successive lakes having existed will 
be given in detail. See also my note to para 9. page 100. 



182 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. S f 

13. Marly limestone, deep blue in colour, cherty in appearance and weather- 
ing rugose ; it is compact and contains no fossils, 15 ft. 

14. A portion of 13, in a brecciated state, 2 ft. 

15. Same as 13, 12 ft. 

16. Limestone similar to No. 2, 2 ft. 

17. Foraminiferous limestone, similar to No. 3, 8 inches 

This limestone contains many small yellow rounded bodies, mixed with the 

Foraminiferce and appearing to have no organisation. They are perhaps excre- 
tions of mollusks. Also large patches of white, dotted, chalky, limestone 
which are, I believe, the remains of decomposed fossils of considerable size. 

18. Argillaceous, pale grey, nearly white limestone. It gets coarse to- 
wards the top of the bed, and the uppermost layer is brecciated, ... 10 ft. 

19. Indurated clay, 1ft. 

20. Limestone varying in colour, being white, yellow, flesh-coloured, grey 
or pale lustreless blue. It is very argillaceous, occasionally sandy. The debris 
of fossils mostly encrinite-stems, 10 ft. 

21. Calcareous brown sandstone ; no fossils, , 4 ft. 

22. Shales, hard and without fossils. These shales are in places, fine, 
silty and foliated ; in other places sandy, coarse and thicker bedded, 10 ft. 

23. Sandstone like 21, 5 ft. 

24. Shales like 22, 10 ft. 

25. A repetition of the beds 22, 23 and 24 ; but the materials are generally 
coarser, the shales never being fine and thin-bedded, but rough and thick- 
bedded ; and the sandstone contains so much lime that it passes In some 
places into a very arenaceous limestone. It contains but little of the debris of 
fossils, but shows some flat impressions like those of large flat Algce. These 
impressions are, however, ill-defined and could not be identified, ... 25 ft. 

26. Pale but bright blue limestone ; very argillaceous and interbedded with 
thin films of yellow silt, 10 ft. 

27. A second repetition of the beds 22, 23 and 24. A few shells, but no 
imprints of algae. It becomes gradually a coarse sandy limestone, and at 
the top of the bed it is an argillaceous and arenaceous limestone, pale blue or 
rather French-grey, weathering rugose like frosted glass and containing 
a very few fragments of shells only, 25 ft. 

These three beds, 25, 26 and 27, seem to resist the influence of exposure better 
than the rocks above and below them, and they form at their outcrop a well 
defined ribbon ; this, owing to the trifling angle of the dip, appears on the 
hill-side as a cliff which faces the city of Islamabad a little more than half 
way up the hill. These beds are slightly wavy along the strike, as if they 
had been pressed laterally. These undulations occasion trifling discrepancies 
in the dips taken in different parts of the hill. Along the line of our section, 
the cliff formed by the beds 25, 26 and 27 has a strike N. N. W— S. S. E. and 
a dip E. N. E. 15°. 



18G6.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 183 

28. Limestone, patchy blue and yellow ; argillaceous, 20 ft. 

29. Limestone, very argillaceous and having a pure lustreless grey colour, 
and being striped on section, owing to bands of a lighter colour. The rock 
is so compact and fine-grained that it resembles a fine greenstone in structure. 
It is traversed by bands of rougher stone and also by bands of blue limestone. 
It weathers rugose and pitted, 20 ft. 

30. Limestone like 28, 20 ft. 

31. Limestone like 29, 15 ft. 

32„ Limestone, as white as chalk, but hard. It is full of geodes like an 

amygdaloid, the geodes being filled or lined with minute crystals of spar. The 
rock weathers in rounded bosses like granite or trap. It appears to have 
suffered a metamorphosis. It is pi*obablo that the calcareous mud which 
originally composed it was thrown into a bubbling condition by the infiltration 
of heated vapours or the immersion of hot volcanic products into a shallow sea. 
It presents no fossils or traces of fossils. The bed is not lenticular, but 
extends regularly along the strike the whole length of the hill, being 
conformable to the other beds, 5 ft. 

33. Limestone similar to 31, 5 ft. 

34. Marly, dark bluish grey and rough limestone, 5 ft. 

35. Like 33 again 15 ft. 

36. Hard and cherty limestone, pale grey or flesh-coloured. It contains 
a few geodes like No. 32. It weathers pitted and rugose ; no 

fossils (?) 2 ft. 

37. Limestone like 34, 5 ft. 

The last three beds are a good deal denuded, owing to their being 
at the top of the hill, which is narrow and barren. 

46. There can be no doubt of the Islamabad hill being composed 
of AVeean limestone ; the argillaceous and arenaceous condition of 
the rocks is exactly what we have seen in other localities where this 
sort of limestone is developed. The fossils are very unsatisfactory, 
being extremely comminuted. I have found, however, one Spirifera 
and one Athyris which are to be seen in the beds at Weean. 
I have seen also many sections and outlines of large bivalves 
(Aviculo-pectens and unio-like Anthracosice) similar to those found 
near Mutton. The Foraminiferce are also extremely numerous, 
and the fossil shell which gives on the surface of rocks an outline 
resembling a small pair of spectacles, is very common amongst 
the debris of comminuted shells. The upper beds of the hill, 
from 29 upwards, contain no fossils and have a peculiar appear - 

23 



184 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

ance, suggestive of their having been baked, and they weather in 
rounded bosses like many volcanic rocks. I have suggested that 
their amygdaloidal condition and their " metamorphic weathering" 
may be accounted for by the hypothesis that hot ejecta of volcanoes, 
either hot water, steam, hot ashes or a current of lava, had found their 
way into a shallow sea and set it a-boiling. It might be said that 
these very impure calcareous muds might have had gases generated 
in their interior by the decomposition of organic matter or some other 
cause ; but many layers which are much more foetid and were there- 
fore more likely to emit gases are not at all amygdaloidal, and besides, 
there is so much volcanic power manifested all over our tract of 
country, that it is more natural to invoke a little steam to boil mud 
with, than to look for less obvious hypotheses. But another reason 
in favour of volcanic metamorphism is, that these same white 
baked limestones have been observed in other localities, near Manus 
Bal in Kashmir and in the Kafir Kote mountain, in the Punjab, and 
in these localities they are disturbed by actions which appear to have 
taken place locally and to have affected these limestones much more 
than the rocks below them. The beds of Manus Bal will be de- 
scribed hereafter in these pages, and we shall be able to observe how 
faulted and twisted are the white limestones of that place. At the 
Kafir Kote there has been a similar local upheaval, and the disorder 
is very considerable. In this locality a felspathic sand, invaded by 
quartzite in tortuous branches, is the remains of the volcanic action 
which has taken place there, and the limestone, though much less 
marly than in Cashmir, is filled with geodes and veins of spar. I 
believe these actions to have been local and not very extensive ; they 
had little effect on the Zeeawan bed which had, by the time they took 
place, become tolerably consolidated, and they merely fractured and 
pushed aside the nearest portion of the bed ; but they acted power- 
fully on the yet soft and muddy Weean bed, curving it and twisting 
it in all sorts of manners and directions ; and when these folds and 
twists were again disturbed, probably intensified and placed in new 
positions by the final upheaval of the Himalaya, they became what 
we see them now, viz. most incomprehensible doublings and reversings 
of strata. Let us also remember the beds which I. mentioned as 
having been seen from the brow of the last spur of the Zebanwan 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 185 

visited by me ; these beds were the top or near the top of the series 
of Weean limestone seen along the section of the southern aspect 
of the Zebanwan between Zeeawan and Koonmoo. I said, " From 
the brow of the last spur I have visited, a fine view is obtained of 
the next spur, and this is remarkable for a great twist of the strata 
which compose it. The limestone is extremely white, and resembles 
chalk-cliffs at a distance." Is it not highly probable that there again 
we had the same altered limestone ? The beds were wonderfully 
twisted and folded, whilst those above and below them were hardly 
affected. 

I consider, therefore, that these altered limestones are portions of 
the Weean group, and I believe that the alteration was produced by 
bursts of water at a very high temperature, or of gases hot and 
compressed; the eruptive power of these agents being sufficiently 
powerful to displace and uplift the calcareous mud of the sea-bottom, 
a mud which must have been plastic, from the great admixture of clay 
it contained, and which was covered by no great depth of water. It 
is for such an action, as I have supposed, that Mr. Dumont has proposed 
the term of "G-eyserian" action, and for the rocks precipitated from these 
watery volcanoes (such as the felspathic sand with quartzite of the 
Kafir Kote) the name of Geyserian rocks. The name is sufficiently 
suggestive and requires no explanation. It is probable that the 
quartzite which we have seen placed between the volcanic rocks and 
the limestone, belongs to that class of rocks. 

47. The Arpat river runs through a district named Kothair or 
Kotehar, and it is from this district that I have named the uppermost 
bed of the Carboniferous (?) limestone of Kashmir. We have seen 
a small patch of this bed near Koonmoo, in the Zebanwan, but we 
will find the bed well developed in the next hills we are about to 
visit. 

A few miles to the S. E. of Islamabad is a mass of well-wooded 
and picturesque mountains which separates the valley of the Arpat 
river from the Nowboog valley. Arckbal, Tippoo, Karpur, Dhar and 
Nawkan are summits which appear to form the centre of a small 
system of hills ; their height is between 8 and 9000 feet, and they 
deserve careful study. I was unfortunately not able to do more than 
pay the most superficial visit to Arckbal and the iron mines of Kothair j 
and the following are the notes taken during that visit. 



186 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

The rocks which overhang the well-known Arckbal Garden, near 
the western foot of the hill, are a rough grey limestone similar to 
the grey coarse limestone seen on the Islamabad hill, (see No. 27 
of the section of that hill), full of sand and other impurities. It 
dips W. by S. 52°. There appear to be beds of shales between 
the limestone courses, and these shales by their decomposition 
furnish the fertile soil on which grow the fine forests of those 
hills. 

The foot of the Arckbal hill is therefore Weean limestone and 
shales. 

I then proceeded to the small village of Kothair, on the eastern 
side of the Arckbal hill, in a small valley situated between it 
and Karpur. The rock of the spur of Arckbal, which extends to- 
wards Pahaloo, is a whitish or greyish limestone with very few fossils, 
and interbedded with beds of calcareous slate, apparently belonging 
also to the Weean group. 

From Kothair, the path to the mines, crosses a couple of small 
spurs which have a direction S. to N. until we arrive at the ridge 
which unites Dhar and Tippoo and has a direction W. N. W. — E. S. E. 
The spurs above mentioned are composed of marly limestone, 
either lustreless and velvety pale blue or dark blue, weathering frosted. 
The beds are very badly seen, on account of the ^ vegetation and 
humus. Where the limestone crops out, it seems to be dipping 
S. E. or E. S. E. with a very variable but considerable angle. The 
beds of limestone appear to be separated one from the other by 
thick beds of shales and slate. The limestone has exactly the appear- 
ance of that seen a little higher up, and which we shall see contains 
fossils characteristic of the Kothair bed ; but I failed, however, to find, 
organisms in the present beds. 

48. The iron-ore is obtained from the sides of the main ridge 
between Dhar and Tippoo. The ridge presents many beds of very 
argillaceous limestone of a lustreless bright blue colour, dipping S. S'. W.. 
with an angle of 45°. This limestone is remarkable for the large 
number of gasteropods it contains ; it is also rich in corals, especially 
of the Cyathophyllidce, but the fossils appear generally as sections 
or outlines on the surface of the rock, and I could not obtain any of 
them whole. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 187 

Between the courses of limestone are beds of slaty shales of 
various colours, but generally dark grey, brown or reddish. The 
outcrop of these shales has disintegrated and decomposed into a 
vegetable earth of a dark red colour and covered by grass and under- 
wood, and this earth has to be removed to bring the shales into view. 
In these shales the iron-ore is found as flat bands or ribbons of great 
tenacity and hardness, accompanied by softer ochrous clayey earth 
which is also used as an ore. The richest ore is the steel grey 
variety ; this is not continuous as a regular bed, but forms bands 
or ribbons in the shale, sometimes thickening into a trunk a foot 
thick, at other times thinning into a flat ribbon a quarter of an inch 
thick. 

The shales containing the iron-ore are about four feet thick, and 
are between beds of an arenaceous limestone which is blue and 
compact when freshly fractured, but weathers into a coarse, brown, 
nearly friable sandstone in the neighbourhood of the iron-shales. 
This change in the limestone (evidently produced by the infiltrating 
water becoming charged with peroxide of iron in its passage though 
the shale, and then acting as an acid on the limestone below the iron 
bed), is the indication sought after by the miners to dig an exploring 
hole ; they dig above the altered limestone, and after removing a few 
feet of vegetable mould, discover the iron-ore in the upper part of the 
shaly bed. They make a hole just large enough to creep in and use 
a short miner's pick ; the ore is difficult to detach, and, from the 
cramped position of the miner, the work is excessively laborious. The 
mines do not extend any distance under ground, and are generally 
abandoned in favour of a fresh hole, when artificial light is required 
to work. 

From the examination of three or four of these small mines, I feel 
satisfied that the ore does not form a bed, but is arranged in a succes- 
sion of ribbons and bands which run in the direction of the dip, 
sometimes anastomosing into a broad plane two or three feet across, 
sometimes thickening into a trunk or pocket, and sometimes dividing 
into thin and narrow ribbons which become lost in the shale. 

The mines are all situated high up the hill (on this side of the 
ridge at least), within about 200 feet of the summit. The miner 
I had for a guide told me that no iron-ore is found lower down. 



188 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

49. The ore is carried in kilters or baskets, carried on the back, 
by the means of shoulder-straps, to Kothair, a distance of two miles 
on a bad hill-path. It is not smelted nearer the mines, on account 
of the want of water ; though it seems that it would be very much 
easier to bring up water for the miners, who only know of that element 
as a drink and therefore require but little of it, than to take the 
ore down to the village. The ore is broken into small fragments 
by children, and mixed with the ochrous earth and with coarsely 
powdered limestone. These materials are piled up in a small furnace 
about two feet high, with intervening beds of charcoal, and two hand 
bellows are used to create a blast ; the smelting lasts about 12 hours, 
and the produce of a furnace is only a few seers. The heat is not 
sufficient to make the iron run; and it remains at the bottom of 
the furnace as a viscous mass, full of scoriae, and very brittle when 
cold, with a tufaceous aspect. The slag is a black glass, compact, 
and much less scoriaceous than is customary. The iron is heated and 
beaten with hammers to refine it. It is short, probably from bad 
manufacture. 

Two or three men and children and some women, all of one family, 
working as miners, carriers and smelters, turn out about two maunds 
of iron in. the month from one furnace. There are only three 
furnaces at Kothair, giving a supply of six maunds of iron per mensem. 
There are similar mines at Loap and at Kookur Nag in the Bringh 
valley, on the southern side of the same mass of mountains. 
From the dip of the beds, it is probable that these works are in a 
much more favourable position than those of Kothair ; they are said 
to be much more considerable ; the ore is obtained in the same manner 
as at Kothair, and there are no regular mines. The ore is the same, 
according to my guide, a miner who had worked at Loap, but it is 
obtained much more easily and is found in thicker beds. Mr. Turner 
showed me some iron from Kookur Nag, and it appeared identical to 
the pig-iron of Kothair. 

The turn-out I have given of the smelting at Kothair is not to be 
regarded as an indication of the richness of the mines. I believe that 
the miners only work the ore to pay their taxes to the Maharajah's 
government, and that their most usual occupation is to grow a little 
rice and Indian corn. I have no doubt that the amount of ore is 



i 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 189 

considerable, and that a large quantity of iron could be obtained by 
increasing the mines, and adopting better furnaces with a blast worked 
by water-power, windmill or horse-power ; but the miners and other 
inhabitants of the villages take great care not to mention to the 
Maharajah's officials any valuable deposit of ore which may be 
worked with advantage ; they pretend that the Maharajah takes away 
all the iron for his arsenal and pays nothing for it, and that, when 
a supply of any ore is discovered near a village, the inhabitants have 
to work it by corvees, so that the discovery of a vein of valuable 
mineral is a calamity to the people of the neighbourhood. But this 
is probably untrue in many ways : the iron they supply is, as I have 
said before, taken in lieu of taxes ; the care with which many of 
the holes are concealed with rubbish and branches, induces me to 
believe that a good deal of iron is smelted in a contraband way ; and 
last but not least, making a secret of mineral wealth is quite consistent 
with the love of hoarding riches so prevalent amongst natives. The 
same concealment of ores is now going on in Huzara, where a little 
iron is known to exist, and where the reason of the Kashmir miners 
would certainly not avail ; and it is reported by the geological sur- 
veyors of the Ranigunj coal-field that it is impossible to believe 
, negative reports from natives. In Kashmir, moreover, the Maha- 
rajah's government entertain the same childish fear, lest the mineral 
wealth of the country should become known, and I well remember 
with what silly recommendations of secrecy I was shown by one of 
the Maharajah's servants a small piece of iron pyrites of the most 
insignificant value. 

50. The rocks we have described form the Kothair bed (of 
Carboniferous limestone ?). They are a succession of courses of lime- 
stone, shales of a dark reddish or ochrous colour, dark slates and 
calcareous sandstones. I am sorry I cannot give a section, but the 
following remarks will, in a way, supply its want. 

The limestones are of two descriptions, viz. : some coarse and very 
sandy, indeed so much so, that when the carbonate of lime is removed 
by water charged with peroxide of iron, a brownish sandstone is 
left ; it contains no fossils, and passes gradually into a rough grey 
sandstone with a calcareous cement. The other variety of limestone is 
aceous, and passes into calcareous slate ; it is dark blue or even 



190 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir. [No. 3, 

perfectly black when fresh-fractured, lustreless like a clay and with 
a strong earthy smell ; it weathers much paler, becoming covered 
with an incrustation which is bright pale blue, yellowish or whitish ; 
the surface being at first velvety or satin-like, and so fine-grained in 
some specimens, that drops of rain or of clew falling from grasses 
leave small blots or stains, which after a while becoming frosted. The 
fossils of this limestone are well brought out on the weathered sur- 
faces, as outlines or sections which are slightly in relief. The shales 
when ochrous, are very sandy, sometimes calcareous, oftener not so ;. 
they contain beds of clay iron-stone in irregular and wavy tabular 
bands or ribbons of an iron black and bluish black colour, and also of 
yellow carbonate of lime, and iron in a more or less friable condition. 
These shales have a well-marked slaty cleavage cutting the strata 
at a right angle. The slate is black, thick and massive and contains 
no fossils. It often becomes pale green and unctuous, and is then very 
thin-bedded and exfoliating. The sandstone is composed of rounded 
grains of transparent glassy quartz which are brittle, and break across 
when the rock is fractured, and each broken grain reflects the light, 
so that the sandstone has somewhat the aspect of a micaceous sand- 
stone. 

The fauna of the Kothair bed is more remarkable for the abun- 
dance of certain animals than for any species that I can well define. 
Gasteropoda, generally small, and corals of the " Cyathophyllidce" 
are nearly the only animals seen. A few bivalves, small and 
thin-shelled, also occur, but they are rare, compared to the quantity 
of gasteropods. A few roots and stems, generally small, have been 
observed in some beds, but could not be recognized. 

The following fossils are the most usual in the Kothair bed. 

Naticopsis f 

Macrochilus f 

Ghemnitzia f 

Loxonema ? 

Nerincea f 

The fragments of Gasteropoda in great number. 

Cyathophyllum ? sp. PI. VIII. fig. 2. 

? sp. PI. VIII. fig. 3. 

? sp. PI. VIII. fig. 4. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 191 

It is evident that a list of fossils, such as is given here, is 
insufficient to determine the age of a bed. My calling the Kothair 
bed Carboniferous, is therefore only temporary, and it is possible, 
and indeed probable, that the bed is either Permian or Triassic. 
I have often felt inclined to regard it as Triassic ; but the total absence 
of Ilonotis, Ammonites and other characteristic fossils prevents my 
doing so. I have therefore preferred to represent the Kothair bed 
as the top of the Carboniferous series, until some characteristic forms 
be discovered. The Kothair bed was examined much more super- 
ficially than the others, owing to want of time ; yet it is worthy of 
notice that I have never heard of an ammonite having been found 
in the valley of Kashmir, though the mountains of Kothair limestone, 
at the extreme eastern end of the valley, are very often visited by 
tourists and amateur geologists. 

51. The Kothair formation differs from the Zceawan and Weean 
by the great quantity of shales it contains, these being in thick 
strata between thin beds of limestone. The fauna is, I believe, 
strongly indicative of a low swampy shore bathed by a shallow 
brackish sea. The arrangement of the iron-ore is, I fancy, to be 
explained only by the hypothesis of a clayey shelving sea board : any 
one who has observed hot chalybeate springs issue from the earth, 
near a flat piece of ground, must have noticed the sluggish stream 
divide into rills and rillets, form shallow pools here and there, reunite 
and divide again, meandering over the clayey soil ; he will have 
noticed the oxide of iron contained in the water precipitated along 
the rivulets and in the pools as a bright red peroxide, whilst the 
surface of the nearly stagnant water is covered by a many-coloured 
film. This, I would submit, is the very process by which the iron 
of the Kothair shales has been deposited on the flat muddy shore 
of the Carboniferous sea : the rills of chalybeate water have become 
the tabular ribbons of our iron-ore, and we have therefore the iron- 
stone arranged as a main flat vein, or rather in somewhat parallel 
veins, with irregular small shoots on both sides, and occasionally 
a thickened and widened mass representing a pool or a hole in the 
bed of the stream. Many springs, such as I have described, exist 
now-a-days in the Salt Range, near the Kafir Kote hill, and in several 
localities in the Himalaya ; the iron mud they deposit would, under 
avourable circumstances, and in the course of long years, form beds 

24 ' 



192 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

similar to the iron-ore of Kothair ; and when it is remembered how 
essentially volcanic the Carboniferous period has been, it is no great 
stretch of imagination to assume, that much of the iron contained in 
the rocks of that period was derived from hot chalybeate springs, rather 
than from decomposed minerals on the surface of the earth. 

Here ends the description of the Kothair bed. No rocks superior 
to it (excepting lacustrine and alluvial deposits) were seen in Kashmir, 
and the Kothair bed appears the most superficial stratum existing 
there. In other localities, both in the Himalaya and in the Punjab, 
Secondary and Tertiary rocks cover in the Palaeozoic beds, but neither 
Oolitic, Nummulitic nor Miocene are to be seen in Kashmir proper, 
that is, between the Pir Punjal and the Ser and Mer chains, and 
between the northern branch of the Kaj Nag and the chain connecting 
the Ser and Mer chain to the Kistwar mountains. 

52. As far as I could learn, the whole of the hills, which fill up 
with their spurs the south-eastern end of the valley, are composed 
of carboniferous limestone ; this appears to go as far as the foot of 
the range which separates Kashmir from Maroo and Kistwar, where 
the limestone rests on volcanic rocks. Producti have been found 
among eboulis close to the volcanic rock high up the slopes, and it is 
therefore probable that the Zeeawan bed reappears under the Weean 
and Kothair beds, as we near the volcanic rocks. The river Bringh, 
which drains all the S. E. and a good deal of the east of the valley, 
carries in its bed boulders of volcanic rocks and of carboniferous lime- 
stone. No granite was seen. 

As I have not visited these hills and possess only little information 
on their geology, I will not enter here into any detail of what may 
be inferred from reports received by travellers who are not geologists, 
and I must refer the reader to the map for the probable position of 
the several rocks which compose these hills. 

53. To the N. W. of Srinuggur there is one more mountain 
belonging to the same catenated chain of summits which we have 
described in this chapter ; it is the Safapoor, with its outlier, the 
Aha Tung, and the beautiful little lake of Manus Bal at its foot. 
This locality is interesting, and I will describe it in detail. (See 
Sections E and F ; Section IV. of General Map). The Safapoor 
and the Aha Tung are both composed of volcanic rocks exactly 
similar to those which we have seen at the Tukt-i-Suliman and the 



I860.] the Western Himalaya and Afyhan Mountains. 



195 




Zebanwan. In the small valley or gap between the two hills are beds 
of limestone which I will now describe. (See Section E ; and also 
Sketch-Section F.) 

Proceeding from S. to N., we first find at the northern end of the 
Aha Tung a limestone quarry. The limestone is about 120 feet 
thick, and dips south with a very high angle. It appears to be cover- 
ed by beds of greenstone confusely stratified ; but on examining the 
bottom of the quarry, the courses of limestone are seen to bend to- 
wards the N., and the limestone is therefore superior to the trap. The 

diagram here given 
fig. 9, represents 
the position of the 
rocks. I am in- 
debted to Captain 
Godwin- Austen of 
the Great Trigono- 
metrical survey for 
calling my atten- 
** ~^ tion to this bend 

Fig- 9.* of the courses of 

limestone at the bottom of the quarry. If this curving of the limestone 
was not seen, it would be nevertheless easy to understand the true 
position of these beds, as they are precisely similar to those on the other 
side of the road (see Section), but in an inverse position : the rock 
nearest the greenstone is a glaring white and much altered limestone. 
It is succeeded by a dark, greyish, argillaceous limestone, weathering 
bluish and rugose. On the other side of the road, the dark limestone 
appears first, and underneath it the bed of glaring white altered 
limestone. There is therefore every evidence of a synclinal ; but, of 
course, the discovery of the bend of the beds in the quarry completes 
the evidence very satisfactorily. 

Taking our Section from the S. to N., beginning at the road and leav- 
ing out the beds redressed against the Aha Tung which I have just 
described, we have the following strata : — 

1 Greyish-blue limestone; marly, rugose, hard, dips S. 60°, increasing to 
70° ; much broken bed : about ... ... ... ... 20 ft. thick. 

c Alluvium. d Koad. 



a White Limestone. 
e Dark Limestone. 



b Dark Limestone. 
/ White Limestone. 



194 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

2. Pale limestone, weathering glaring white ; filled with geodes, lined with 
small spar-crystals. No fossils. Dips S. 80°, ... ... ... 100 ft. 

3. Thin-bedded, shaly, striped limestone, ... ... ... 5 ft. 

Fault. It runs E. — W. and is about 10 feet wide at the top. It is filled with 

rocks similar to No. 3, folded in all directions. 

4. Limestone like 3 ; vertical, ... ... ... ... 15 ft. 

5. Pale limestone ; with geodes, like 2. Traces of fossils were observed, 
but much altered and not recognizable, ... ... ... 100 ft, 

6. Pale blue, shaly limestone j dips N. 80°, ... ... ... 3 ft. 

7. Like 5 ; dips N. 80°, ... ... ... ... ... 50 ft. 

Fault ; it runs E.— W. 

8. Same as 7, ... ... ... ... ... ... 50 ft. 

9. Argillaceous, thin-bedded, pale grey limestone, breaking in flat thin pieces, 
like pottery, ... ... ... ... ... ... 80 ft. 

10. Sandy limestone, hard and dark, ... ... ... 20 ft. 

11. Conglomerate limestone, varying from a coarse sandy limestone to 
a perfect conglomerate, the pebbles being rounded, pieces of limestone im- 
bedded in a soft calcareous paste. It contains many sections of the Aviculo- 
pectens and other large bivalves peculiar to the Weean bed. Portions of the 
bed are white and altered, ... ... ... ... ... 100 ft. 

12. Sandy, micaceous, limestone ; dark grey, ... ... 2 ft. 

13. White limestone ; no fossils, ... ... ... ... 15 ft. 

14. Argillaceous limestone, blue and pale ; weathering lustreless 

and velvety, ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 ft. 

15. Conglomeratip limestone like 11, ... ... ... 50 ft. 

16. Brecciated and sandy limestone ; sometimes a coarse calcareous sand- 
stone, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 ft. 

17. Ash-blue, pale, muddy limestone ; weathering lustreless, ... 25 ft. 

18. Brecciated and sandy limestone, ... ... ... 12 ft. 

19. Ash-blue, pale and muddy ; weathering lustreless, 25 ft. 

All these beds dip S. with an angle diminishing gradually from 80° to 35°. 

20. This bed is the top of a well defined anticlinal. The rock is a yellowish- 
grey limestone, with rolled pieces of limestone imbedded. It is sandy, some- 
times quite a sandstone, oftener a sandy impure limestone. It contains a great 
many remains of fossils. The southern branch of the anticlinal dips S. 35° j 
the northern branch dips N. N. W. 25°. There is therefore a squeezing of the. 
strata at the western end of the strike, and a divergence or opening of the 
fault at the eastern end. Thickness about 30 feet. 

Then we get a repetition of the beds seen before, as follows : 

21. Ash-blue, lustreless muddy limestone, ... ,., ... 25 ft. 

22. Brecciated and sandy limestone, ,,. ,„ t# , 12 ft. 

23. Ash-blue limestone, ... ... ,„ ... ... 25 ft. 

24. Brecciated limestone,.., It , ... ,,, ,., 5 ft. 






1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 195 

25. Conglomeratic limestone, with sections of large bivalves, ... 50 ft. 

26. Ash-bjue, lustreless limestone, ... ... ... ... 5 ft. 

27. White limestone, ... ... ... ... ... 15 ft. 

28. Micaceous and sandy limestone ; thin-bedded dark grey ; 

dips N. N. W. 80°, .. ... ... 2 ft. 

29. Conglomeratic limestone ; gritty ; in places a conglomerate, in others 
a breccia ; dips N. N. W. 85° at first ; then it becomes vertical and at last 
dips S. 80°, ... ... ... ... ... ... 100 ft. 

30. Arenaceous limestone, dark, rough and forming a prominent ridge ; it 
dips south 80°, ... ... «. .. ... ... 20 ft. 

31. Thin-bedded, muddy limestone, breaking in pieces like pottery ; dip 
irregular ; bed folded and wavy, much disintegrated, ... ... 80 ft. 

32. Shaly limestone, very impure ; dips N. 80°. 

33. Sandy limestone, dark and rough and hard ; dips N. 70 to 75°. These two 
beds together are about, ... ... ... ... ... 30 ft. 

34. Limestone, generally sandy and grey, but sometimes more compact and 
bluer, and then showing innumerable white lines crossing each other in all 
directions. It dips N. 70°, ... ... ... ... ... 100 ft. 

35. These several varieties of limestone, viz. shaly and sandy, and blue 
with white lines, repeat themselves continually as far as the top of the hill, 
but the rock becomes more and more massive and presents portions of crinoid 
stems well preserved and petrified into a black spar. Sometimes the rock is 
flesh-coloured, and then the crinoid stems are lighter in colom*, and weather in 
relief on the surface of the rock. These are the sections of crinoid stems which 
have been taken for nummulites by Mr. Vigne and Dr. A. Fleming. 150 ft. 

The strike of the beds of limestone wheels more and more to a N. to S. 
direction. As we approach the volcanic rocks of the Safapoor, the dip becom- 
ing more and more westerly. This wheeling of the strike is well shown by 
the Sketch-Section (Sect. F), where we see the face of the limestone-courses 
uncovered and exposed, and facing the W. N. W. The thickness of the Weean 
bed is altogether 649 ft. 

A large fault, well marked by a deep ravine, separates the limestone from the 
volcanic rocks. It runs N. E. — S. W. At the highest point the limestone is 
seen to attain, the fault is a mere crack, and the limestone is in contact with 
the volcanic rocks ; but at the S. W. end of the fault, it widens considerably, 
and beds of limestone are to be observed on its northern side, applied against 
the trap and conformable and superior to it. The trap dips S. S. E. 

On the western face of the Safapoor, long beds of well-stratified laterite 
and ash are conspicuous ; they dip S. with an angle of 40. 

54. Our section rims through the spur of limestone nearest to 
the lake ; three other spurs, parallel to it, descend towards the 
village of Paturmoola (see Section F.). They present very won- 



196 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3', 

derful twists and foldings, but appear less altered than the beds which 
are bathed by the lake ; their fossils are better preserved. I have 
not ascended these spurs, but amongst the ehoulis, I saw many- 
fossils characteristic of the Weean limestone, amongst others large 
Aviculo-pectens and Anthracosice, of which sections only had been 
discovered in the rocks in situ. 

Some blocks of limestone were also found exhibiting Gastero- 
poda, so conspicuous in the Kothair bed, and it is therefore evident 
that this bed forms the uppermost layers of the limestone of the 
higher spurs. I need hardly say, that the beds of Manus Bal belong 
to the Weean group, and that they have been folded and altered in part 
by volcanic action, subsequent to the formation of the volcanic rocks 
on which they rest. The order of the beds is from the anticlinal 
upwards on both sides of it, and the rocks nearest to the trap are the 
most superficial, excepting, however, the detached beds which are 
conformable to the volcanic rocks on the northern side of the great 
fault. If the limestone had been baked by the amgydaloid and the 
greenstone, we would naturally expect to find the beds nearest to 
these rocks most altered ; the reverse is however the case ; and we 
must therefore admit that a burst of hot gases or hot water had taken 
place at the time these limestones were still a soft and plastic mud, and 
that it upheaved, folded and metamorphosed them. 

It must not be forgotten, that the limestone might have been much 
less folded by this first disturbing action than we see it now, when ' 
the last upheaval of the Himalaya took place : the beds then slightly 
folded would naturally give way in the same direction as they were 
already bent, especially if the space they occupied between two un- 
yielding trappean hills had become so restricted that the limestone 
must of necessity either be folded or override the trap. On the appli- 
cation of such lateral pressure, a straight, flat, hard bed might have 
glided over the trap, but a bed already undulating would more natu- 
rally give way at the weakest parts, viz. the angles of the undulations, 
and thus become gathered in crumpling folds. Such folds are well 
shown in the Sketch- Section, (plate F). 

55. Having terminated our examination of the several moun- 
tains which form the first catenated chain on the N. E. of the valley 
of Kashmir, Ave can now understand how this chain was once conti- 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afyhan Mountains. 



197 



nuous, the several summits being re-united to one another by ridges 
of stratified ash, agglomerate and limestone. These connecting 
ridges have been denuded by the several streams which flow towards 
the bottom of the valley, and the limestone is now found only in 
limited beds, which have escaped denudation from the shelter they 
received of large and hard volcanic mountains. These streams and 
rivers, it is hardly necessary to mention, have had a volume very 
different from what we see now-a-days ; the enormous layers of lacus- 
trine conglomerate, which they have accumulated near their entrances 
into the valley, demonstrate plainly their former great denudating 
power. The direction of these streams being from the high moun- 
tains in the N. E., to the bottom of the valley in the S. W., they have 
cut for themselves channels which are directed from N. E. — S. W., and 
thus bands of the ridges, which united the summits of our first chain 
to those of the second chain, have remained between the channels of 
these streams, and given to those mountains the appearance of being 
long spurs descending from the N. E. to the S. W. 

56. I shall, I hope, best terminate these detailed Sections, by 
appending a table of the fossiliferous and other rocks in Kashmir, to- 
gether with such observations as the nature of the rocks or the fauna 
best justify. 





Masses, Beds, &c. &c. 


Fossils. 


Conditions indicated. 




a. 


Granitoid porphyry; tra- 
chyte and felstone. 




Melted masses which have not 
flowed, or have flowed under 
water. Centres of volcanic 
action. 




b. 


Greenstone amygdaloid, 
basalt. 




Melted masses which have flow- 
ed under water or in the air. 


M 


c. 


Felspathic and augi- 




Volcanic ojecta falling in shal- 


O 

H 




tic ash ; agglome- 




low water. 




rate, &c. 






•< 


a. 


Black slate, sometimes 




Mud derived from volcanic 




amygdaloidal. 




rocks, rearranged by shallow 


tA 








water, often heated by 


> 








showers of hot ashes, vapours 


< 








or currents of lava. 


e. 


Laterite, slate, baked 




Same origin and same condi- 






clay. 




tions. 




f. 


Quartzite. 




Geyserian action. End of the 
great volcanic eruptions ap- 
proaches. 


V. 


'J- 


Similar to e. 




Occasional eruptions and slight 
fall of ashes and dust in shal- 
low seas. 



198 



Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, 



[No. 3, 





Masses, Beds, &c. &c. 


Fossils. 


Conditions indicated. 




Ob 


GANISMS APPEj? 


Lit. 


c 


a. Crystalline limestone, 
coarse and with very 
few fossils. 


Few. 


Open sea coast, not very deep. 




b. Massive limestone, gra- 


Productus, 


Open sea coast. About 50 fa- 




nular, or crystalline. 


Orthis, Spiri- 


thoms. 


w 




fera, Penes- 




5- 




tellidce, Or- 






thoceras. 






c. Ferruginous calcareous 


Same fossils. 


Sea coast, not distant. Heavy 




brown shales. 




water-fall on Volcanic islands. 


W 


d. Dark sandy shales. 


Same fossils. 


Sea coast, not distant. Drift 
near shore. Heavy water-fall 
on Volcanic islands. 


< 


e. Limestone, shaly, with 


Same fossils ; 


Sea becoming shallow; shore 




shaly partings. 


no Bryozoa. 


shelving and drifty. 




Thickness = 200—250. 






Fauna changes. 


r 


" a. Shaly and sandy lime- 


Encrinites ; 


Shallow shelving, coast line. 




stone. 


small 

bivalves ; 

Debris. 






b. Black argillaceous lime- 


Debris. 


Shallow sea between islands. 




stone. 








c. Altered, amygdaloidal 


None or mere 


Local volcanic action ; geyserian 




limestone. 


traces. 


bursts of water or vapours. 


o 






Earthquakes. 




d. Flesh-colored limestone 


Anthracosice, 


Proximity of land ; banks and 


fc 


with lenticular beds of 


Aviculo-pec- 


shallows on a shelving coast- 


^ <! 


pale blue, nearly fria- 


tens. 


line. 


£ 


ble limestone. 


Pectens. 






Solenopsis. 




O 


e. Thin-bedded, argillace- 


Goniatites. 


Slow formation of fine silt in 




ous limestone, break- 




well protected creeks. 




ing in slabs. 








/. Shaly, muddy, very foe- 








tid limestone, with gre- 


Cyrtia and 


Warm, damp and shallow sea, 




garious fossils. 


small 

Terebratulce. 


swamps, teeming with life. 




^ g. Argillaceous and arena- 


Debris of 


Very shallow sea-shore ; sublit- 




ceous limestone pale- 


small thin 


toral oscillations ; frequent 




less blue and yel- 


bivalves. 


freshes of fresh water carry- 




low. 


Roots of 
plants. 


ing mud to the sea. 



1866.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 199 



o +- 

fe OS 

a 



Masses, Beds, &c. &c. 



Fossils. 



Condition indicated. 



Fauna changes. 



a. Dark, blue or black ar- 
gillaceous limestone. 



b. Slate and shale. 



c. Sandy limestone with- 

out fossils. 

d. Shales; sandy Bbales: 

clay iron-ore in ribbons 



e. Limestone like a; pass- 
ing into calcareous 
slates. 

Thickness = 500 feet. 



ropoda 
and Cyatho- 
phylUda. 

None. 



Oa8teropoda 

and Cyatho- 

phylUda. 



Protected creeks,rathor swampy. 



Rivers bringing down mud to a 
shallow sea. Sublittoral oscil- 
lations. 

Drift on shallow shelving coast. 



Shelving low land near sea- 
shore, traversed by rills from 
hot chalybeate springs. Sub- 
littoral oscillations. 

Shallow creeks or protected sea 
coast. Swamp with grasses? 
Shallows between tides ? 



This succession of beds shows a steady shallowing of the sea. If 
we reflect for a moment how the sea bottom which received the 
limestone was formed, by volcanic ash and ejecta falling into the 
sea around the craters of numerous volcanoes, we would be led to 
expect a shallow shelving sea coast. Whether the volcanoes had 
existed for ages and prevented the development of life during the 
Silurian epoch, or whether they broke out after the Silurian beds 
had been deposited and buried these beds under their ejecta, I 
cannot say. It appears much more probable however that the volcanoes 
existed during the Silurian epoch, and prevented marine animals 
from living, by keeping the water at such a temperature or per- 
meating it by such gases as were incompatible with life. However 
this may be, there can be no doubt that the volcanic ejecta were 
disposed in very gently sloping beds all around the volcanoes which 
produced them, and, as these ejecta were arranged by water, we would 
naturally expect the beds they formed to extend far into the sea. 
Hence a long shelving shallow coast would be formed, a coast which 
would speedily become more and more shallow from the enormous 

25 



200 Mr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir } [No. 3 

amount of sand and clay which was washed into it from the volcanic 
islands which studded it, by a rain-fall of tremendous volume. 

57. We have yet to describe the second and third catenated chains 
of Kashmir ; the second is marked by the summits of Liwapatur 
(13,012), Churn Wolkalbul (14,310), Girdwali (14,060), Batgool 
(14,423), Boorwaz (13,087;, Handil (13,273), Saijhaha (11,334), and 
joins the first parallel at the Safapoor on the eastern shore of the 
Woolar lake. On the other side of the lake, it is continued by the 
Kahoota, the Manganwar (8,728), and the Sheri Bal. These moun- 
tains are all composed of volcanic rocks and of azoic slate inter- 
bedded with ash and agglomerate. They need not therefore be 
described in detail. The Boorwaz, Handil and Batgool form 
a porphyritic mass which is generally described by travellers as 
granite ; it passes gradually on the west into amygdaloid and green- 
stone to form the summits of Saijhaha over the village of Gunder- 
bul. The transition between the porphyry and the greenstone is 
a feldspathic rock of a pale colour and imbedding very numerous 
transparent crystals of quartz, a description of rock which is also 
found to form a passage between the porphyry and the feist one of 
the Kaj Nag. From the examination of a few specimens, kindly 
given to me by travellers, I have no doubt that the whole of this mass 
of mountains is composed of volcanic rocks, volcanic ejecta and slate. 
I am not aware that limestone exists anywhere amongst the spurs 
of these hills. Between the valley of Thral or Trahal and the river 
Lidar, there is a great labyrinth of mountains with many of the 
summits enumerated above, but I could obtain no information 
regarding them. I therefore requested Captain MacQaeen, of the Punjab 
Irregular Force, who had arranged a shooting expedition to these hills 
to be kind enough to bring me a few specimens of the commonest 
rocks of the country he was about to visit, and also any rock which 
appeared to him in any way remarkable. By the use of the speci- 
mens thus obtained, and the examination of Captain MacQueen's 
route on the map, I was enabled to ascertain that the whole mass of 
these mountains is composed of the same volcanic rocks, which I have 
described in detail at the Tukt-i-Suliman and the Zebanwan. Ashes 
appear to have been accumulated in enormous quantity ; they are 
interbedded with bands of black compact slate such as is so well seen 



i860 ] the Western IJimaJaya and Afghan Mountains. 201 

in the Wastarwan and Zebanwan, and both asb and slate are occa- 
sionally cellular or amygdaloidal. There is neither limestone, granite 
or porphyry among Captain MacQueen's specimens, and I believe 
therefore that the two last rocks at any rate do not occur in these 
mountains, as pieces of granite and porphyry generally attract the 
attention amongst the dull ash-rocks and would not have failed to form 
part of the collection, if they had existed. It is very possible that 
remains of beds of limestone are to be found amongst the spurs of 
the hills. 

On the north of the Woolar Lake, many mountains of no great 
height form a sort of amphitheatre. They are nearly entirely 
composed of amygdaloidal greenstone, ash and slate interbedded, 
but near the village of Bundipoor, about two miles east of the 
road, some beds of limestone are seen. Mr. Drew has kindly sent 
me some specimens of it that arc a llesh-coloured, sometimes 
greenish, very arenaceous and argillaceous. They are not at all 
crystalline, but contain an enormous number of encrinite stems 
transformed into spar with a cleavage oblique to the axis of the 
stem, so that when the section of a stem weathers, it appears striated 
across. This crystallisation has destroyed the structure of the stem, 
but the central canal is seen in a few specimens. We have seen 
this rock well developed at Manus Bill, towards the end of our section, 
where the beds of flesh-coloured limestone alternate with grey sandy 
limestone containing crinoid-stems transformed into a spar as black 
as coal. (See 35 of the section of Maims Bal). The limestone of 
Bundipoor is therefore Weean limestone. 

On the west shore of the Woolar lake, the Taltiloo and the 
Clival koot present perpendicular cliffs of volcanic rocks descend- 
ing into the water. From a boat on the lake, it is easy to 
observe the usual thick and confusely bedded masses of greenstone 
and amygdaloid forming the centre of these hills, and the more sloping 
and regularly stratified layers of ash, laterite, agglomerate and 
slate well developed, in the long spurs which descend on all sides. 
The whole mass of hills appears to be made of volcanic rocks, and the 
lowest spurs which approach the shore of the lake present no fossilifer- 
ous beds. Of the higher peaks, the Kahoota, Manganwar and Sheri 
Bal, I know nothing, but there can hardly be a doubt, however, of 
their being volcanic in their formation. 



202 Mr. Verchere on the Geoloyy of Kashmir , &c. [No. 3 



58. The third catenated chain is composed of summits of great 
•height, the Gwashbrari (17,839), the Harbagwan (16,055) the Basmai 
(15,652) ; and the Haramook (16,903), and many other peaks which, 
with their spurs and connecting ridges, separate Kashmir proper 
from Tillail and Gurais. All these high summits are formed by- 
porphyry having a granitoid appearance, which passes, towards the 
north, into felstone generally earthy and similar to the earthy fel- 
stone of the Atala Mount near Baramoola. On the north-western 
extremity of the chain, this felstone becomes continued with that of 
the great chain of hills which unites the Kaj Nag to the Ser and Mer 
chain. This flaggy rock is continued to near the city of Gurais 
where, in the valley of the Kishengunga, beds of limestone 
appear extending from about 15 miles N. W. of Gurais to Tillail. 
The limestone is, after a break, continued at the Sono Murg 
and is in all probability identical to that of this locality. I have 
never seen any specimen or fossil from the Tillail limestone, but the 
Sono Murg limestone is Carboniferous, and it is most probable that 
the Tillail limestone, which appears to be the continuation of that 
bed, belongs to the same epoch. 

Due north of Sono Murg, the limestone is much developed and 
forms the summit of a considerable peak. 

The porphyry-centres of mountains pass towards the south to rocks 
of an appearance different from that of the northern spurs ; while 
we have seen that, towards the north, the porphyry generally graduates 
to a felstone more or less earthy. Towards the south it changes, as we 
travel from the peaks towards the end of the spurs, into trachyte, 
greenstone, amygdaloid, basalt, ash and agglomerate, together with 
interstratified, azoic and often amygdaloidal slate. 

The northern spurs of Gwashbrari, the Harbagwan and the Basmai 
are composed of felstone, and near the road to Drass, in the valley 
of the Sind Torrent, of amygdaloid and ash. On these beds of 
ejecta rest fossiliferous beds, and, near the small village of Sono Murg, 
the beds of limestone are well developed. Captain Godwin- Austen 
found in that locality some fossils which he was kind enough to 
show me. They were identical with the forms described as charac- 
teristic of the Kothair group of Carboniferous limestone, viz, the 
Gasteropoda and CyatJiophyllida which are represented at PI. VIII. 



1SCC] Mr. Wahlie on the water of the Hooyhly, <fc. 203 

fig. 4, 4a. They occur in a thin-bedded, dark-grey, argillaceous 
limestone, having in some places the appearance of a calcareous 
slate. But beds of Weean limestone must exist not far from Sono 
Murg and form propably some of the beds of limestone which are 
seen in the high valley between the Ambernath and the Gwashbrari, 
as blocks of limestone of this description, rounded by running water, 
were found in the bed of the Sind, near the traveller's home at 
Sono Murg. 

To he continued. 



Experimental investigations connected with the snp}>ly of water 
from the Ilooyhly to Calcutta, hy David Waldie, tisy. F. C. S. &c 

[Received 31st August, 18G6.] 

The attention which of late years has been given amongst civilized 
communities to the preservation of health and prevention of disease, 
has naturally been directed amongst other subjects to that of the 
water employed for economical purposes, and more particularly to its 
purity and wholesomeness as a beverage and as the medium for the 
preparation of food. The subject has been under the consideration 
of the municipal authorities of Calcutta, who, as is well known, have 
organised a scheme for the supply of the town from the river Hooghly, 
for the carrying out of which arrangements are now in progress. 
The Sanitary Commission appointed some time ago in the Bengal 
Presidency, and I believe in the other Presidencies also, recommended 
to the several governments of the Subdivisions, that the water of the 
various cantonments and stations should be subjected to chemical 
analysis for the purpose of ascertaining their wholesomeness, and 
these recommendations are in course of being carried out. 

In England, and more particularly in the metropolis, much attention 
has been given to the same subject, and also to another one closely 
connected with it, namely, the disposal of the sewerage of towns. This 
subject is connected with that of water supply, not only, because in 
the plan generally followed for getting rid of sewerage in towns, a large 



204 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3, 

supply of water is necessary, but also on account of the circumstance 
that in many cases the readiest way to dispose of the liquid sewerage is 
to turn it into rivers. And as it frequently happens that these rivers 
may afford the easiest or perhaps the only practicable source of supply 
of water for other towns, the pollution of their waters so produced may 
be not a little deleterious. From the enormous extent and population 
of the English metropolis, and the comparatively small size of the 
river on which it stands, the evil in that case has become palpable and 
notorious. The most eminent chemists and engineers have been 
engaged in the examination of the subject as respects both the supply 
of water and disposal of sewerage, and the results of their enquiries 
have been published and subjected to public criticism and discussion. 

So far as I am aware, nothing has yet been published of the results 
obtained by the examination of the waters of the Military cantonments 
of India, nor do I know if it be intended that anything shall be. 
With respect to the Calcutta supply, as is well known, a series of 
analyses has been made, and a Report of results and conclusions drawn 
out, by the Chemical Examiner to Government, Dr. Macnamara. 
That report, no doubt from being intended for a non-professional, and 
(regarding it collectively and officially) not a professedly scientific body, 
gives only results and conclusions, omitting altogether the details 
of analyses and the specification of the methods employed. Dr. 
Macnamara's attention seems to have been directed chiefly to the 
water of the Hooghly, to ascertain the proper point nearest to the town 
from which a supply of water of sufficient purity all the year round 
could be obtained. The examinations were made on samples from 
Cossipore, Pultah Ghat near Barrackpore, and Chinsurah. The general 
conclusion arrived at is, that the influence of the tide is little felt at 
Chinsurah at any period of the year, not much more at Pultah Ghat, 
except towards the close of the hot season in May and June when it 
is decidedly perceptible though not great, and not only decided but to 
a large amount at Cossipore during the months of March, April, May 
and June ; and that the river water from its admixture with sea water 
and the sewerage of Calcutta during that time is unfit for human con- 
sumption. The organic matter is stated to be much larger in quantity 
during these months than at other periods, and also to be highly 
nitrogenized ; the quantity amounting to 6 or 7 grains or even 10 or 



I860.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 205 

12 grains per Imp. gallon during the months of April, May and 
June ; and this increase in quantity and deterioration in quality is 
considered to be due to the organic impurity from the sewers and banks 
at Calcutta. The analyses, I may observe, were chiefly made on samples 
taken at high water, obviously to get the water at its worst. Analyses 
are also given of the waters of two tanks in the Maidaun or plain round 
Fort William, namely Monohur Doss's Tank and General's Tank, 
which are considered as unquestionably superior to the river water. 

I may observe that, when I commenced this investigation, it was not 
in connection with the water supply of Calcutta at all, or even in con- 
nection with the economical use of water or its wholesoinencss as a 
beverage. These enquiries had been placed in the hands of others ; but 
it occurred tome, that residing, as I did, on the banks of the Hooghly, 
and possessing certain facilities for the purpose, it might be a contribu- 
tion to science of some small value to make a minute examination of 
the constituents of both the water and the mud of a great river 
draining so large an extent of country as the Ganges. The investiga- 
tion is as yet far from completion, but during its course, it occurred 
to me that many of the results obtained might have some value in 
relation to the subject just adverted to — the economical use of water ; 
and that the local interest attached to it might render it in some 
degree appropriate to publish these results, more particularly at a 
time when all the knowledge attainable connected with the subject 
is desirable. 

This communication then is not intended to present a full statement 
of the composition of the Hooghly water, but only to treat of such 
points as are of more particular interest in connection with its applica- 
tion to supply the wants of the inhabitants of Calcutta. And indeed 
this is all that is necessary for the purpose in view. As regards the 
general composition of the river water at different seasons of the year, 
my own results only go to confirm those already given in Dr. Mac- 
namara's Report, but in some particulars, not of minor importance, the 
results I have obtained and the conclusions drawn from them are 
somewhat different ; and in other particulars it may be found that I 
have added to the stock of information on the subject. 

It is scarcely necessary to allude to the course of the seasons in 
Bengal and the way in which they affect the river. But for 



•206 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3, 

convenience I shall briefly state how I shall speak of them in 
what follows. From the middle of June when the rains generally 
commence and the river rises, till the end of October or middle of 
November, when the rains have ceased and the river is rapidly falling, 
I shall speak of as the rainy season ; thence till the end of February 
as the cold season ; and thence again till the rains recommence as the 
hot season. The first is identical with Dr. Macnamara's " Full season," 
the two latter with his " Low season." 

During the rains, the river comes down in full stream from the parent 
Ganges through the effluents which unite to form the Hooghly, viz. the 
Bhagiruthy, Matabangah and Jellinghy, with contributions from other 
tributaries from the west. During that period, and more particularly 
during its earlier part, the water is loaded with mud in a very 
fine state of division and very slow in settling. As the season comes 
near its termination, the water becomes clearer, and remains so during 
the cold season, any mud in suspension rapidly settling. The water, 
which during the rains naturally contained the smallest proportion of 
saline matter, now contains more, the proportion gradually increasing 
till the end of February, the first increase having been more rapid at 
the stoppage of the rains. All this, of course, is the natural and obvious 
result of evaporation without any rainfall to supply the place of the 
lost water, aggravated by the diminished supply of water from the 
Ganges caused by the bars at the entrance to the tributary effluents. 
These causes operate with still greater power during the hot season, aided 
by strong southerly winds and powerful tides. During this season the 
mud is stirred up, and the water rendered more dirty, but the mud is 
not in the same state as during the rains, and settles without difficulty. 
The influence of the tides becomes increasingly felt as the season 
advances, and the admixture of sea water becomes unmistakable. 

The following table exhibits the results I have obtained as respects 
the amount of solid residue obtained by evaporating the water. They 
are given for 100,000 grs. of water, instead of the Imperial gallon used 
by Dr. Macnamara. By multiplying by 7 and dividing by 10, the 
quantities per gallon are obtained. 

The following Table showing the amount of solid matter dried at 
212° to 220° Fah. in the river water at ebb tide } at a point from two to 
three miles above Calcutta. 



or 


Imp. gall, 


12.13 


8.41 


21.00 


16.80 


30.00 


21.00 


36.20 


25.34 


88.50 


61.95 


21.25 


14.88 


30.70 


21.49 


151.90 


106.33 


12.59 


8.81 


8.13 


5.69 



1866.] Mftih the wpply of water to Cakutta. 207 

Table I. 

For 100,000 grs. For 70,000 grs. 

1865 
August 31st, 1865, including very fine clay,* Ebb, 
December 6th, Ebb, 

1866 
February 25th, Ebb, 

May 2nd, spring tide, Ebb, 

Flood : 
24th, Neap tide, Ebb, 

June 14th, spring tide, Ebb, 

Flood, 
July 6th, including very fine clay,* Ebb, 

August 8th, clay and some silica deducted, Ebb, 

These numbers confirm the results exhibited by Dr. Macnamara's 
report, making allowance for difference of seasons. They shew clearly 
the increase of solid contents more especially during the dry season. 
And here I may remark that samples were chielly taken during 
ebb tide, as my primary object was the examination of the river water 
proper, and it was only during the hot season that particular attention 
was paid to the state of tide, after my attention had been directed in 
part to what is the special object of this paper. And indeed, except 
during the hot season, the composition of the water is little affected by 
the tides. 

And further, as the object was to make a full analysis of the water 
at several different seasons, I did not adopt the readiest or simplest 
methods of merely comparing the water at different periods for sanitary 
purposes, which would have been done, had that been my primary 
object. The methods adopted will be noticed in clue course. 

The preceding table exhibits a very great variation in the amount 
of solid constituents during the hot season, owing to the influence of 
the tides, a subject which will be separately considered. 

* These waters had settled well — that of August 1865 for 19 days, that of 
July 1866 for about 35 days, yet by comparison with that of August 1866 
it will be observed that about oue third of their solid contents was fine clay. 

26 



208 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3, 

Influence of the Tides. 
It will indeed be convenient to take up this subject first in order. 
Dr. Macnamara's results exhibit very clearly the increased quantity of 
saline constituents during the hot season, commencing in March, and 
coming to its height just before the commencement of the rains. His 
table shews as much as 77.7 grs. dry saline residue from 1 gallon of 
water at high water on 12th June, 1862. I obtained from water taken at 
full spring tide, on 14th June of this year 1866, as much as 106.3 grs. 
per Imp. gallon. This is easily accounted for when it is found, as ascertain- 
ed from examination of the rainfall, that from June 1861 to end of May 
1862 there had fallen 87.4 inches of rain, while during the correspond- 
ing period of 1865-66 there had been only 47.9 inches : the river 
must have "been much lower and its current feebler, and consequently 
the sea w T ater had penetrated farther. My observations were all made on 
water taken from the river near my own residence at the village of 
Baranagur or Barnagore, with a few exceptions which I shall notice 
afterwards. The locality is about two miles above Cossipore. But I 
made observations also on the effect of time of tide. 

This point is also noticed in Dr. Macnamara's report, though not 
very fully. He mentions that the water varies much in the degree of 
its impurity with the time of tide, falling as low during April and May 
as 23° at low water, that is, 23 grains of saline matter in 1 gallon. My 
observations indicate even a greater amount of variation than is by this 
suggested, as will be shown by the table I have prepared. As the 
evaporation to dryness and weighing the residue of numerous samples is 
very tedious and troublesome, another plan was adopted for estimating 
the amount of variation. The river water proper contains very little 
chlorine in its composition, while in the state of common salt this is 
the characteristic constituent of sea water. The quantity of chlorine 
was therefore ascertained by the usual volumetric process with nitrate 
of silver, and calculated as if it existed entirely as chloride of sodium 
or common salt, which afforded a very good means of comparing the 
samples and estimating the proportion of sea water present. 

I endeavoured to make some observations further up the river, but 

found that it could not be done properly except with an expenditure 

of time, trouble, &c. that I could not devote to it. Any observations 

that I did make were only confirmatory of Dr. Macnamara's results. 

The following table exhibits the results of my observations on the 



! 



1866. J with (Jir supply of water to Calcutta. 200 

influence of the tides. The change of course is gradual, commencing 
in March and increasing as si 1 own by Dr. Macnamara's report. I did 
not make observations until the first of May. 

Table II. 



Chlorine cnle. 
as Chloride 
To compare Ebb and Flood Tide. of Sodium. 


Saline matter dried 
at 220° F. 

For 


1866 a mile above Baranagar — 




For 100,000 


100,000 


Imp. gal. 


IVIav 1st second (lav of full mnn« 


grs. 


grs. 




Low water nearly complete 


> 




28.0 


19.60 


High water nearly complete, Surface 




61.55 


43.08 




Deep, 




59.55 


41.68 


At Calcutta— 










2nd, third day of full moon, 










( About | Ebb, stream, 
( Opposite Bankshall. 


Surface 




36.20 


25.30 


Deri.), 


15.50 






( About | Flood, stream, 
1 Opposite Hatkolah. 


Surface 




88.50 


62,19 


Deep, 


55.50 






At Baranagar — 










16th, third day of new moon, 










Above 1 or 1J hour Ebb, 


Surface, 


40.00 


66.40 


46.48 



Deep, 

Above f Flood, Surface, 

Deep, 

Nearly high water complete, Surface, 

Deep, 

To sJteio state at Neap tide. 

24th, fourth day of first quarter of moon. 

1 hour after beginning of Ebb, Surface, 

Deep, 

3 hours after do. Surface, 12.50 ^ 010t . K ^5 

Deep, 

To shew rate of change during 

Ebb and Flow. 

May 30th, third day of full moon. 

At shore 5 h. before tide begun, ... 27.00 

2h. before do, 21.50 



40.00 


66.40 




68.60 


78.00 


107.20 


75.00 


109.00 


82.50 


104.70 


80.00 


106.20 


17.50 




18.50 




12.50 ") 
11.50 ] 


21.25 



15. 



210 Mr. Waldies investigations connected [No. 3, 

Stream, above 4 hours flood 7 64.00 83.85 58.7 

June 1st, fifth clay of full moon. 

5 h. 10 m. before tide begun, 35.00 

1-20 ditto ditto, 16.50 

2-10 after ditto, 26 50 

5-10 after ditto, Surface, 69.50 

Deep, 58.50 
14th, third day of new moon.* 

Tide commencing about noon, 

At 6 h. 40 m. A. M. Surface, 63.50 

Deep, 65.90 

11-5 A.M. Surface, 15.00] QA 7 01 , a 

Deep, 14.00 J dU> ' A AJ 

2-20 P. M. Surface, 71.00 

Deep, 85.50 

4.20 P.M. JET SB} 15L9 106 ' 33 

The water was collected either by filling vessels from the surface, 
or in the case of the deep water by lowering a tin bucket provided with 
proper valves. The much larger quantity of heavier mud brought 
up by the bucket proved that it acted properly. The water was 
collected in almost every instance under my own personal superinten- 
dence. 

The collection was made by means of an ordinary small boat 
or dinghy. The changes of position which could not be avoided 
account for the irregularities between the surface and deep waters, 
taking into account the strong currents and eddies that prevail. 

The table exhibits the great influence of the tides : taking the 
extreme case of 14th June after long drought, just two days before 
the rains commenced, we have in 100,000 fl. grains of water 151.9 grs. 
solid matter at high water, and 30.7 gr. at low water, or nearly 5 to 1 ; 
while comparing the Chlorine as Chloride of Sodium or common salt, 
the proportion is fully 8 to 1. These great differences occur chiefly at 
spring tides. The results of 24th May shew how comparatively 
small this is at Neap tides, 19 grains of salt at nearly high water to 
12 grs. at nearly low water. 

* Highest tides are on third day of new or fall moon. 



18GG.] with the supply of wafer to Calcutta. 211 

A study of the particulars of this table shews that the period 
during which the water can be obtained with the smallest admixture 
of sea water is during the last three or four hours of ebb tide and the 
first one or two of flood. From tables of the analyses of the waters 
supplied to London which I shall have to refer to more particularly 
afterwards, it appears that the water of five Thames Companies contains 
at an average from 26.41 to 26.97 grs. of saline matter per 100,000 ; 
and that of four other Companies, — two river waters contain about 26 
grs., and two artesian well waters contain from above 38 to 40 grains. 
The Hooghly water at Baranagur therefore even during the hot season 
at ebb tide contains little more solid matter than the Thames water, 
but probably a larger proportion of this is salt. 

Constituents of River Water proper. 
We have now to direct our attention to the river water proper, which 
we may consider that we can get from the Hooghly at different degrees 
of dilution all the year except three or four months of the hot season. 
The water of rivers is of course in greater part generally water fallen 
from the atmosphere. Aided by the carbonic acid of the atmosphere, 
it acts upon rocks, even silicious rocks, producing a certain amount of 
decomposition and carrying off their constituents partly in solution, 
partly in suspension as mud ; it carries off similar constituents from 
the soil, which consists of decomposed rocks ; and also from this source 
a quantity of organic matter, the result of the decomposition of vegeta- 
ble and animal substances, as also the excrementious matters deposited 
there. Except in special circumstances the water of rivers generally 
contains a rather small proportion of alkaline salts in the state of 
silicates, sulphates, chlorides and carbonates, with a larger proportion of 
carbonates of lime and magnesia kept in solution by excess of carbonic 
acid gas. They differ from spring or deep well waters and agree with 
surface waters generally in containing a notable proportion of potash 
as well as soda, and also more silica, phosphates, earthy carbonates 
and organic matter, and sometimes ammonia and nitrates, than deep 
spring waters do. When brought in contact with argillaceous deposits, 
they part with their potash, ammonia, silica, phosphoric acid and 
organic matter, while the soda, lime, magnesia, sulphuric acid and 
chlorine are generally retained, forming the usual constituents of 
spring waters. This subject is treated of fully in an Essay on the 



212 Mr. Wahlie's investigations connected [No. 3, 

Chemistry of natural waters by Mr. T. Sterry Hunt, which will be 
found* well worthy of perusal. 

I am not aware whether much consideration has been given to the 
peculiarities of the constitution of such surface waters in regard to 
their mineral constituents and their action on the animal economy, 
except in the case of the abundance of earthy carbonates. This, 
however, is perhaps the least characteristic of these constituents, as 
many spring waters abound in earthy carbonates, or at least in earthy 
salts, sulphates and muriates of lime and magnesia. More charac- 
teristic is the deficiency of muriate of soda or chloride of sodium in 
the surface waters and its comparative abundance in spring waters. 
Soda is the characteristic alkali of the components of the human 
body, but some curious observations have been made by physiological 
chemists on the relative proportions of the two alkalies in different 
parts or tissues of the system ; and though it is stated in these cases 
that the peculiarities exist entirely irrespective of the nature of the 
food taken, it would scarcely be warrantable to assume as certain that 
such differences in the predominance of potash or soda in food or 
drink are entirely destitute of influence. The point is at least worth 
bearing in mind, 

Phosphoric acid, when present, exists in such small quantity that only 
in very minute analyses is it sought for by the analyst. Silica is 
found much more generally. From its neutral and indifferent 
character, much attention has not been given to it in its influence 
on animal bodies. But attention has been given to all of these 
substances in relation to vegetable physiology, as plants draw their 
food directly from the soil in part at least, and the nature of its 
constituents is therefore of immediate importance. 

To the other constituents I have mentioned, namely organic matter 
with the products of its decomposition, including ammonia and nitric 
acid, more attention has lately been paid in connection with water to 
be used for human consumption. Indeed this may be said to be the 
principal point to which the analysis of waters selected on sanitary 
considerations has of late been chiefly directed. 

The water of the Hooghly has a composition similar to that 
already given as that of river waters generally. According to Dr, 
* Silliman's American Journal of Science for March, July and Sept. 1865. 



1866.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 213 

Macnaniara's report, in the month of August there was in 1 gallon of 
water 1.2 grains of soluble salts and 5.4 grs. of insoluble earthy salts, 
beside silica and organic matter, and in February 1.8 of soluble and 
13.4 of earthy. Or, as I prefer to express it, there was in August 1.7 
grs. alkaline salt and 7.8 grs. earthy carbonates in 100,000 fl. grs., and 
in February 2.6 alkaline salt and 19.1 grs. earthy carbonates in the 
same volume. The first represents the water in its most diluted state 
during the height of the rains, the last in its most concentrated state 
at the end of the cold season, just before tidal influence begins to be 
felt. I do not intend to give any of my oavu results, partly because a 
full analysis of the water is not the object of this paper, and partly 
because a circumstance entirely unforeseen and unexpected has thrown 
doubts on the correctness of some of those obtained, and I do not 
wish to give them in an imperfect state, as they cannot be corrected 
until the return of the cold season gives me a new supply of water. 
It is sufficient to say that they do not appear to differ materially 
from those given in Dr. Macnamara's report. The only point to 
be noticed is, that Dr. Macnamara, in accordance with the usual custom, 
where minute accuracy is not required, assumes that the alkali is s<nla. 
Both potash and soda, however, are present in the river water ; to what 
extent they vary, I have not yet ascertained. During the hot season, 
from the increase of common salt from tidal water, there is of necessity 
a great increase in the proportion of soda in the state of common salt. 
The^ alkaline salts consist of potash and soda in combination with 
sulphuric acid, silicic, and probably hydrochloric acid (or more strictly 
their metals combined with chlorine) and perhaps some organic 
acid. The earthy salts are carbonates of lime and magnesia, kept in 
solution by excess of carbonic acid. On evaporation nearly the 
whole of the lime and magnesia separate as carbonates insoluble. 
Besides these there are a few minute constituents to be noticed after- 
wards. The only"' particular now to be noticed is, the different 
proportion of solid constituents in the water at the two extremes ; in 
August there is 9.5 grains of alkaline and earthy salts in solution in 
100,000 fl. grs. of^water, in February there is 21.78 grs. or about two 
and a quarter times as much. This great difference is of course due to 
the nature of^the seasons'in Bengal, where almost all the rain falls 
during four or five continuous months. 



214 



Mr. Wal die's investigations connected 



[No. 3, 



It may be useful to refer for the purpose of comparison to the 
composition of some other waters supplied to towns, and I shall take 
for that purpose one of the most recently published reports on the 
subject, namely, that by Professor Frankland on the water supply of 
London during the year from February 1865 to January 1866.* 
The only points determined connected with the mineral consti- 
tuents are the total amount of saline matters and the amount 
of earthy salts as ascertained by the soap test ; this, as is well known, 
being the application of the familiar fact that hard water curdles 
soap, to ascertain its purity ; a solution of known strength of soap 
being added to a measured quantity of the water to be examined 
from a graduated tube, until the curdling effect of the salts of lime and 
magnesia which cause the hardness is exhausted, and the water produces 
a lather on shaking. The quantity of soap required indicates the 
amount of earthy salts present ; an easy and speedy means of obtaining 
a sufficiently good estimate of the amount of earthy salts in water. 

By deducting from the total solid matter first the amount of organic 
matter, the total inorganic is obtained ; and by deducting from this 
the amount of carbonate of lime, the remainder will indicate, with 
sufficient approximative accuracy, the amount of alkaline salts. Here 
are the results of this proceeding — for the waters of 

Five Thames New Kiver Kent and S. 
Companies and River Essex Co.'s 
average. Lea. Artes. Wells. 

26.63 26.11 39.03 

1.60 1.30 1.73 



Total solid matters, mean 



Deduct organic and volatile, mean 



Carbonate of Lime 



25.03 
17.69 



24.81 
20.65 



37.30 
25.16 



Alkaline salts 7.34 4.16 12.14 

It will be observed that the alkaline salts are in much larger 
proportion to the earthy carbonates than in the Hoogly water, this 
being specially the case in the Artesian well waters. The waters of New 
Kiver and River Lea come nearest the Hooghly. The amount of solid 
matter is much greater in the average than that of the Hooghly river 



* Journal of the Chemical Society, June 1866. 



1866.1 to&h the supply of water to OalcvMa, 215 

water proper, the mean indeed being nearly as much as tlie maximum 
of the Hoogbly before tidal influence begins. The amount of variation 
is much smaller in these waters : of the Thames water the highest 
quantity of solid matter was 32.62 grs. the lowest 18.78, and the well 
waters vary less. And it was observed that the quantity of solid 
matter tended to increase alter heavy rain fall. 

Oilier river waters contain more or less of such constituents, dependent, 
on the nature of the rocks and soil they traverse. Mr. Sterry Hunt 
gives an analysis of tin; Ottawa water, taken before the melting of the 
snows, containing G. 12 grs. solid in 100,000. Bisckoff, in his Chemi- 
cal Geology, gives a pretty large list of analyses of river waters, show- 
ing a variation of from 2.61 to 54.5 grains solid matter in 100,000. 
The nature of their mineral constituents also varies greatly, but that 
■will not engage our attention at present as it is more a geological 
question than a sanitary one. "We shall proceed to the point more 
immediately connected with the object of the paper. 

The substanees treated of can scarcely be called impurities with 
reference to natural waters. They are rather constituents, and are 
only to be considered impurities in a sanitary point of view when 
they are excessive in quantity, as for instance exceeding 40 or even 
50 grains in 100,000. The remaining substances to l»e noticed may 
in a purely chemical point oi view be called constituent! also with 
quite as much truth, but with reference to sanitary considerations 
may with propriety be termed impurities. They were enumerated 
before as organic matter, ammonia and nitric acid. It may be better 
to consider them as organic matter of vegetable origin and organic 
matter of animal origin, with the respective products of their decom- 
position. 

Vegetable substances of all kinds mixed with the soil, exposed to 
air and moisture or immersed in water, dead animal bodies of every 
variety in similar circumstances, all rotting, fermenting and putrefying, 
■with the excrcmentitious matters from living animals, constitute the 
materials from which river water derives that portion of its consti- 
tuents called organic matter. Its nature is so heterogeneous and its 
quantity so small, that it would be hopeless to attempt to separate it 
into its proximate constituents. All we can attempt is to get some 
general idea of its nature, from which to form some judgment of its 

27 



216 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3? 

properties, especially with reference to its action on the human sj'stem. 
Of late more attention has been paid to this subject, previously little 
thought of. 

The first point requiring attention is to ascertain its quantity as 
correctly as practicable. The plan formerly followed was to dry the 
solid contents of the water obtained by evaporation carefully at a 
certain fixed temperature such as 212° or 250° F., or even about 300°, 
till the weight remained constant ; then to burn off the organic matter 
by as moderate a heat as possible and weigh again : the loss of weight 
was considered organic matter. But this method is liable to great 
error, and may give grossly erroneous results. Other substances may 
be volatilised : salts of ammonia have been mentioned, but they may be 
included amongst organic matter ; nitrates may be partially or wholly 
decomposed, but they generally exist in very small quantity. Earthy 
carbonates may lose carbonic acid : — carbonate of lime will not readily 
lose it if the heat be moderate, but carbonate of magnesia will very 
readily, and moreover chloride of magnesium (or muriate of magnesia) 
loses part of its acid easily. It is the magnesium salts which are the 
chief source of loss, but this can be prevented or remedied. If the 
contents of the water be not naturally sufficiently alkaline, a sufficient 
quantity of accurately weighed and perfectly dry carbonate of soda is 
added to the water on evaporating it ; the soda combines with hydro- 
chloric acid to form chloride of sodium and water, while the magnesia 
remains as carbonate ; and by this means, as the chlorine is not 
separated by ignition from the sodium, the loss of chlorine is avoided. 
The only loss is of carbonic acid, which can be restored again. This 
is done by adding to the ignited residue in the platinum crucible 
distilled water charged with carbonic acid and evaporating to dryness 
by gentle heat, drying again at the same temperature as was employed 
at the first weighing before ignition till the weight is again constant. 
The loss of carbonic acid is by this means corrected, the acid being 
restored, and the difference of weight shows the quantity of organic 
matter, at least more correctly than by any other method known. 

This plan is attributed to Dr. Thomas Clark, the inventor of the soap 
test, by Dr. W. Allen Miller in a paper* to which I shall have further 
occasion to refer. It is tedious and troublesome, requires a fine balance, 
* Journal of the Chemical Society for May, 1865. 



1866.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 217 

patience, and care ; but it is not too much to say that the results obtained 
without the above detailed precautions are of no value, or rather worse 
than useless, as they mislead. The results which I shall give were ob- 
tained by this plan carefully carried out. It will be found that they 
differ materially from those given in Dr. Macnamara's report ; and I 
can only account for the discrepancy, by supposing that some precau- 
tion requisite for ensuring accuracy in the process was omitted, either 
from inadvertance, or because it had not at that time (1862) been 
generally known to or used by chemists. 

In the table in that report the smallest quantity of organic matter 
entered is 0.9 grain in 1 Imperial gallon, the largest 8.3 grains, gene- 
rally however 3 or 4 grains per gallon, which are equal to respectively 
1.23, 11.8 and 4.3 or 5.7 grains per 100,000 grains. My own results 
have yielded me only from 0.6 to 1.9 grains in 100,000 and Dr. Frank- 
land's in the report already alluded to, vary from .54 to 3.3, or average 
about 1.6 for the Thames, and 1.3 for the other two river waters. The 
table which will be given will exhibit the results I have obtained. 
Remarks will be postponed till the whole subject is considered. 

The time, trouble, and care necessary for estimating the amount of 
organic matter by weight is so great, that chemists have been desirous 
of finding some easier and speedier method of estimating its amount. 
Precipitation of the organic matter by salts of lead or reduction of salts 
of silver and gold have been proposed, but never come into general 
use. But another re-agent has of late been very generally employed, 
the permanganate of potash, which from the facility with which it 
yields its oxygen to organic substances has been made the means of 
estimating the amount of these ; and as it can be very easily employed, 
it has come very much into favour. A good deal of difference of 
opinion prevailed at first as to the proper method of applying it and 
as to the value of its indications, but more agreement is being arrived 
at lately. It is used in the state of weak solution poured from a 
graduated tube, and the permanence of a slight pink tinge in the 
water to which it is added is the sign of the action being complete : 
the quantity by measure of the solution required indicates what is 
wanted. Dr. Letheby continues to add the solution at intervals for 
24 hours : if the action was completed, then this would be very 
well, but it is not, as there are different kinds of organic water, some 



218 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3, 

of which act slowly on it, others more rapidly. Dr. Miller strictly 
enjoins that the water shonld not be warmed, without however stat- 
ing any reason, and other English chemists seem also to practise it 
cold ; Dr. Woods, who wrote a paper on it some years ago published in 
the Chemical Society's Journal, recommends warming the water, as 
also does Dr. Macnamara, and gives reasons for it. It now generally 
seems to be agreed that it is desirable to restrict the use of the 
permanganate to the oxidation of those substances that can be rapidly 
acted on ; and after consideration and experiment, I have adopted with 
some small modifications the details of Dr. Frankland's practice, except 
that the water is heated to about 120° F. at the commencement. 
English chemists forget that what is our natural cold here, requires 
artificial heat with them, and that it is desirable to follow a plan that 
can be easily made uniform for all climates. The solution of per- 
manganate is added in small portions at intervals, until a perceptible 
tinge of pink remains for ten minutes ; when this is the case, the 
quantity used is read off. I use 4000 fluid grs. of water with 80 fluid 
grs. of diluted sulphuric acid, containing 1 grain concentrated acid by 
weight in 5 fl. grs., heat the whole to about 120° F. and having 
removed it from the lamp, proceed to add the solution. This is made 
of such strength that each measure of the tube (it may be, each equal 
to 1 cubic centimetre or to 10 fluid grains) yields .001 grain oxygen 
as ascertained by its action on oxalic acid in solution in similar 
circumstances, that is dissolved in a similar quantity of pure distilled 
water with the same quantity of sulphuric acid and treated in the' 
same way. As .63 grains oxalic acid requires .08 grain oxygen, the 
solution will be of proper strength, if 80 measures are required for 
oxidizing that quantity of oxalic acid : that is, 80 measures are equal 
to .08 grain oxygen, or 1 measure is equal to .001 grain oxygen. 

Although it is certain that in many or most cases the permanganate 
as used in this process does not oxidise all the organic matters, and 
that we cannot tell how much remains unacted upon ; and though 
at present at least we do not know what is the particular chemical 
constitution of the matters oxidized, it is at least certain that it acts 
upon those substances which give the putrid odour to stagnant water, 
and renders them after a time, when the products of its action have 
settled, pure and transparent and quite free from offensive smell* 



1866.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 219 

It thus removes the matters which are actually in a state of putrefac- 
tion, and I believe preserves the water from further putrefaction for 
at least a considerable time. For this purpose it is advantageously 
employed for the purpose of purifying water for domestic use. In such 
application it is used alone, no sulphuric acid being used : a very 
small quantity being added to the water, just sufficient to give it a 
very slight pink tinge, which will remain for above 15 minutes ; the 
water is allowed to stand till next day, and is then decanted off and 
filtered and is fit for use. The minute quantity of potash salt 
produced can do no harm. 

Provided it be properly understood what the use of this re-agent 
indicates, and it be not credited with more than it does effect, the 
permanganate test is a valuable addition to our means of examining 
the quality of drinking water. The results of my examination of 
the Hooghly water by means of it, and the amount of organic matter 
by weight, are given together in one table. 

The quantity of oxygen required is very small. The results are 
given as obtained, but cannot be counted on too minutely, as there is a 
certain amount of error unavoidable, in not getting the colour exactly 
of one degree of intensity, in slight difference of quantity required 
dependent on rapidity of adding the liquid, and probably on other causes 
not very well ascertained. The purity of the waters as respects such 
offensive constituents is in proportion to the oxygen required to oxidize 
them : the purer the water the less oxygen is necessary. 

Table III. 

River water taken from the Hooghly two to three miles: above the north 

end of the toivn, except when otherwise specified. 

For 100,000 fl. gs. water. 



6th July, 1866 Ebb, from surface, 

10th ditto, from shore, 

8th August, Ebb tide, 

21st ditto ditto, 

31st August, 1865, Ebb tide ; had stood in stopper- 
ed bottles ten months, and much vegetable 
growth had been removed, 74 .0225 



Organic 

matter dried, at 

212° to 220° 

Fah. 

Grains. 

.80 


Oxycren re- 
quired. 
Grains. 

.0375 


# 


.0338 


.60 


.0450 


.86 


.0345 



220 Mr. Waldle's investigations connected [No. 3, 

9th December, 1865, Ebb, Surface, 1.02 

Deep, 78 .0175 

25th February, 1866 Ebb, Surface, 92 

Deep, 45 

2nd May, Ebb at Bankshall, southern part of 

Calcutta, , .0325 

Flood at Hatkolah, northern part of Calcutta,... 2.70 

30th May, Ebb, 90 .0238 

Flood, 2.60 .0275 

14th June, Ebb, 90 .0250 

Flood, .. 2.20 .0225 

6th June at Chandernagore, 20 miles above 

Calcutta, Ebb, Surface, ... .60 .0163 

Deep, 67 .0213 

From an inspection of this table, it will be observed that the 
permanganate test exhibits the largest quantity of organic matter in 
the river water during the rainy season, and the smallest quantity 
during the cold season, the hot season giving results intermediate.* 
The same ratio is not so distinctly perceptible in the weight of the 
organic matter. If the water at all these seasons were at the same 
state of dilution as regards saline matter, there would be the largest 
proportion of organic matter during the rainy season and the smallest 
during the hot season. The hot season is usually associated with ideas 
of corruption and concentration of impurities, the rainy season with 
purification by the abundance of pure water from the clouds. In 
point of fact it is directly the reverse. The same thing has been 
observed in England, as will be manifest from the following quotation 
from Dr. Frankland's report on the London waters. He says, " This 

* It was with considerable hesitation that I left the indications given by 
the permanganate test in the table, on account of objections raised to my 
determinations of the organic matter which led to a supplementary paper read 
at the succeeding meeting of the Society. But after due consideration, they 
were allowed to remain as sufficient for the purpose required. The objections 
will be noticed as occasion calls for it, in notes or in the Supplement. 

It is to be observed also that, as reported in the Proceedings of the Society 
for October, page 1866, 1 had stated 1.4 grains per gallon as the largest amount 
of organic matter obtained. Two of the results in the table, those of 2nd and 
30th May somewhat exceed this, viz. 2.7 and 2.6 grains corresponding respective- 
ly to 1.89 and 1.82 grain per gallon. The correctness of these was doubted from 
supposed inaccuracy in the process, but this not being certain they have been 
introduced into the table. 30th Nov. 1866. 






1806.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 221 

comparison shews clearly (as might be anticipated) how closely the 
condition of river waters is connected with the amount of rain-fall ; 
but, in opposition to the commonly received opinion, it proves that the 
waters in question are much purer in dry than in wet weather, even 
if the drought occurs during a very hot summer." He seems, however, 
to hesitate a little about drawing general conclusions from the observa- 
tions of one year ; and in the report of the discussion which followed 
at the Chemical Society's meeting as reported in the Chemical News, 
some of the speakers seemed inclined to attribute it to special and 
particular causes. I have no doubt that it is owing to general causes, 
and that when we consider the circumstances, we cannot expect any 
other result. 

Unfortunately in the case of the Hooghly at Calcutta, the question 
is complicated by the admixture of sea water during the hot season. 
This introduces two sources of error into the process of examination, 
namely an increased amount of saline matter, and a difference in its 
nature and properties. These will probably tend to cause indications 
of an amount of organic matter in excess of the truth. The point is 
under examination. There is also great difficulty in estimating 
correctly the amount of organic matter during the rainy season, on 
account of the impossibility of getting the water clear by filtration, 
and the very long time it requires to become clear by subsidence. 
This point is also under investigation.* 

There can be no doubt also that the kind of organic matter in the 
sea water mixture is different in some respects from that of the river 
water proper. I was much struck with the observation made many 
months ago of the difference of colour presented by the different speci- 
mens of water when highly concentrated, that of the August water 
being so much deeper in colour than the others. On the contrary, 
a sample of water from the salt water lake to the east of Calcutta, 
though indicating both by the weighing and the permanganate 
processes much more organic matter than the river water, when concen- 
trated, was almost colourless. 

But to return to the greater proportion of organic matter during the 
rains, it seems to be nothing but what may be expected. During the 

* For the reasons stated there is considerable uncertainty respecting the cor- 
rectness of the weight of organic matter in the waters of July and August 



222 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3, 

remainder of the year, vegetable and animal matter of every kind is 
deposited in or upon the soil in all stages of decomposition. The 
amount of drainage is small and the flow of water gentle : the water 
carried thus to the river is comparatively pure, and that from the 
sources of the streams is from places bare of vegetation and part of 
it from melting snow. But when the rains come, they wash off all the 
accumulated products of decomposition of vegetable and animal sub- 
stances in the state both of solution and suspension, of which the 
appearance alone of the water and its flavour give ample evidence. 
The increased proportion, it is true, is counteracted by the largely 
increased quantity of the water which dilutes it ; for if, instead of 
looking to the proportion of organic matter to the water, we look to 
its amount in proportion to the inorganic or mineral saline matter, 
then in the rainy season the excessive proportion of organic matter is 
rendered much more evident. After the rains the mud subsides, 
which is favourable to the purification of the water, and the atmo- 
spheric oxygen contained in solution in the water, as it is in natural 
waters generally, acts upon the organic matter in solution, oxidizing 
and destroying it. And as heat in general materially increases the 
energy of chemical action, there can be little doubt that this purifying 
influence goes on more rapidly in tropical than in temperate climates, 
and that this explains why the organic matter in the Hooghly water 
is smaller in amount than that of the London waters, both of river 
and wells in their natural state. 

But we have to consider not only the quantity but the quality of the 
organic impurity. We can scarcely expect to go more minutely into 
this than to endeavour to ascertain the relative proportions of vege- 
table and animal matter, and to get some idea of their state or of the 
stage of decomposition in which they exist in the water. The 
chemical constitution of these gives us some aid in this enquiry, the 
main constituents of vegetable compounds being carbon, hydrogen 
.and oxygen, those of animal substances containing nitrogen in 
addition ; a statement which, though not strictly exact, is sufficiently 
characteristic, so much so, that by azotized or nitrogenous substances 
are generally understood compounds of animal origin. The ultimate 
products of the decomposition of non-nitrogenous organic matter in 
presence of oxygen, namely water and carbonic acid, of course give us no 
help in this enquiry, nor are the intermediate products likely to be 



1866.] rvith the supply of water to Calcutta, 223 

possessed of any such striking properties as to aid us much, as they 
are mostly of a neutral nature without active chemical or physical 
characteristics. Nitrogenous bodies, however, yield products more 
readily recognised, and as it is this class of substances which are most 
likely to possess properties injuriously affecting the animal economy, 
their detection is also the most important. 

The ultimate products of the decomposition of nitrogenous organic 
substances are, in addition to water and carbonic acid, also ammonia, 
and where excess of oxygen is present, nitric acid. But there are also 
numerous intermediate products, and these are often characterised by 
offensive smells which give a certain character to the putrefaction of 
animal substances, different from that yielded by the fermentation or 
corruption of vegetable bodies. The smell or flavour then of a water 
is a very good test of its purity, though it indicates rather the stage 
of decomposition in which its organic matter exists than the amount 
of organic matter present. And in connection with this I may 
mention the test of keeping the water and observing the changes 
which take place in it, the production of animalcules or of aquatic 
vegetation. Now I have kept samples of water taken from the river 
at all seasons for many months. Those taken during the cold and 
hot seasons settled easily and suffered very little further change ; at 
the most a little greenish deposit at the bottom of the bottle formed, 
which is the case, however, with ordinary distilled water. It was very 
different, however, with the water of the rainy season. Some water 
taken from the river on 31st August, 1865, was kept for about two 
or three weeks, then syphoned off the deposited mud into other clean 
stoppered bottles in which it remained, the bottles being closed for 
about four months, when the bottles were found to have their sides 
covered with abundant green branching vegetation : the water was 
again syphoned off quite clear to other clean bottles and kept for about 
six months longer, when the same appearances were observed, though 
to a much smaller extent. There was abundant proof in this case 
of the presence of organic matter, probably both in the form of living 
germs and of chemical compounds dissolved in the water. The water 
taken during the hot season may have contained as much : possibly 
the presence of the excess of saline matter may prevent such develop- 
ment, but I am not prepared to give an opinion on the subject. The 

28 



224 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3> 

water of the hot season shewed more indications of vegetation than 
that of the cold season, though greatly less than that of the rains. 

Ammonia. 

Ammonia, perhaps one of the most characteristic evidences of the 
presence of nitrogenous matter, can he detected in natural waters, and 
even when in such minute proportion as in natural waters, its quantity- 
can he estimated. Dr. Miller has given a process for doing so with 
sufficient accuracy, and without the necessity of operating on very large 
quantities of water, which will be found in the paper I have already 
mentioned on the analysis of mineral waters in the Journal of the 
Chemical Society for May 1865. It depends on the great delicacy 
of the test for ammonia possessed by an alkaline solution of the 
Hydrarg-Iodide of Potassium, which produces a fine rich yellow 
brown colour with a very small quantity of ammonia, or a precipitate, 
if the quantity be larger. In the weaker solutions, the colour varies 
in depth of shade with the proportion of ammonia present, and by a 
comparison with another solution containing a known quantity of 
ammonia the proportion is estimated. Dr. Miller attributes the plan 
of proceeding to Mr. Hadow, and gives the details of procedure. He 
gives the formula for the preparation of the alkaline solution of 
Hydrarg-Iodide of Potassium, which I have strictly followed and 
adopted. His standard solution for comparison is a weak solution of 
pure muriate of ammonia of such strength that 1 fluid grain of the 
solution contains .0001 (one ten-thousandth of a) grain of ammonia 
or 3.17 grains muriate of ammonia in 10,000 fluid grains. I also 
adopt this solution, but have modified the plan of proceeding, it 
appears to me with advantage. It is thus : 

A convenient quantity, 10,000 fluid grains is very suitable, of the 
water, to which a small quantity of pure hydrochloric acid has been 
added, is concentrated by a gentle heat to about 1,000 fluid grains : 
it must of course be slightly acid. This is put into a flask, some excess 
of pure milk of lime added, and the flask connected by a bent tube 
with a small Liebig's condenser, to the extremity of which is connected 
a small Woulfe's bottle, and to this another one furnished at its further 
neck with a tube containing broken glass moistened with water, this 
being to prevent escape of ammonia. About half or 500 fluid grains of 



1866.] with (he supply of water to Calcutta. 225 

product is distilled over and emptied into a tube graduated into 100 
divisions of 10 fluid grains each, the bottles washed out with distilled 
water and added to the tube to make up 100 measures of liquid which 
is to be thoroughly mixed together. Two wide mouthed bottles or jars 
of as nearly the same size as possible are provided, into each of which 
25 fluid grains of the Hydrarg-Iodide solution is introduced with 
some distilled water. Then into one of these an aliquot part of the 
distilled liquid is poured, say ^ or J-, so as to produce a distinct colour, 
and the bottle is filled up with water. Another similarly graduated 
tube or burette has been prepared ready filled with the standard 
solution of muriate of ammonia, and this is carefully added to the 
second bottle, until the colour produced is as exactly as possible of the 
same shade as that of the first, both bottles being of course made equally 
full. The quantity added is then noted, and then calculated on the 
whole. Thus : suppose 74 fluid grains of the standard solution of 
muriate of ammonia has been required, this is equal to 74 X .0001 
grains or .0074 grains ammonia. If 25 measures of the distilled liquor 
has been used for trial, this is Jth of it, consequently the whole contains 
.0074 X 4 = .0296 grains ammonia, and as this was from 10,000 
fluid grains of water, by consequence the standard quantity of 100,000 
fluid grains water contains .296 grains ammonia. 

The process requires great care, that there be no accidental 
admixture of ammonia. The vessels must be scrupulously clean, the 
distilled water and the lime used must be carefully examined to make 
sure that they contain no ammonia. The plan of measuring the 
distillate enables the operator to repeat the trial in case of accident 
or uncertainty. It is better to work with rather weak colours, as the 
eye can better detect differences of shade : .0074 grains ammonia is 
too much for a 2000 grain bottle : any size of bottle may be used, 
provided the two bottles be as exactly as possible alike in size, shape 
and capacity. 



226 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3, 

Table IV. 
The following table shews the results obtained by this process. 

Ammonia in 
100,000 fl. grs. 



River water of 
Rainy Season. 



6th July, 1866, 
21st August, .. 



Average, .. 



Cold Season. 
9th December, 1865, Shore, 
Ditto, Stream, 

Ditto, ditto, 

27th ditto, ditto, 

Average, 



Hot Season. 
Ebb tide. 



30th May, 
14th June, 



Ditto repeated, ... 



Average, 



Flood Tide. 



30th May, ... 
14th June, 

Ditto repeated, . , 



Average, 



grams. 

.1133 
.1825 



.1429 



.0162 
.0220 
.0208 
.0328 



.0229 



.0250 
.0189 
.0550 



.0329 



.0370 
.1850 
.1075 



.1098 



Now on an inspection of this table it will be easily observed that 
the discrepancies are so great that the results cannot be depended on 
as at all accurate. I have mentioned the difficulties and nicety of 
the process, and the errors manifestly point out the necessity of 



1866.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 227 

carefully examining wherein they lie, in order to see if they can "be 
avoided. Yet notwithstanding these inaccuracies, it seems to me 
that the general results are pretty evident, that the amount of 
ammonia is greatest in the rainy season, diminishes during the cold 
one, and again increases during the hot, which increase, however, is 
probably not in the river water proper. One examination of water 
from Chandernagore, which was very slightly if at all contaminated 
with tidal water, yielded only .0118 grain ammonia in 100,000 flood 
grains. This conclusion is not a certain one ; to make it so, it would 
be necessary to have examinations of the Chandernagore water at all 
seasons ; but other considerations, to be afterwards noticed, render it 
probable.* 

I am disposed to attach a good deal of importance to the estimation 
of the ammonia, not only because it helps to indicate how far the 
nitrogenous matter has gone in the stage of decomposition, but because 
that stage is not improbably one of importance. It has been long 
known that many, I may say most, of the organic proximate principles 
found in vegetables are alkaloids possessing active properties and 
producing the most marked physiological effects, and that there are 
many similar principles produced in the decomposition of nitrogenised 
substances by destructive distillation or otherwise, which possess marked 
physical properties, and probably, if they were examined, also decided 
physiological actions. But by modern chemical research, it would 
appear that these alkaloids are all formed on the type of ammonia, 
or are ammonias having one or more atoms of its hydrogen replaced 
by some other organic combination or radical. Hence it seems not at 
all unlikely that such compound ammonias as they are called may be 
produced at the same time and along with the ultimate or ordinary 
ammonia. And even though no such compounds should exist, the 
amount of ammonia would give some probable indication of the stage 
of decomposition, and existence of compounds is a state of transition 
towards ammonia. 



* The examinations for ammonia were all made about the same time in the 
month of August, consequently the waters were of different ages. The samples 
had been preserved mixed with a little Hydrochloric acid and mostly in a 
concentrated state. Of course objections may be made to their value on this 
account and possibly may be valid. This will again be referred to in the sequel. 
3uth November, 1866. 



228 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3, 

I have seen few published analyses of water indicating the presence 
or amount of ammonia. Such examinations have been made, but 
they do not seem to be common. In the case of waters examined 
for sanitary purposes it appears to me that the point should be 
attended to. One observation that has come under my notice on 
the subject is in a • paper by Messrs. Lawes and Grilbert on town 
sewage,* in which is mentioned the quantity of ammonia found in 
the River Wandle before and after receiving- the drainage water 
from the land irrigated by the sewage of Croydon. In both 
instances, it amounted to .18 grain per gallon or 70,000 grains, being 
therefore more than I have found at the worst in the Hooghly water 
viz. .185 grains per 100,000 grains. 

Nitrates, 

The presence of nitrates has been more noticed than that of 
ammonia, though it appears to me less worthy of attention. It is 
true that they indicate the existence of nitrogenous matter, but it is 
rather as a thing of the past : the animal matter has been there, but 
is no longer now, at least that part of it which now has the form of 
nitric acid ; it is now fully oxydized, its animal essence and corruptibi- 
lity destroyed : it ranks with water and carbonic acid, no longer an 
organic substance. A process has been devised for estimating small 
quantities, known as Pugh's process, which Dr. Miller in the above 
quoted paper recommends for application to water. I have not made 
use of it, indeed have not had time, but have satisfied myself with 
some other observations and experiments on the presence of nitrates 
in the river water. In many instances indeed very distinct deflagration 
has been observed during ignition of the residue obtained by evapora- 
ting the water. This alone does not give good grounds for forming 
an opinion as to the quantity of the nitrate, as it may be masked or 
altogether obscured by an excessive proportion of other salts, as of 
common salt during the hot season. The presence of nitrites can 
also be observed by the blue colour produced with starch and iodide 
of potassium by the water acidulated. But as nitrites are simply 
imperfectly oxydised nitrates, the same observations apply to the 
former as have been made respecting the latter. 

* Journal of tlie Chemical Society, April, 1866. 



1866.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 220 

I had intended, and still intend, to estimate the quantity of nitric 
acid for the complete analysis originally contemplated ; but for the 
reasons just stated, I preferred, for the purpose of this communication 
to direct my attention to other points which appeared of greater 
importance. That of ammonia which has been just discussed was 
one of these, and a greater number of determinations of ammonia 
would have been made, but time did not permit : besides I wished 
first carefully to examine the ammonia process in order to ascertain 
the causes of the discrepancies already referred to, with a view to 
discover the precautions necessary to be taken to ensure more 
concordant results. 

Other nitrogenous matter. 

But ammonia and nitric acid are only the ultimate terms of the 
fermentative and oxydised decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter, 
and there may be much more present in all stages of decomposition 
intermediate between these and unchanged animal or vegetable 
constituents. The amount of these could be estimated by ascertaining 
the quantity of nitrogen they contain, but the operation is too trouble- 
some to be generally applied to such minute quantities of matter 
as exists in drinking waters. Animal matters in being ignited or 
burnt, as is well known, omit a peculiar smell, different from that 
produced by burning non- nitrogenous substances such as wood, and 
this has been used as an indication of the presence of, and even as a 
means of forming a judgment respecting the proportion of matter 
of animal origin. But it affords a very uncertain means of judging, 
as even corrupting vegetable matter gives a different smell from fresh, 
and the peculiar animal odour may be more or less obscured by the 
greater or less proportion of vegetable matter mixed with the animal. 
Besides the most characteristic smell given by burning animal matters 
is that produced by albuminous or gelatinous substances such as 
muscular fibre, blood, skin, or in short the undecomposed tissues of 
animal bodies in general. But these substances are probably not to 
be found in sewage except in small quantity, its constituents are 
more nearly of the nature of urine and other excrementitious animal 
matters and the sour products of vegetable decomposition : many of 
them are volatile and evaporate by a moderate heat with a peculiar 



230 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3, 

nauseous smell, but one not so characteristic as that produced by- 
burning horn or wool for instance. 

Nevertheless not to neglect any means of obtaining information on 
the subject, I not only, in the course of ascertaining the weight of 
organic matter by burning it off, paid attention to the appearances 
then presented, but afterwards made a few experiments on purpose. 
But with all I cannot concur in the satisfaction expressed by Dr. Angus 
Smith on the results, as quoted by Dr. Macnamara in his review of the 
pamphlet.* He speaks of the remarkably clear insight given by 
boiling down a few thousand grains of water and burning the residue. 
He says, " We can by the eye and the smell detect humous and peaty 
acids, nitrogenous organic substances, and nitrates, and estimate their 
amount to a very useful degree of accuracy. We may even decide 
by it the animal or vegetable origin of the matter." Now I have 
carefully evaporated down repeatedly quantities of 50,000 and 100,000 
grains of water and attended to these appearances, and the only 
conclusion I came to was, that the information obtained was very 
limited and unsatisfactory. I have also varied the experiment and 
instead of burning the matter in an open platinum crucible have heated 
it in a glass test tube. For some of the objects in view this is a 
better plan ; and I compared in this way samples of water of the rainy 
season, of the cold season, and of the hot season during flood tide. 
For the latter, which is a mixture of river and sea water it is necessary 
to mix the saline matter with some dry carbonate of soda, or better, to 
evaporate the water to dryness with this admixture, in order to prevent 
the evolution of hydrochloric acid vapours. The mouth of the tube is to- 
be loosely closed with a glass stopper which is removed from time to 
time to examine the smell and try with test papers. Examined in this 
way, all those samples gave some ammoniacal vapour with no very 
marked difference; all gave a somewhat urinous animal smell, but 
not one the characteristic smell of burning flesh or horn : there were 
slight variations, but none very distinct. The rainy season water gave 
more of the smell of burning vegetable matter than the others, this 
being the most distinctive point observed ; but altogether the informa- 
tion obtained was very small. 

After the failure of all these plans, there remained but one likely to 
* Indian Medical Gazette, April, 1866. 



1866.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 231 

be satisfactory, and that was to determine the amount of nitrogen 
existing in other forms than those of ammonia and nitric acid, this 
being the only way in which the amount of undecomposed or 
imperfectly decomposed animal matter can be estimated. The way in 
which this is usually done is by what is well known to chemists as the 
soda lime process, and depends on the circumstance that all such 
animal substances containing nitrogen (this not including nitric acid 
however), when heated to redness in contact with a hvdrated alkali, 
yield up all their nitrogen combined with hydrogen as ammonia, and 
this ammonia can by suitable arrangement be collected and its amount 
ascertained. I am not aware that this plan has been much applied 
to the examination of animal matter in waters, no doubt on account of 
the minute quantity of nitrogen present ; nevertheless it appeared to me 
that it might be modified so as to estimate it even in drinking water. 
I intended to have postponed the trial of this process altogether, as I 
had not time to make proper arrangements and test the accuracy of the 
plan. However I made three experiments in a rather hasty and 
crude manner with such means as I had at hand. They are not at all 
to be depended on, but I may give the results as obtained. 

River water of 2nd June, Ebb, from Chandernagore, containing very 
little tidal water. 100,000 grains gave .028 grains ammonia. 

River water of 21st August, Ebb, from Barnagore. 100,000 grains 
gave .030 grains ammonia. 

River water of May and June, Flood tide, from Barnagore. 100,000 
grains gave .010 grains ammonia. 

The results, as I have already said, are not to be depended on. Yet 
it cannot be denied that they are in accordance with the results 
obtained in other ways, respecting the organic matter. The ready 
formed ammonia existing in the water had of course been previously 
removed. 

In a practical point of view this portion of the subject is of the 
principal importance, as more than any other it bears on the question 
as to how far the river water is contaminated by the sewage oi 
Calcutta. Judging from the results obtained and just mentioned 
respecting ammonia and fixed nitrogenous organic matter, the amount. 
is not great : even at the highest tide at flood on the 14th June of 
this year, after twelve months of an unusually small amount of rain- 

29 



232 Mr. Wattle's investigations connected [No. 3, 

■fall, it is no worse as regards ready formed ammonia than the water of 
the rainy season ; and if the rough experiments on the other nitrogenous 
matter are to be trusted, it is no worse or not so bad even in this 
respect ; and comparing the results with the one observation quoted 
respecting the river Wandle as regards ammonia, the Hooghly water* 
even at the worst, has the advantage. In considering this point, 
it must be borne in mind that the refuse which Calcutta can yield 
must bear but a very insignificant proportion to the great volume of 
the waters of the Hooghly compared with that which a large English 
town will yield to an English river, and more particularly London to 
the Thames. And then the purifying influences here are so much 
more active that contaminating constituents are much more speedily 
destroyed ; nature with her all pervading oxygen, its power exalted 
by a tropical temperature, burning all up. The water of the stream 
in constant motion presents perpetually renewed surfaces to the 
atmosphere to absorb the great purifying agent, and the importance 
of this will perhaps be more clearly manifested by comparison with 
another class of waters with which I shall conclude this paper. 

Tank Waters. 
This class is the tank waters, a few of which I have made a partial 
examination of, for the purpose of comparison. These are General's tank,, 
near the entrance to Park Street ; Monohor Doss' tank, near that to 
Lindsay Street, both of them on the plain round the Fort ; Dalhousie 
Square tank, supplied by the river ; Cornwallis Square Tank, at the 
northern part of the town ; a newly cleaned and dug out tank at 
Dhurrumtollah (supplied by Mr. Dall) ; and a village tank near my 
own premises. Also I have examined slightly two well waters, and 
the water of the Salt Water Lake to the east of the town ; the results 
of all will be given in one table and a few remarks appended afterwards* 
The water of the two tanks from the plain in May and June had a 
slightly putrid flavour ; in August this was much less. Cornwallis 
Square tank was very low in May and putrid, had not increased very 
much in August and was still bad. The Dhurrumtollah tank was bad 
flavoured and abounded in vegetation ; the Barnagore tank in May and 
June was covered with a thick coat of floating vegetation, and was very 
dirty and bad smelled, quite unfit for use even by the villagers. In 
August during the rains its appearance improved somewhat. 



1866.] 



with the supply of water to Calcutta. 



233 



Table V. 

For 100,000 fluid 



grains. 





Date of col- 


Solid 


Organic 


Oxygen 


Ammo« 




lecting. 


matter. 


matter. 


reqd. to 


ma. 




1866. 






oxidise. 




General's Tank, 


6 June, 
14 Aug. 


12.05 


1.35 


.0825 
.1225 


.235 


Monohur Doss's Tank, 


14 May, 
6 June, 


24.60 


2.00 


.0913 
.1000 






14 Aug. 






.1400 


.204 


Dalhousie Square Tank, 


14 May, 


23.85 


1.50 








6 June, 


25.80 




.0750 




Cornwallis Square Tank, 












settled and veg. matter de- 












posited, 


14 May, 


58.00 


4.40 


.1550 




not settled, 


14 Aug. 




5.15 






Dhurrumtollah Tank, 


Aug. 






.2975 


.237 


Barnagore, 


11 May, 
8 June, 
17 Aug. 


51.00 


4.25 


.3170 
.2938 
.3375 




Dhurrumtollah well, 


Aug. 






.0725 




Barnagore well, 


18 Aug. 






.0900 




Salt Water Lake, 












from Canal at Dhappa Toll 












House, 


13 June, 


908.00 


20.00 


.1250 




Ditch conveying sewerage of 












Calcutta, 


1 June, 


295.80 


33.10 


5.680 




* Ditto, 


8 Sept. 




27.33 






* Ditto, 


13 Sept. 




22.25 







On examining this table, it will be observed that even the best tank 
water contains more organic matter by weight, and requires more 
oxygen to oxydise it than does the river water during ebb tide ; even 
Dalhousie Square water appears to deteriorate by being removed 
from the running stream into a stagnant reservoir. The excess of 
organic matter in the bad tanks is also very noticeable. The two 
well waters require more oxygen than the river water generally. 

* Added since the date of the paper* 



234 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 3 



The Salt Water Lake water did not require more oxygen than the 
tank waters.* 

I have little to add in the way of concluding remarks, as my object 
was not to report on any scheme or recommend any plan, but simply 
to communicate to a scientific society the results of numerous experi- 
ments and observations on a subject of practical importance. Some 
of these investigations are defective, but I intend to endeavour to 
remedy these defects by further investigation. And even after these 
are remedied, the results may indicate that there are yet other points 
o examine. There is work for the naturalist in the investigation of 
he animal and vegetable life in such waters, possibly exercising as 
great an influence on their salubrity as their chemical composition, 
Yet even this can only be aided by a full and accurate knowledge of 
their chemical constituents. There are also questions connected with 
the preservation and use of the water, and these too are more likely 
to be correctly answered, the more complete is our knowledge of the 
nature of its composition. 

But I may briefly sum up the conclusions arrived at with reference 
to the application of the Hooghly water to the supply of the wants of 
Calcutta. As regards its inorganic constituents, the Hooghly water 
taken near Calcutta is at least as pure as any of the waters supplied to 
London, or indeed generally more pure for about eight or nine months 
of the year ; during the hot season it is mixed with sea water under 
the influence of the tides and thereby rendered brackish. This can 
be avoided by taking the supply of water, from further up the river. 

As regards organic matter, again, my results, if correct, indicate that 
the state of the water seems to be worst during the rainy season, and 
that notwithstanding the influence of the tides and the sewerage of 
Calcutta, it is doubtful if even at the hottest part of the hot season in 
June its impurity equals that of the water during the rains ; and it is. 

* I have already stated that it was with considerable hesitation that I 
left the indications of the permanganate Test in table III. on account of the 
objections raised to their value : similar hesitation was felt as to inserting 
Table IV. and it was the indications given in Table V. which determined me 
to retain them. The same objections indeed apply to the results shewn by ifc, 
but this does not materially affect the purpose for which it is introduced. It 
will serve sufficiently well for purposes of general comparison, the trials for 
oxidizable matter and ammonia having been made at the same times on both 
river and tank waters, so that generally both kinds were of the same age or 
nearly so. More exact determinations will be made in future. 30th Nov. 1866.. 



1866.] with the supply ofivater to Calcutta. 235 

questionable if even in the nature or quality of the organic impurities 
it is worse. Now as it is not likely that during the rains the water 
is materially different at Barrackpore from what it is at Calcutta, there 
will be little or nothing gained by taking it from Barrackpore during 
these months, the chief advantage being therefore that the salt water 
of the hot season will be avoided. Still even as it is, there seems to 
be no better source ; for the organic impurities of the tank waters, 
even the best of them, seem at least equal in amount to those of the 
river water during flood tide, and greater than the same during ebb tide. 
And so far as a judgment can be formed from the means of comparison 
within reach, the water during the rains probably contains less 
organic impurity than the London waters.* 

Such are the conclusions I have arrived at, some of them unexpected 
even to myself, and which may be disputed by others. They are of 
course open to criticism and discussion. They may be suggestive of 
other things possibly of practical application, but into these I have 
not yet had time to enter. 

* I have much doubt upon these points, as much of the organic matter of the 
rainy season is probably adherent to the finely divided mud in suspension in 
the water, which is so difficult to separate. With a view to t ho use of the 
water, the point would require to bo investigated in connection with the process 
to be employed for the purification of the water. Judgment may be consi- 
dered suspended on them, moro particularly on that of the purity of tho water 
oi' the best tanks at all seasons of the year, and of the nature and amount of 
the organic matter of the river water during the rainy season. Further remarks 
will be made on these subjects in subsequent communications. 30th Nov. 1866. 



vol asv r\ u 




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HORIZONTAL SECTION oftbe ZEEAWAN SPUR 

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Vol XXXV Y\ ] 
Section D 



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Level of the JheeJjjjn, about- S2SO icel above the Sea-, 
SECTION across the Spur of the KAMLAWAN ahove the Village of MURHAMMA, 



Jounul As. Soo. Vol XXXV PI 11. 
St a! IV of 



Scale/ Qnv Inch.—* 500 Fufr- or eoco 



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J TJ E N A L 

OF THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY. 

Part II.— 1866. 

SPECIAL NUMBER. 

ETHNOLOGY. 

CONTENTS. 

ETHNOLOGY OF INDIA, BY MR. JUSTICE CAMPBELL. 

Introductory. 

General remarks, 
' Points recommended for observation, 
' General divisions, ... #># -.o 

The Aborigines. 

General description, ... 

Main divisions, 

Southerri 6r Dravidian tribes, 

Northern or Kolarian tribes, ... 

Tribes of Western India, 

*** •• • ••• **v 

Tribes under the Himalayas, ... ... 45 

The < Bhooyas' of the Bengal borders, ... ][\ 51 

Question regarding the Brahuis, ... ##> 54 

The Modern Indians. 

The Bramins or Khashas, ... ... ### 5g 

TheJats, ... ... ttt <#< ^ 

The Rajpoots, ... .., # gr 

The Koonbees or Koormees, ... 00 

borne Punjab tribes, ... ... ... o 5 

Mahommedan settlers, ... q q 

Pastoral tribes, Goojars, Aheers, &c. } ... 101 



Page 
1 

8 



20 
25 
34 
30 
40 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY 

STJPLEMENTARY NUMBER. 

Vol, XXXV. Part IL 



The Ethnology of India. — By Mr. Justice Campbell. 
[Received 4th June, 1866.] 
I trust that the great subject of Indian Ethnology has been taken 
up by the Society in a serious and earnest manner, with a view to 
that actual observation and practical inquiry which is only possible 
in the countries and on the spots where the various races are found, or 
where specimens of them may be collected together. The Govern- 
ment has already consented to take the first step in aid of the move- 
ment by collecting from its officers, in all parts of India, lists of the 
races and classes existing in the various districts. The present paper 
is designed to assist both Government officers and private persons in 
making classified and descriptive lists in such a uniform manner, and 
with such a uniform nomenclature and arrangement, that it may be 
afterwards possible to weld together the whole of the information thus 
obtained. Without some common plan and nomenclature, without, as 
it were, some Ethnological skeleton to serve as the guide and model 
into which the various details may be fitted, and by which they may 
be classed, I fear that there may be much confusion and error in 
bringing together lists which must necessarily often be made by offi- 
cials who have little knowledge of Ethnology as a science, and whose 
practical knowledge and nomenclature are limited to their own par- 
ticular parts of India. My object then is, to supply a sort of rough 



2 Tlie Ethnology of India. 

hand book of existing information on the subject, particularly as re- 
gards the North of India, and my hope is, that such a guide may 
render much more easy, intelligible, and uniform, the collection of a 
mass of details, which will render our knowledge ample and complete. 
It happens that my personal experience has been wider than that of 
most officers ; I have also travelled much in those parts of India in which 
I have not served, and have made the people a constant subject of 
observation and inquiry. I have farther, for some time past, noted the 
information on this subject which I could collect from books. And 
lastly, I have received much aid in my inquiries from many kind 
friends. During a late visit to the Punjaub frontier, I was under 
great obligations to many of the officers employed there, and feel that 
I can always look for assistance in that quarter. Recent papers by 
Colonel Dalton T Commissioner of the Chota-Nagpore territories, have 
given much information respecting several of the tribes of that locality 
of which T have made free use, and I had looked also to use another 
paper on the Coles promised by Colonel Dalton. It has not been 
received, but I hope that it will soon add to the information which 
I am now able to give. During a tour in the Bombay Presidency, I 
was fortunate enough to make the acquaintance and to obtain the 
assistance of Mr. Perceval of the Civil Service there, since Private 
Secretary to His Excellency Sir B. Frere, and through Mr. Perceval 
I have received a series of very interesting notes on the aborigines of 
that part of India by Captain Probyn, Major Keatinge, Mr. Ash- 
burner, Mr. Probert, and the Rev. Messrs. Moore and Taylor, con- 
taining information not elsewhere procurable. During a former tour 
in the Mysore country and in some of the Madras districts adjoining, I 
received much kind assistance, and Mr. Bowring has since been good 
enough to point out to me some very interesting additional informa- 
tion. With respect, however, to the Telinga country, and the extreme 
South of India, I have not been fortunate enough to obtain all the 
information that I could desire. 

It will be understood, moreover, that as respects every part of India, 
I by no means profess to give a complete sketch. I have not the 
necessary information, and have not time for the necessary study to 
enable me to attempt that. Indeed, in this as in so many other things, 
the more one learns, the more one sees one's ignorance and the vast 



Tlie Ethnology of India. 3 

amount of inquiry that still remains. I only desire to tell so much as 
I know, and to suggest points on which inquiry is desirable. Although 
I have always been much interested in the people, I have usually not 
had time and opportunity to commit all that I have observed to 
writing ; it is in fact only of late years that I have in some degree 
clone so. I am obliged therefore frequently to use such expressions 
as ' I think,' not because I do not speak from personal observation, 
but because, writing from memory, I must give my impressions subject 
to the chance of error. In attempting too so wide and general a 
subject without great opportunities of study, I am at every turn liable 
to error. I would at once avow that I warrant nothing, even when 
I do not specially qualify my phrases. I only give my impressions 
for what they are worth. It is true that it would have been possi- 
ble to verify many doubtful points, to fill up many gaps, and to solve 
some difficulties which occur to me in writing this paper, by farther 
enquiries in the proper quarters ; but looking to the character of my 
paper, as an avowedly imperfect sketch, designed to elicit the infor- 
mation which may afterwards render possible something more com- 
plete, I have preferred not to delay, but to give what I now can, as I 
now can. In truth, my object is to suggest our deficiencies, to point 
to them, and to prospect the quarters where valuable strata of in- 
formation may be found. I shall say what I have to say in the most 
simple and least technical form— in a rough and unpolished way. 

My philological acquirements are very deficient. As respects South- 
ern India, Dr. Caldwell, by his comparative grammar, has made com- 
parison easy. But there is no such synthetical account of the Northern 
languages. The character of each can only be separately learned. 
The Rev. Mr. Trump has done much for the languages of the extreme 
North West, but as respects the characteristics of Bengallee, Maratta, 
Guzeratee, &c. when compared to Hindee and Punjabee, I find no 
easy guide, and have not been able to acquire any adequate knowledge. 
— Cashmiree is still scarcely known at all. We very much want such 
an account of the languages of the North as Dr. Caldwell has given 
us for the South. 

In the mere matter of nomenclature, it is surprising how much 
confusion arises, both from calling the same tribes by different names, 
■and also from calling different tribes by the same name. The former 



4 The Ethnology, of India. 

error can only be met by explaining in detail the tribes variously 
known in various localities ; but in respect to the latter, some general 
caution seems necessary. It often happens that the same term is 
applied both to a Tribe or Caste, and to the profession usually exer- 
cised by that caste, and that while in one sense the term is proper 
to the caste, whether exercising the same or any other profession, in 
another sense it is applied to all exercising the profession, whether of 
the same or of any other caste. For instance, in the greater part of the 
Punjaub, the great agricultural tribe is the Jat, and there the words 
1 Jat' and ' Zemeendar' have come to be used by the people as 
almost synonymous. A man who is asked of what caste he is, will 
reply ' a Zemeendar,' meaning a Jat. And, vice versa, a Punjabee 
will sometimes call a man a Jat, meaning only that he is a Zemeendar. 
When I pressed some of the servants of the Maharajah of Cashmere 
regarding the Ethnology of the valley of the Upper Indus and other 
little known parts, I was at first much puzzled by finding them de- 
clare that the great mass of the people there are ' Jats,' but I pre- 
sently discovered that they meant merely Zemcendars or cultivators, 
there being in fact no Jats within the Hills. In the West and South 
too, I believe that the terms ' Koonbee' and ' Wocal' are used both 
to designate certain agricultural tribes, and cultivators generally ; so 
that while " the Wocals are by the Mahommedans called Koonbees," 
that circumstance gives no assurance that the tribes are the same. 
The term Bunneah or Banian is properly applied to the great trading 
caste, but it also means a trader, and is often so applied. Again in 
India religious denominations are often applied in a way which con- 
founds them with proper tribal denominations. The character of the 
Hindoo religion is such that it is a pretty safe Ethnological guide, 
converts not being ordinarily received. Mahommedan and other pro- 
selytising religions, on the other hand, are no guide in Ethnology ; on 
the contrary, the Mahommedan Laws of Marriage and Legitimacy are 
such as to tend very much to efface Ethnological demarcations. For 
our purposes therefore, Mahommedan denominations may be entirely 
put aside. But the mere fact, that people are Mahommedans, should 
not deter us from seeking their Tribal denominations in the back 
ground. Many Mahommedan tribes still retain their Hindoo caste 
names, some Hindoo laws, and something of caste exclusiveness. 



The Ethnology of India. 5 

Though not so pure or characteristic as their Hindoo brethren, many 
Mussulman Rajpoots and Jats are just as well known as such as the 
Hindoos; while many whole tribes have become Mahommedans with- 
out changing their tribal designations and occupations. Most of the 
modern Sikhs in no way separate from their tribes, and are known as 
1 Jat,' or ' Khatrie,' or ' Brainan Sikhs,' one member of a family 
being frequently a * Sing,' while others are not. Jains, I believe, 
are not ethnologically distinguished from Hindoos. Among the Bun- 
neahs, it appears that some are Hindoos and some Jains, in the same 
tribes and sections of tribes. Very puzzling in the South is the term 
1 Lingaiyat' applied to those Ultra- Si vi tea who wear the Lingam, who 
seem almost to form a caste, and who are generally spoken of as such. 
So far, however, as I can gather, the term is really a mere religious 
denomination, and the Lingaiyats are of various castes, which should 
be distinguished. 

In all inquiries then, great care is necessary in sifting out tribal, as 
distinguished from mere professional and religious denominations. 
When we arrive at proper tribal titles, it is farther desirable to in- 
quire into the aliases or varieties of title often possessed by the tribes; 
for it may happen that while an obscure local title is in the most 
common use, another, less frequently used, will at once indicate iden- 
tity with some well known and widely spread caste. 

It is also very necessary to attend to the distinctions between great 
caste titles, and the sub-divisions of those castes. All the great 
castes have numerous gotes or sub-divisions ; and when a man is asked 
to what caste he belongs, he will sometimes give the name of the 
general, and sometimes of the special caste or gote. Some of these 
sub-divisions really are or may be ethnological sub-divisions, others, 
from the peculiarity of Hindoo laws, are not so. On the principle 
which forbids the marriage of relations (carried by Hindoos to an 
extreme) men of the Rajpoot and other castes cannot marry in their 
own ' gotes,' but must seek their wives in other gotes. In blood 
therefore such castes really form but one race — so far at least as the 
intermarriages are carried — for there are many tribes claiming to be 
Rajpoots whom the higher tribes will not recognize. Of other castes, 
the primary sub-divisions keep altogether apart. I apprehend that 
under the general term ' Bunneah,' are to be found many separate 



8 The Ethnology of India. 

tribes who would on no account eat together or intermarry. I think, 
however, that throughout all the great Hindoo castes, a strong ethno- 
logical resemblance exists. I do not propose in this sketch to at- 
tempt to notice the sub-divisions, except in any case in which they 
may suggest marked ethnological features. 

The details of Rajpoot and Bramin heraldry and hierology have 
been amply given in several excellent works, and I shall touch on 
nothing of that kind. 

A caution which seems to me to be necessary is, that the accounts of 
their origin given by many tribes, and especially by their Chiefs, must 
be received in a very guarded way, because there is a great tendency 
to invent origins illustrious in the eyes of men of the races and reli- 
gions to which they belong. Among the Hindoos, the Rajpoot rule 
is so famous, that almost all tribes which have taken to soldiering or 
acquired power, pretend to a Rajpoot origin. At this day, some of the 
followers of Maratta Chiefs have the impudence to tell strangers that 
they are really Rajpoots, as if their origin was not matter of the most 
recent history ; and almost all the aboriginal tribes who have risen to 
any power (or at least the chief families among them) affect a Raj- 
poot descent. As Colonel Dalton describes it, they are undergoing a 
gradual process of ' refining into Rajpoots, a process probably founded 
on a very small Rajpoot immigration and alliance, and a very large 
amount of invention. Even the Jats and other tribes who need 
hardly descend to such stories, frequently make themselves out to be 
Rajpoots who have been separated from the orthodox for some loose- 
ness of practice ; but my impression is, that most of these stories are 
quite idle. Even acknowledged Rajpoots of the North- Western hills 
who are, in an Ethnological point of view, a much finer and purer race 
than any in the plains, assert that their ancestors came from Ajoodea 
or Oude. So in Cashmere, the Bramins there, whose mere features at 
once proclaim them to be one of the highest and purest races in the 
world, instead of adopting the more ancient and better traditions 
which would point to their country as the common origin of the 
Bramin races of India, prefer the story that when Kashyapa dried up 
the Lake (a geological fact patent even to Hindoos) detachments of 
all the most famous and most sacred of the different Bramin classes 
were brought into Cashmere, who, amalgamating, formed the present 



The Ethnology of India. 7 

Cashmeeree Bramins. The real cause of all these stories, I take to be 
this. The Hindoos, as Hindoos and from an orthodox Hindoo point 
of view, did not attain their highest religious, literary, and political 
development, till they were settled in the plains of India ; consequently 
the early Bramins of the valleys of the Himalayas are not considered 
nearly so orthodox, so sacred, or in the Hindoo scale so high, as the 
more famous Bramins of the plains. And the Rajpoots of the Pun- 
jab and the adjoining hills, are not so high in the scale of strict 
Rajpoot orthodoxy as the Solar and Lunar races of Ajoodea. 
Hence it is that the races, really earlier and purer, think it necessary 
to claim descent from those who, in our point of view, are really very 
inferior. 

Again, most tribes which have been for many centuries converted 
to Mahommedanism, set up some origin founded on the traditions and 
literature of the dominant Mahommedan races. They are generally 
descended from Soleiman or Nooshervan, or something of that kind. 
Jewish names and traditions are particularly in vogue among the 
Mahommedans (Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, and many others known to 
us, are their most common names, in the form of Ibraheem, Yacoob, 
Yoosoof, &c. &c.) and it has been pointed out, that the Affghan asser- 
tion of Jewish descent loses most of its significance, when we find 
how many other tribes have stories of the same kind. I have not been 
able to ascertain whether the " Soleiman's Throne" met with in so 
many places is to be specially referred to the Jewish Solomon, or 
whether the term is merely the " Suleh-man" or wise man of the East. 
At any rate I believe that most of the pretended Mahommedan 
genealogies are in brief ' bosh.' 

I do not mean that popular traditions are to be neglected, on the 
contrary, I think that they often lead us far towards the truth ; but I say 
that we must use caution and discrimination, to sift the wheat from 
the merest chaff. 

I should add that I believe that the claim of aboriginal and other 
tribes to Rajpoot and such like origin, is not always without some 
foundation in fact. The Rajpoots seem, like the Normans, to have 
frequently found their way in small numbers among inferior races, and 
there amalgamating and intermarrying with them, to have acquired 
by force of character a leadership over them, and to have considerably 



8 The Ethnology of India. 

raised tlie position of such tribes. There is, I think, a good deal 
to suggest that during the various invasions of Southern India by a 
succession of Northern ' Yavanas,' small tribes of these latter may have 
taken up their position in difficult parts of the country, and there, 
amalgamating with the aboriginal tribes, have formed half-breed races 
of much robber-like and semi-military energy. 

Before going farther, I would suggest the following as especially 
deserving the attention of those who are willing to aid in a popular 
way in classing the various tribes and castes in India. 

1. Physical appearance. The three main types, Caucasian, Mon- 
golian, and Negro or Negrito, are well-known. In India we have, in 
the extreme North, the finest and purest Caucasian type, the handsomer 
and more open form of that which we know as the Jewish cast of 
countenance ; fine head and features, high brow and nose, long beard, 
tall, lithe, powerful figure, colour generally light. Throughout India, 
we have this type modified and subdued by every variety of straight and 
snub nose and plebeian features, much as in Europe, and with a dark 
skin unknown in Europe. Sometimes the skin becomes very black, 
and the lips are thick and protuberant ; there may be marked the 
infusion of blood of the Negrito type which probably modifies the 
higher phase of the Caucasian type, even when actual Negrito features 
cannot be traced. 

This Negrito type we find in India not accompanied with the 
muscular form of many Africans, but in a small slight race. The 
principal points to be marked, in addition to colour, are the lips, already 
alluded to, shape of face, nose, and eyes, presence or absence of a 
considerable beard, character of the hair. 

Among the Thibetans and Nipalese we have extreme examples of 
the type which I call generically Mongolian. The eyes particularly 
there is no mistaking. The hair is straight. The colour is yellowish, 
but never dark. 

2. Language is liable to disturbances, and has been perhaps too 
much taken as a sure guide, but it is always of great assistance, and 
in 19 cases out of 20 tells a true tale. In practice I think that no 
considerable philological acquirements are necessary to enable an ob- 
server to make most useful observations of a language quite unknown 
to him, if he can only get the rudest interpreter. There are certain 



The Ethnology of India, 9 

Words which may almost be taken as unfailing tests in classifying lan- 
guage ; for instance, the first few numerals, the names for the com- 
monest parts of the human body — as hand, foot, nose, eyes, mouth 
head, &c— the names of the commonest family relations — father, 
mother, brother, sister — sun and moon, fire and water — the personal 
pronouns, and one or two others. I shall try to add to this paper 
some of Mr. Hodgson's lists. I do not know that they are all the 
best selected words, but they are uniform lists of different languages 
in parallel columns, and will enable any observer to determine on the 
spot whether the savage he has caught, prima facie, seems to belong 
to one or other of the classes represented in the columns. I shall 
also make a smaller list of English words, a translation of which I 
would recommend to be sent with each account of a tribe or race, 
speaking a language in any degree peculiar. 

It should be observed that it may not un frequently happen that 
men who seem to speak but a rough jargon of some well known lan- 
guage may, on close observation, be found to use peculiar terms for 
some of the most familiar objects, and that these latter may be inva- 
luable as containing the remnants of their original language, all but ab- 
sorbed in another which they have for the most part adopted. Especially 
will such words be valuable, if they can be in any degree identified with 
those in any of the Aboriginal Vocabularies. 

Grammatical structure is somewhat more difficult of observation, and 
so far as I know, the general structural character of all the modern 
Indian languages is in a considerable degree similar. I mean that 
there is no such radical difference of formation as there is between 
Hindee and Arabic. But those who can give a little attention to the 
subject, might supply small grammars of declension, conjugation, and 
derivation, which would be eminently useful. And on the Eastern 
Frontier, the distinction between Indian and Indo-Chinese grammatical 
forms might probably be readily marked. 

3. Religion. There is so much similarity in the religions of so 
many rude tribes, that there may be doubt whether such worship as 
that of the Sun, Moon, and the lord of Tigers represents a wide spread 
religion, or merely a coincidence of very obvious ideas repeated again 
and again ; but it is worth noticing these ideas, in the hope that some 



10 TJie Ethnology of India. 

substantial inductions may be formed from putting together many 
observations. 

And among the more civilised races, I think it not improbable that 
an accurate observation of the prevalence of Sivite and Vishnuite ideas 
respectively, among particular tribes and castes, may be found to have 
an ethnological significance. I cannot help thinking that these two 
forms of modern Hinduism may in fact represent entirely different 
religions derived from widely different sources, and that while the 
Vishnuite faith came from the north, the Sivite may have had some 
other origin, and may be the special property of races which of old 
peculiarly affected it. Sivite monuments certainly seem to be marks 
of a very old faith in the greater part of India, and the essential 
element of it, the reverence for and deification of the procreative power, 
seems to be the same idea of natural progression which is carried on 
by the Buddhist doctrine of gradual perfectibility (raising man almost 
to the rank of a god) in opposition to the Vishnuite or Vedic creed of 
a separate creation of gods and their occasional incarnation in the 
form of man. If then pure Sivites, Buddhists, and Jains are in some 
way connected, and they all prevail most in the West, who are those 
who brought their doctrines there ? and whence did they come ? 

4. Laws. I believe that, laws are among the most persistent 
ethnological marks, and that, as such, they have been too much ne- 
glected. Caste, and Marriage as a sacrament strictly limited by 
caste, seem to be Arian institutions. Arian are strict rules of inhe- 
ritance, resulting from that sacred form of marriage and subject to none 
of the caprices of Mahommedan and similar laws. Arian is the pri- 
vate property in land, as distinguished from the Tribal ; the property 
first of the village — then of the family — then of the individual ; and a 
consequence is, the attachment of the Arian to his native soil. Espe- 
cially Arian is the form of what we call constitutional, as opposed 
to patriarchal and arbitrary government. The Indian village or Com- 
mune is a constitutional unit, common to all the Arians. A main 
distinction, as I think, between two great classes of Arians is to be 
traced in the constitution of these Communes- — Aristocratic among 
the one — among the other democratic, and recognizing as equals all 
free citizens, to. the exclusion of Helots only. 

Among the non- Arians, on the other hand, the rule of the Chiefs 






The Ethnology of India. 11 

seems to be patriarchal and arbitrary— property in the soil is tribal 
rather than individual. There is little loeal attachment to the soil, 
he aboriginal tribes of India move from place to place, abandoning 
one location and taking up another in a light way; they are even 
ready to give up their land, to become labourers, and to emigrate in a 
way to which the Arians are by no means prone. They seem to 
have among themselves no caste, they eat anything and every thing. 
Marriage is, I fancy, but a loose tie. On all these points, however, we 
want much information. 

5. Manners and mental characteristics. Under this I must in- 
clude so much that I cannot attempt to detail it. Suffice it to say, 
that any information regarding the temperament and bearing, the 
intelligence, the customs and habits, the amusements and the cere- 
monies of little known tribes, may be in many ways most useful. 

It is patent in India to the most superficial observer that, owing to 
the peculiar institution of castes, mere vicinage (even lasting many 
hundred years) has not, as in Europe, led to the welding of different 
races and tribes into proper local nationalities : that, in fact, in the 
same locality many different races exist together without complete 
intermixture, while a single race may frequently be traced through 
many different provinces and countries, always retaining its own pecu- 
liarities under a great variety of circumstances and in contact with 
many varying races. On the other hand, language can never be 
exclusive, it must be the means of inter-communication between man 
and man, caste and caste, without distinctions of race or creed. 
Hence, however much by religion and race a tribe may be segregated, 
if it be politically and to a great extent socially united with other 
peoples, it almost always in the end adopts their language, or a com- 
mon language is formed by intermixture. That is the ordinary state 
of Indian society. In the business of life, the different castes are 
united in one society ; some are in the upper, some in the lower strata ; 
one is the lord, another the priest, another the free cultivator, ano- 
ther the hewer of wood and drawer of water ; but still they form one 
social whole. Farther, although the rules of caste and marriage may 
hinder the inter-communication of blood, it cannot but be that in 
the long course of time, during which different tribes live in the 
closest intercourse, there must be some irregular percolation from one 



12 Tlie Ethnology of India. 

to the other ; in the course of thousands of years, something of the 
blood and features of one will be infiltrated into the other. 

Thus it has happened that in India there is a sort of double classi- 
fication of the people, similar to that which we sometimes see in 
rocks in which there is a double stratification, one line of strata 
running say horizontally, and another line crossing the same rock 
say vertically. When we trace a tribe or caste from one Province to 
another, we shall find that in some things it retains the class charac- 
ter, in others it varies according to provincial character, the latter 
chiefly prevailing in point of language. 

I propose to trace, so far as I can, the different tribes and classes 
throughout India, irrespective of local nationalities, and to some extent 
irrespective of language. I had thought that I might after wards, when 
that is completed, remark on the quasi-nationalities created by the 
use of special languages and the social specialities of particular pro- 
vinces ; but I find that our information is as yet so imperfect, that I 
prefer to leave this latter task to another day. I shall merely 
make some casual remarks on language and a few other national 
features, as they occur in the course of my narrative. 

Till we have accomplished an Ethnological Geography, whether 
Tribal or National, I shall for the most part use the ordinary terms of our 
Modern Political Geography, and speak of the Punjab and Scinde, 
Bengal and Mysore. But for facility of reference, I must make one 
or two explanations. I shall speak of Hindustan and the Hindu- 
stanees as the terms are applied by the natives, to the whole of the 
great Central region of Northern India from the Punjab on one side 
to Bengal on the other, and from the Himalayas to the Southern de- 
clivities of the Satpoora Bange running across India in about the 
parallel of 22° Lat. I include in Hindustan, Bahar, (confining the 
term of Bengal to Bengal Proper) as well as Oude, Rajpootana, and 
Malwa. South of Hindustan to the West is the Maratta country, which 
may be roughly indicated as bounded by a line drawn from Nagpore 
to G-oa. And farther South are the Southern countries, sometimes 
called Dravidian, first the Telinga or Telugu country to the East, the 
Canarese to the West ; beyond them again the Tamil country to the 
East, the Malabar or Malayala country to the West. 

As respects the physical features of these countries, it will be remem- 



The Ethnology of India. 13 

bered that the whole of Bengal proper, the N. W. Provinces and 
Oude, the Punjab and Scinde, with part of the adjoining desert coun- 
try, form a great semi-circular plain in which there is no place of 
refuge (with little exception) for remains of aboriginal races ; in all 
these countries the modern races live together as one social whole. 
But throughout Central and Peninsular India, while the most open 
plains and best cultivated parts of the country are similarly inhabited, 
there are scattered about, over every province, hills and jungles giving 
cover to aboriginal tribes which hold themselves aloof from the 
general population, and arc very different in language, manners and 
other particulars. 

It is well known that the great plain is bounded on the north by 
the line of the Himalayas, rising almost suddenly in great and rugged 
height, but yet habitable for a considerable distance inland before the 
snows are reached. That boundary is bo uniform that more need not 
be said respecting it, except as regards the northern extremity of 
India. There the plain is not at once succeeded by the Himalaya. 
The range called the Salt Range runs across from Jhelum to Kala- 
Bagh on the Indus, and thence to the Affghan mountains, cutting off 
as it were and enclosing a sort of triangle, and supporting a somewhat 
elevated country something of the character of the Peninsular portion 
of India, and lying between this Salt Range and the Himalaya. The 
Salt Range, it will be presently seen, is an Ethnological boundary 
of some interest. 

I now commence my survey according to Tribes and Castes. 

First, I take as a great division the black aboriginal tribes of the 
interior hills and jungles. There can, I suppose, be no doubt that 
they are the remnants of the race which occupied India before the 
Hindus. I need not here go into any question, whether any portion 
of them had received any civilization from any other source. It is 
enough that all these tribes have many ethnological features in com- 
mon. They are evidently the remains of an element, the greater 
portion of which has been absorbed by, and amalgamated with, the 
modern Indian race, and which, mixed in various degrees with the 
high-featured immigrants, has contributed to form the Hindoo of 
to-day. In the South their speech still forms the basis of the modern 
languages. If proof were wanting that the predominance of Caucasian 



14 The Ethnology of India. 

features lias been attained, in a great part of India, but gradually, and 
that it is within the historical period that these features have alto- 
gether preponderated, it is only necessary to look at the ancient 
sculptures of the South and West. Take for instance the caves of 
Elephanta near Bombay. Who, looking at the faces there cut in stone, 
and observing the universal thick lip and peculiar feature, can doubt 
that when those were cut, the non-Caucasian element was still large 
even among the higher classes ? 

My scheme, however, is not to separate any of the tribes or castes 
of modern Indian society, and to designate them as aboriginal. All 
those people who have been either completely or partially amalga- 
mated into Hindoo society, whether as proper Hindoos or as Helots 
and outcasts, I regard as coming within the designations of ' Modern 
Indians.' I shall class as Aborigines only those tribes which still live 
apart, forming communities by themselves, under their own leaders, 
and often speaking their own peculiar languages. 

As Modern Indians again I class together all the high-featured 
northern races, and all the various tribes, castes, and nationalities 
formed by them after absorbing so much of the aboriginal element 
as has been amalgamated with them, whether they are now Hindoos, 
Mahommedans, or of any other religion. Of course they are mainly 
Hindoos. I draw no wide ethnological line between the Northern 
and Southern countries of India, not recognising the separate Dravidian 
classification of the latter as properly ethnological. It seems to me 
that among all the Hindoo tribes the Arian element now prevails, and 
that the presence, more or less, of the aboriginal element is only a 
question of degree. As a question of degree, I do not think that 
there is, at any geographical parallel, any decided line. It is remarked 
by Max Muller that languages are seldom properly speaking mixed. 
Vocables may be mixed, but a single grammar and structure usually 
prevails. Therefore the change from one language to another must 
in so far be sudden. It is still, I believe, open to dispute whether 
the grammar of the present languages of Northern India is of Sanscrit 
or of Aboriginal origin ; but at any rate this we know, that in the North 
the Arians gained so rapid and complete an ascendancy as to introduce 
their own radical words, numerals, &c, and to render the language 
essentially Avian, while in the South the Aborigines held out 



The Ethnology of India, 15 

longer, the tide of Avian immigration was more gradual, and 
the Aboriginal grammar and radicals formed the mould which 
was only filled up by a large over-lay of Arian words. The 
change then of language takes place, where passing southwards we 
exchange the Maratta for Telugu and Canarese. But looking at 
the people, we see no radical change of feature or characteristics. The 
last of those who are more properly Arian in language, are not essen- 
tially superior to the first of those whose language is by its structure 
classed as Dravidian. The Marattas who are classed as Northerners 
(though they probably take their name and much of their blood from 
the aboriginal Mliars and such like tribes, whose features survive in 
their monuments) have no decided advantage over their Canarese 
neighbours ; on the contrary, the Canarese of Belgaum and Dharwar 
are deemed superior to the Marattas of the adjoining districts. And 
to a traveller in Mysore and most of the Southern countries, the 
general features and appearance of the people is, I think, not very 
greatly less Arian than that of the lower classes of Ilindustanees. 
The truth I take to be, not only that in a mixture of races there is a 
tendency of the higher, more marked, and more prominent type to 
predominate, but also that it may well be that, although the people 
speaking a Dravidian language in the South, may always by force of 
numbers have linguistically prevailed over each separate batch of 
immigrants, and so far annexed them, still by successive immigra- 
tions, notwithstanding a Dravidian form of speech, the Arian blood 
has come in reality greatly to prevail. The mere fact that they 
are recognised as Orthodox Hindoos, seems to imply the Northern 
origin of all the better castes in the South, and that is their own 
account of their origin. I have no doubt that the Southern Hindoos 
may be generally classed as Arians, and that the Southern society is 
in its structure, its manners, and its laws and institutions an Arian 
society. After all, in their main characteristics, the Southern people 
are very like those of the North. 

Among some of the inferior tribes of the South, the remains of the 
thick lips, the very black skin, and other features may, as I have said, 
still be traced, but, colour perhaps excepted, the aboriginal features 
are probably gradually wearing away. 

Notwithstanding the identity in the main of the North and the 



16 The Ethnology of India, 

South, it will be seen when I come to details, that the change of 
language very much puzzles and baffles me in the attempt to 
trace the tribes and castes from North to South, and in fact causes 
a substantial gap in the contiguity of my survey, which I trust 
that others will fill. To return to a geological metaphor, there 
is as it were a serious fault at the point where the change of 
languages takes place. A similar series of strata goes on upon 
the other side, but I can't exactly identify the particular veins and 
say which is which. The same series of classes with similar cha- 
racteristics prevail in the South, and, knowing that they must have 
come from the North in a continuous stream, one feels sure that they 
must be identical with Northern congeners. It remains for those 
who have an intimate knowledge of the country on either side of the 
Fault to connect the broken links. Meantime, with the exception 
of the Bramins (who may be traced all through India), I must notice 
the people of the Southern countries separately. 

Commonly as the term is used, it may be well to say a word 
in justification of the use of the term ' Arians' as applied to all 
the Northern people. Not only are they known by the South- 
erners as Aiyas, (see Buchanan,) but in fact I believe the term to 
be the correct one. I am aware that some have set down the Jats 
and others as Scythians and Turanians. I have no intention of quar- 
relling with any one who chooses to call them Scythians, for that is 
a very wide and uncertain word, which may have been applied to 
Germans as well as to Jats. But if the word Turanian is applied to 
Punjabees, in the sense of expressing that branch of the human race 
which we call Mongolian, the squat, flat-faced, peculiar eyed, beardless 
people of Central, Northern, and Eastern Asia, then I say that 
the term is wholly inapplicable. Anything more unlike Mongols 
than the tall, handsome, high featured, long bearded Punjabees it 
is impossible to imagine. To say, on the strength of some obscure 
similarity of names, that any of these people are Mongols and 
Tartars, is not only as unfounded as the connection between Mon- 
mouth and Macedon, but is opposed to the most palpable physical 
facts. It would be about as reasonable to say that the people of 
Tamworth are really Negroes of Timouctoo, because Tarn and Tim 
are clearly the same word. An Englishman is not more unlike a 
Negro, than a Punjabee is unlike a Mongol. 



The Ethnology of India. 17 

Assuming then that the North-Indians are what we call Caucasian 
in feature, the only question would be whether they may be in any 
degree Semitic. This there seems to be no ground for supposing ; 
there is no radical trace of Semitic language, and we nowhere trace any 
considerable immigration by land of Arabian or other Semitic tribes. 
That being so, I hope that I may properly call the North-Indians 
Arums, and extend the title to all those Indians in whom Arian 
features predominate, even where they have been softened down and 
otherwise qualified by intermixture. 

Although I believe any division of the Northern tribes in India 
into Arian and Turanian to be quite out of place, I have long had 
an impression that the result of a thorough examination may be to 
divide the Indian Arians into two classes \ the earlier Arians, the de- 
scendants of the most ancient Hindus, a people acute, literary, skilled 
in arts, but not very warlike, and rather aristocratic than demo- 
cratic in their institutions ; and the later Arians, warlike people — pos- 
sibly once Scythians — democratic in their institutions, and rather 
energetic than refined and literary. War does not seem to have been 
one of the earliest arts ; we are told that the earliest Egyptians have left 
little in their monuments which suggests that art, and it may be that 
the earliest Hindus had little occasion for it, meeting with but simple 
and peaceful savages. The later Arians appear, in my view, in their 
manners and institutions more nearly to resemble the Grerman tribes, and 
perhaps to them might more properly be applied the term Indo- Germanic. 
The earliest Hindus appear to have had an intimate connection with 
the hills immediately adjoining India on the North-west, and there may 
well have been gradual immigration from the hills to the plains. But 
at a later period, when the people in possession of the North of India 
had acquired considerable power, it seems hardly possible that large 
bodies of conquering immigrants should have found their way to India 
by Cabul and the Khyber Pass. Those defiles are far too difficult to 
be forced by strangers in large bodies accompanied by women and 
children. The Affghans, and those who have ruled the Affghans, have 
had the command of the direct route ; but if Rajpoots, Jats &c. came 
as immigrant peoples, they probably came by the route of the Bolan, 
occupying the high pastoral lands about Quettah, and thence descend- 
ing into the plains bel-ow. We shall find accordingly that the Jats 



18 The Ethnology of India. 

(whom on this theory we may suppose to have been the latest comers) 
occupy just the area which would tally with such a mode of immigra- 
tion. 

In physical appearance I would divide Indian Arians into two 
classes, as far as we can call that a division which is only a question of 
degree. The people of the extreme north, the pure Arians, large, fair, 
high-featured, I shall call " High-Arian" in type. The prominence 
and beauty of their features is remarkable. The brow is remarkably 
high and well shaped ; the nose connected by a high bridge with the 
high brow is also well shaped, sometimes straight, more often 
slightly curved ; the eyes are very fine, the lips thin, mouth of a good 
shape, the beard long and full. The type once seen cannot be mistaken. 
The prominence of the brow in adults somewhat conceals the eye, but 
in the children it is something marvellous. On the other hand, the 
more subdued features, more frequently approaching a low and snub- 
nosed type, and resembling those which are common among the lower 
classes in Europe, are in India generally accompanied by a shorter 
(but still pretty robust) form, a skin darker (but still more brown than 
black), and an appearance altogether inferior, but yet not aboriginal in 
its style. This I shall call the " Low-Arian" type. 

In addition to the two main divisions, of aborigines, and modern 
Indians, I propose to put under a third division, those whom I shall 
generally describe as " Borderers," that is, the tribes on the borders, 
whose blood and manners show the influence of immigrants of races 
other than those already noticed. These meet and mix with the 
native populations, and form some marked classes. On the "West Coast 
there has been a considerable immigration of Arabs and others \ the same 
has been the case in Lower Sinde. Along the whole line of the 
Himalayas, and on the whole of the Eastern Frontier, Turanian races 
meet the Indians. 

Thus then I have three main classes : — 

1. Aborigines, 

2. Modern Indians, and 

3. Borderers. 

The 2nd are of course by far the largest and most important class. 

Besides making the distinction among modern Indians of high and 
low Arians, there are one or two other points which I would 
notice, before going into details. 






The Ethnology of India. 19 

I should like to class Hindus as High and Low Hindus. There 
is a full-blown style of Hindus (principally Hindustanees) who have 
adopted to the full all the modern Hindu superstitions and obser- 
vances, who are very particular about their cooking and such matters, 
and in consequence generally eat but one large meal once a day, whose 
widows may not re-marry, and who are in a continual state of anxiety 
about the rules of their caste. These are high Hindus. There is 
another class of Hindus, much less particular, whose religion and 
religious observances sit very easy upon them, whose widows re-many, 
and whose prejudices do not prevent their taking good wholesome 
meals as often as they can. Such are the Punjabees, some of the 
Hindustanees, and I believe a good many of the Southerners. These 
I would call low Hindus. 

With respect to caste, whatever there may once have been, there is 
now no proper Military caste. The fighting and dominant tribes are, 
it may be said invariably, in the main Agricultural and are classed as 
such. Why the old Vaisyas are sometimes said to have been the 
Merchant class I do not understand. It is clear that they were the 
body of free people, whose duty it was to till the land, keep flocks, 
carry on trade, and many other things besides. The Soodras were 
the Helots, u whose duty is expressed in one word, viz., to serve the 
other three classes," evidently the conquered race. Now-a-days it 
seems to be considered that, except the Brahmins, almost all are 
Soodras, that is, all have more or less intermixed with the lower races 
and lost their purity of blood. Hindu Society then has lost its former 
great divisions, and has been split up into an infinite variety of decent 
castes of mixed parentage, who have absorbed the old Soodras, as 
well as the Vaisyas. Under them again new tribes of Helots are 
found, probably tribes more recently conquered. 

The Agricultural tribes may, for the most part, be divided into 
three classes : — • 

1. Those whose proclivities were originally Pastoral, and gene- 
rally somewhat predatory. 

2. Agricultural tribes in the proper sense, that is, Farmers — men 
who both cultivate the soil on a large scale, and keep cattle and 
waggons when the country is favorable to that kind of Farming. 
These tribes are also most frequently those who have the greatest 



20 The Ethnology of India. 

Military vigor, and most democratic constitution, and generally occupy 
the dominant position in the country. 

3. The gardening tribes, i. e., those who do the smaller and finer 
farming and kitchen gardening. These are generally peaceable and 
unmartial people. 

I shall not always exactly follow this order, but shall take first the 
tribes who are politically most important. 

The Mercantile tribes I shall notice separately, and then the Writer 
tribes, where such tribes exist. When I speak of literate occupation, 
I mean exclusive of mercantile business, that being almost every- 
where in the hands of mercantile castes. Next come the ' Artizans, 
and finally the Helots and inferior classes. 

The Aborigines. 

In giving any general description of the Aborigines, I must premise 
that it is by no means to be supposed that all or most of the indivi- 
duals of the race will correspond to the description. The fact is that 
the Aboriginal tribes now remaining are but like scattered remnants 
of a substance floating here and there in a mass of water, into which 
they have been all but melted, and in which they are on the point of 
disappearing. By far the greater part of their substance has already 
commingled in the fluid around them, the remainder is saturated with 
it, and it is only in the very kernel and inner centre of the largest 
lumps, that something like the pure original substance is to be found. 
There is not in Peninsular India any very large tract of very high 
and difficult country ; the Aboriginal tribes are for the most part not 
collected in any great masses supporting one another, but are found 
in small and detached tribes here and there, wherever a bunch of 
hills or an unhealthy jungle has given them a refuge. Even in these 
retreats, they are everywhere closely surrounded by, and to a consider- 
able extent penetrated, or as I called it, saturated with an Arian 
element which modifies both their features and their language. 

Another circumstance has perhaps almost as much contributed to 
modify many of these tribes. There seems to be no doubt that at 
points in Indian history, where one dominant race has given way and 
before another has been fully established, tribes of hardy aborigines 
from the hills, accustomed to the use of weapons in the chase and 



The Ethnology of hid i a. 21 

probably to a good deal of robbery, have come down on the enervated 

people of the plains and valleys, and have established a temporary 
dominion over considerable tracts of country. Just as on the depart- 
ure of the Romans and before the establishment of Teutonic rule, 
the Picts and Scots came down on the cultivated portions of Britain, 
so it seems certain that, at periods long subsequent to the glories of 
the Solar and Lunar Rajpoots, Aboriginal Bhurs and Cheroos estab- 
lished considerable principalities in parts of Oude and of the Benares 
and Behar Provinces. So also Bheels, Mairs, and Kolees seem to 
have had at one time considerable power in Rajpootana and G-oojerat. 
In comparatively modern times, the Bedas or Beders (whose name is 
I believe really identical with that of the Vedahs or Vedders) seem to 
have established considerable power in the South, and the Gronds in 
Central India acquired quite a wide dominion. Under such circum- 
stances, the savage conquerors are generally themselves socially conquer- 
ed, and the tribes so situated, while gaining some civilisation, lose much 
of their peculiarities of blood and feature, and more of their language. 
By far the largest tract in which the Aboriginal tribes prevail, 
and may be said to form the mass of the inhabitants, is that 
extending through the hilly country from the western and southern 
borders of Bengal, Behar and Benares to the frontiers of the Hydera- 
bad and Madras territories, and from the Eastern Ghats inland to the 
civilised portions of the Nagpore territory ; but even in this tract it 
appears that there are evident monuments of old Hindoo civilisation, 
showing that Hindoos, or at any rate Sivites, had at one time a far 
greater hold on much of this country than they now have, and that 
probably after being partially civilised, it was gained back by the 
Aborigines. Even now this country is intersected by settled and 
cultivated tracts. Hindoos are scattered about it, and there is an 
admixture of Hindoo blood. Still, in all this part of the country, 
Aboriginal tribes muster very strong, and they preserve their lan- 
guage, their manners, and their peculiarities much better than elsewhere. 
It is, however, as I have said, only in the heart and kernel of the 
best preserved tribes, that we must look for the real original character- 
istics existing in a palpable and little-diluted form. In less pure 
specimens, they will be found less distinct. My impression is that, if 
we look carefully, they will seldom be altogether wanting. The 



22 Tlie Ethnology of India. 

thiek^Upped expression of countenance lingers long. The Gond Kaja 
of Nagpore is of a family for generations civilised and Mahommedan, 
doubtless of very far from pure Aboriginal blood, and rather fair- 
skinned, but even in him I noticed the thick lips as prominent as in 
an African. Major Tickell seems to describe the ' Hos,' who are iden- 
tical with ' Lurka Coles' and closely allied to Moondahs and Sontals 
(one of the ugliest of races), as handsome ; but everything is compara- 
tive / and I suspect that this beauty is of the same kind as that which 
enthusiastic African travellers are constantly discovering in Negro 
tribes. The Hos of the border land have probably much intermixed 
with Ooriahs, and are less ugly than their congeners are always 
described to be. 

Setting aside then the numerous half-breeds, borderers, and people 
of imperfect type, I take it that the general physical type of all the 
purest Aboriginal tribes, is that which is commonly known as Negrito. 
They are small and slight, very black, face broad and flat, the thick 
lips already mentioned very prominent, noses broad and nostrils wide, 
beard scanty, hair very abundant and tangled, of a shock-headed 
appearance, sometimes curly or even woolly. The peculiar Mongolian 
or Chinese form of the eye is not conspicuous, and altogether the 
features and the face are rather what we best know as African than 
Mongolian. This description crops up everywhere in all the various 
descriptions of Aboriginal tribes. I have not collected all these testi- 
monies, but I will give one or two on which I can lay my hands. 
Col. Dalton says, " The Jushpore Oraons are the ugliest of the race, 
with foreheads ' villainous low,' flat noses and projecting maxillaries, 
they approach the Negro in physiognomy." And again, " The Kaurs, 
next to the Jushpore Oraons, are the ugliest race I have seen, dark, 
coarse-featured, wide mouths and thick lips." In a note which he 
was good enough to send in answer to some inquiries which I made, 
he adds, " The Oraons have more of the African type of feature, and I 
have seen amongst them woolly heads." An isolated tribe on the 
East Coast, called ' Chenchwars,' are described in similar terms, and said 
to be " just what you might suppose to result from the crossing of the 
Malacca Aborigines with the common people of this country," the 
Malacca Aborigines being very marked Negritos. The Savage Gonds 
in the forests east of the Wyngunga seem to be of a similar type. So 



The Ethnology of India. 23 

in the papers with which I have been favoured from Bombay, I find 
that Major Keatinge, describing the three tribes of Gonds, Koors, and 
Bheels who meet about Asseerghur, says, " All three tribes are very 
black, with a decidedly African expression when met in the centres of 
their country." And Capt. Probyn, speaking of the more civilised 
Gonds who are now, he says, finer and fairer, still adds, " with some- 
what African features." Major Keatinge adds what illustrates that 
which I have already said, " On the outskirts of their country, their 
features are much modified, showing plainly that they do not succeed 
in keeping their blood pure. The Chiefs have generally made it a 
point to get women of other castes into their households, and I have 
consequently observed that none of them have the national features." 

In the South, the Chermara of Malabar are described as " very di- 
minutive, with a very black complexion, with not unfrerpiently woolly 
hair." And of some of the tribes of the Kodaghcrry hills it is said that 
11 flattened noses, dark complexion and large white teeth filed into the 
form of a saw give them an African appearance." The Nagadces are 
said to be " in complexion invariably of the deepest black, their hair 
thick and curly, their features brutish, their forms diminutive." 
That the type which I have described prevailed among the Aborigines 
generally in ancient times, is evident from the Purans, where they 
are described in extremely uncomplimentary terms as l vile monsters/ 
1 allied to monkeys,' ' as black as crows,' ' of flattened features and of 
dwarfish stature.' Their long thick matted hair is also particularly 
mentioned. 

The ancient Greeks also describe the South-Indians as like Ethio- 
pians, and it is difficult to assign any other country to the Oriental 
Ethiopians of Herodotus. 

It may be stated, as a physical peculiarity of the Aboriginal tribes, 
that most of them seem to have a remarkable power of resisting 
malaria, and thrive in the most malarious jungles where no other 
human beings can live. This may, however, be the result of long 
habit ; some tribes inhabiting healthy localities sicken easily enough 
elsewhere. 

The languages of the Aborigines seem to haye all this much in 
common, that they are of the structure described as Turanian. They 
are neither like the Monosyllabic Chinese on the one hand, nor on the 



24 The Ethnology of India. 

other like those Arabian and African languages which seem to form 
their changes by variations in the body of the word. The Indian 
Aboriginal languages, in common with the Hindustanee, the Turkish, 
and some Arian tongues, seem to form declensions, conjugations, and 
derivations, and to supply the place of what we call ' prepositions' by 
post-positions and post-inflections. The verb or governing word comes 
at the end of the sentence, instead of at the beginning as in English, 
somewhat thus, our order being just reversed. 

Rem acu tetigit 

Cheez sui-se chuha 

Thing needle with touched he. 

The word ' Turanian,' as applied to an immense class of languages, 
does not, however, imply any immediate connection with Thibetans 
or Mongolians, from whom the Indian Aborigines are physically so 
world-wide asunder. It is used in that very wide sense which in- 
cludes not only all the Mongolian races, but all the Polynesian races, 
and all the Negritoes of the Indian Archipelago, Australia, and Van 
Diemen's land. A few vocables are said to be found, common to the 
Dravidian tongues and to some other Turanian languages. But the 
greatest resemblance is said to be not to the nearer Mongolians, but to 
the most distant Finns, and it is at the same time admitted that there 
are at least as great indications of a special connection with the 
Australian Negritoes. It may then generally be said, that both in 
physique and in the structure of their language, the Aborigines present 
a type analogous to that of the Negritoes of the South Seas, Papuans, 
Tasmanians and others, as well as to the nearer Negritoes of Malacca 
and the Andamans. 

That which I have already said of the general character of the laws 
and institutions of the Non- Arians as distinguished from the Arians, is 
all that I can give as common to all these tribes. On this and many 
other points, we require much more information. 

One tribe only I must except, as quite without and beyond the 
general descriptions of the Aborigines which I have given, viz. the 
Todas of the upper plateau of the Neilgherry hills. They are not 
properly Hindoos, but no one who sees them, would for a moment 
suppose that they belong to the Negrito races. They are evidently 
Caucasians of a high type. In truth they are but a very small tribe ; the 






The Ethnology, of India. 25 

common tradition and consent of the country makes it clear that they 
came as conquering immigrants to their present position at a compara- 
tively recent period, and their pastoral habit renders their migration 
easy. Their language, so small a body may well have almost lost 
daring their wanderings among Dravidians. They may be anything 
Caucasian, and from anywhere ; ordinary Aborigines they are not. It has 
been said, that in their speech some words have a resemblance to the 
Brahui dialect, but personally they do not seem to resemble Brahuis, 
they are rather like Greeks. 

The points of structure which I have given, as common to all the 
Aboriginal languages, are, it will be observed, of the widest character. 
And this brings me to the fact that by the test of language the 
Aboriginal tribes may be divided into two great classes, having very 
few vocables in common. The first great division is that of the tribes 
speaking dialects radically allied to the civilised languages of the 
South, commonly called the Dravidian languages. These then I shall 
call the Dravidian Aborigines. There is no doubt that the wild tribes 
of the southern hills speak wild and primitive forms of the southern 
languages. The Carambers seem to be ancient Tamil speakers, the 
Maleasurs of the Western Ghats approach nearer to the Malayala. 
The Burghers and Kotahs speak a primitive Canarese, the Ramooses, 
a language which seems to be for the most part Telagoo. 

The Gond language is as clearly Dravidian as Telagoo or Tamil, and 
the Gonds are so. considerable a people that the Gondee might almost be 
added to the list of regular languages of the southern type. The 
name Khond is so like Gond that, next neighbours as they are, one 
would almost suppose the words to be the same. They are said to be 
different, but at any rate the Khonds also are shown by their language 
to be clearly Dravidian. More distant is the tongue of the Oraon 
tribe, to whose physical characteristics I have already alluded, and who 
are now found among tribes of the other division (to be presently 
noticed) in the Chota-Nagpore territory. But the radicals and main 
features of the Oraon language leave no doubt that they are of 
Dravidian stock — a circumstance which does not suprise us, as we 
learn that they are comparatively recent immigrants from the west 
into their present locations. East of them again, in the Rajmahal 
hills, we have the last of the Dravidian tribes (so far as has yet been 



26 The Ethnology of India. 

ascertained), speaking a language akin to that of the Oraons. Those 
hills form a kind of knot at the extreme eastern point of the hill 
country of Central India. It was known that the people were entirely 
different from their neighbours the Santals. The latter cultivate the 
lower lands, and it may at first sight seem surprising that the higher 
grounds should be in the possession of more recent settlers of a distant 
southern stock. The fact, however, seems to be explained by the 
plundering habits of the Rajmahal hillmen. They seem to have 
occupied those hills as a kind of stronghold, from which they could 
conveniently plunder the plains around them. 

The greater part of the Chota-Nagpore division and adjoining tracts 
is occupied by tribes whom I take as representative of the second or 
northern division of the Aborigines. There are ' Lurka Coles,' c Hos,' 
' Bhoomiz,' ' Moondahs,' and Santals, and wilder tribes of the border 
hills, all speaking dialects of a language very different from the 
Dra vidian. In fact, so far as vocables go, no substantial connection can 
be traced. Max Miiller speaks of these tongues as quite unconnected 
with any other. Still I venture to think that there seems to be some 
similarity of structure between them and the Dravidian languages. 
Major Tickell has published in the Journal of the Society a grammar 
of the Hos or Lurka Col language ; and I note the following as a few 
of the peculiarities common to it and to the Dravidian tongues, as the 
latter are set forth by Dr. Caldwell. 

First, there is the general coincidence of structure, which I have 
already noticed as common to all the Aboriginal tongues as well as to 
Hindustanee, Turkish, &c. In this respect, the northern Aborigines 
do not differ, and they similarly use postpositions, &c. 

Further. In the Dravidian tongues there is no regular gender, 
all inanimate things are neuter, and the terms male and female are 
prefixed when necessary. 

It seems to be the same in the northern aboriginal tongues. 

Adjectives do not decline, nor are there degrees of comparison. 

It is the same in the northern tongues. 

There are two forms of the first person plural, one to include, and the 
other to exclude the person addressed. 

This peculiarity also is found among the northern tribes, as well as 
in the Australian tongues. 



Tke Ethnology of India. 27 

Relative participles are used instead of relative pronouns in both 
classes of languages. 

The northern tongues seem to be considered more highly inflected 
than the Dravidian, and they have a regular dual form which the 
others have not. The verbs have no passive voice. 

It would seem to imply a higher organisation in the northern 
aboriginal languages, that the vocabularies show them to be more 
complete, and less to borrow from their neighbours all words beyond 
the very simplest. For instance, in the matter of numbers, while the 
Gonds do not go beyond ten, the Oraons beyond four, nor the 
Rajmahalees beyond two in Dravidian numbers, (borrowing all the rest 
from the Hindee,) the Coles and Santals count up to high numbers 
in their own tongue, only using scores instead of the decimal notation 
of hundreds, as do many Arian tribes. I have seen it stated that the 
Dravidian Khonds count by dozens. 

Max Midler remarks that savage tribes, with no letters to fix 
their tongues, alter their speech much more rapidly than civilised 
nations ; and it may be that, when we have two groups of people adjoin- 
ing one another and with a general physical similarity, such a general 
structural resemblance of language as I have noticed may mark a 
remote common origin, even when the community of vocables can no 
longer be traced. But at any rate, the difference is now so wide as to 
establish, as I have said, two distinctly marked groups. 

The generic name usually applied to the Aborigines of the hill 
country of Chota-Nagpore, Mirzapore and Rewah is ' Coles' or ' Kolcs.' 
Europeans apply the term to the Dravidian Oraons as well as to the 
others, but perhaps erroneously. It is difficult to say to which tribes 
the name is properly applied, for most of them have other distinctive 
names. But in the south of the Chota-Nagpore country, about 
Singbhoom, &c. it is certainly applied to the l Lurka Coles,' and I can 
myself testify that on the Mirzapore-Jubbulpore road, the Aborigines 
are called by the natives Coles or Kolees, which they volunteered to 
explain to me to be the same word " which you call Coolee." On the 
Bombay side again a very numerous class of Aborigines are styled 
Kolees. In the Simla hills also, the inferior people are known as 
Kolees. Altogether I have myself little doubt that the ordinary word 
Coolee, as applied to a bearer of burdens or labourer, is the same word, 



28 The Ethnology of India. 

and that in short it is the word generally applied by the Northern 
Indians to the Aboriginal tribes, most of whom they reduced to the 
condition of Helots. 

There seems to be good reason to suppose that the original form of 
the word was ' Kola' or ' Kolar.' In fact, India seems to have been 
known to the ancients (who approached it coastwise from the West) as 
Colara or Coolee-land (Asiatic Researches, Yol. IX.) and the people as 
Colaurians. If Kolar be the original form of Kolee, it would seem 
not improbable that, as in the mouths of some tribes by dropping the l r 1 
it became Kola or Kolee, so in the mouths of others, by dropping the 
1 V it would become Koar, Kaur, Koor, Khar or Khor, a form which 
would embrace a large number of those tribes as now designated. I 
propose then to call the northern tribes Kolarian or Coolee Aborigines. 

One may see frequent allusion to Kolarees or Colleries in the south 
of India. It appears that the word there used is properly ' Kallar.' 
In the Canarese language, the word i Kallar,' it seems, simply means a 
thief or robber, and hence some of the predatory Aborigines of the 
hills, are designated Kallars or robbers, just as the thieves of Central 
Asia are called ' Kazaks' or ' Cossacks.' The word is applied so 
differently from that of Coolee, that there may fairly be doubt of its 
being the same. But the subject is worthy of farther inquiry, and if 
it prove that in fact the two words are identical, the term Coolee or 
Kolarian must be applied to the Aboriginal tribes generally, not to one 
division of them. Meantime, however, I apply it to the Northern 
tribes only, but I confess I have misgivings whether the more general 
sense may not prove to be the true one. 

Beyond the difference of language, I am unable to state with con- 
fidence any very marked features distinguishing the Dravidian -and 
Kolarian groups of tribes (each taken as a whole) from one another. 
But a marked difference in habits, manners, and national characteristics, 
has been found to exist where the two classes are in the closest conti- 
guity. The Santals and Rajmahalees are known to present a marked 
contrast, and on the Chota-Nagpore plateau I am told that " the 
difference is so great, that they appeared to be quite another nation," 
and " their customs, appearance, even manners, are very different." 
Of these differences we have not the details, but I hope that they may 
be furnished in Col. Dalton's promised paper on the Coles. 



The Ethnology of India. 29 

The Kolarian Santals are a very ugly race, and I gather that their 
neighbours, the Dravidian Rajmahalees, have rather the advantage of 
them in this respect, but these latter have probably kidnapped a good 
many Arian women from the plains. I have fancied that I have noticed 
in some of the ' Dhangar' labourers in and about Calcutta, a peculiar 
little ' pique' ' retrousse' sort of nose, as distinguished from the flat 
broad-nosed features of the Santals, but this scarcely amounts to an 
observation. It may be noticed that in the passages which I have 
quoted in regard to the general type of the Aborigines, the African 
style was more especially attributed to Dravidian Oraons, Gonds and 
Chenchwars, &c. The Kolarians, Kaurs, Khairwars and Koors, are 
also represented as only one degree less ill-favoured ; so, on the whole, 
I imagine that in point of personal appearance there is not much to 
choose between the two groups. Ethnographers seem to distinguish 
the Negritoes of the Southern Seas into two groups, a woolly or curly- 
haired group, and a straight-haired group ; perhaps there may be found 
to have been some such division in India. 

The Santals and most of their immediate congeners, are certainly 
a more simple, mild, and industrious race than the Rajmahalees, Gonds, 
Khonds, and Southern Kallar tribes ; but again the Lurka Coles seem 
to be warlike, and the hill Khorewahs are described as wild savages, 
armed with battle axes and bows and arrows. On the whole, I should 
rather imagine that the Kolarians are more frequently good Coolees, 
and the Dravidians oftener troublesome Kallars. 

The descriptions of the Aborigines as a good-natured people, ever 
dancing and singing (in a way that reminds one of the pleasanter 
descriptions of the Negroes,) I find to be applied to the Kolarians, — . 
Santals, Moondahs, Khorewahs, &c. — more than to the Dravidian tribes # 

As respects religion, although the indications are too slight for any 
confident generalisation, the accounts of the Kolarian creed seem 
pleasanter than those of the Dravidian beliefs and rites. The latter 
seem to deal in demonology, fetishism, frantic dances, bloody and 
even human sacrifices, in a way which reminds us of the Avorst African 
types'; while several different accounts of Northern Aborigines, in widely 
different parts of the country, represent them as reverencing in an 
inoffensive way the sun, moon, and Lord of tigers, and mild and innocent 
Bhoots or household spirits. The superstitious belief in tigers' claws 



30 The Ethnology of India. 

as a charm, is shaved with the Aborigines by all the Hindustanees. 
Another practice of the Aborigines the latter also have in hilly tracts, 
the heaping up cairns of stones at particular points, and tying bits of 
rag to a particular tree as votive offerings. This last may be seen 
anywhere, and these practices are probably very widely spread. 

If there really be such a distinction between the Dravidian and 
Kolarian religions as that at which I have hinted, it is very like a 
similar distinction in Africa. In a work on South Africa by the 
Hev. Mr. Grout, we are told that the gods of the Hottentots are 
above, the sun, moon, &c. while those of the Kaffirs and more war- 
like Negroes south of the line are below, demons and evil Spirits. 
Among some of the latter too are seen the horrid rites and bloody 
sacrifices. It strikes me that there is some resemblance in appearance 
between Hottentots and Santals. 

A curious testimony to the ancient rights of the Indian ' Boomcas* 
or people of the soil, is the practice in many parts of Central India 
where Hindu chiefs are dominant, that a new chief on his accession 
receives the teka or investiture from the blood of an Aboriginal Kole, 
Grond or Bheel. 

I proceed to mention the various tribes in detail, so far as my imper- 
fect knowledge of them permits. 

The Aboriginal tribes now living apart from the general population 
in the South of India, appear to be very small and scattered. They 
are there for the most part absorbed in the general social system. 
Pariahs and others, as is well known, merely form a lower social grade # 
The robber tribes, Beders and such like, seem for the most part to 
have robbed themselves into a respectable and even aristocratical posi- 
tion. The Beders in some parts of Mysore now form a considerable 
portion of the population, and they have many Polygarships. There 
seems to be some doubt whether the Badagras and Kotas of the lower 
Neilgherry hills are properly Aborigines, they being, it appears, immi- 
grants in those parts, and the Carambers the true Aborigines. I have 
not been able to meet with any very connected or detailed account of 
the thoroughly Aboriginal tribes of the hills and forests of the 
Neilgherries, Pulneys, and Western Grhats. The word Maleasur seems 
to mean simply a tollman, and the more proper tribal designations 
appear to be Carambers, Irulars, Puliars, and Veders. These seem to 






The Ethnology of hull a. 31 

be tribes in the very lowest stage of savageness, with in fact scarcely 
any agriculture, mere men of the woods. They are represented as of 
very diminutive stature, with thickly matted locks and supple limbs, 
living under trees in caverns or in the rudest wigwams, keeping 
sheep or collecting forest produce, very stupid but also very mild and 
inoffensive, except that they have a great reputation as sorcerers, and 
themselves believing in a religion of demons and witchcraft, are by 
their neighbours believed to be highly gifted that way. Altogether 
they seem to be very inferior to the simple but sturdy and industrious 
Coolees of the north. 

The Chenchwars, already mentioned, and several very petty and 
isolated tribes exist in the Eastern Ghats about and north of Madras. 
I can only give the names of " Chendaurs" and " Yende" as near the 
Kistna and Pulicat Lake. Allusions seem to be made to the existence 
of Aboriginal or quasi-Aboriginal tribes at different points in the 
Western Ghats and Coasts ; the name of " Chermars" and " Neade'' 
are mentioned in Travanoore and Cochin, but they are no doubt the 
same as Chermars and Nagadees, the slaves of Malabar. The Dhers 
and Ilamooses of the centre and west of the Peninsula seem to be mixed 
with the general population. On all these points more precise informa- 
tion is much required. 

It is not till we cross the Godavcry to the north, that we come to 
the country really held by the Aborigines. 

In the highlands between the Grodavery and the Mahanaddee, the 
savage Khonds, notorious for their human sacrifices, are to the East, 
the barbarous and less known tribes of Gronds to the West and more 
in the interior. 

The Khonds appear to be in contact with Hindus and to have some 
of that race among them. Their blood is probably somewhat mixed, 
and they are not described as so ugly and ultra- Aboriginal as some 
other tribes. 

Of the Gronds of the forests of Bustar and thence running up towards 
the Wyngunga we know very little, except that they are extreme 
savages, black, ugly, barbarous and dangerous. The name " Marees" 
seems to be there applied to them, and they appear to be nearly inde- 
pendent, owning a scant allegiance to chiefs whose blood is for the most 
part G-ond. From thence the Gonds extend a long way North, and 






32 Tlie Etlinohyy of India. 

occupy a broad tract east and west wherever the country is jungly or 
hilly, but becoming more and more civilised and more dominant over 
others as we go northwards. The valley of Sumbhulpore may be 
taken as for the most part marking the division between the Gond 
country on one side, and that of the Aborigines of northern stock 
on the other. 

On the east the Gonds, under the name of Gours, extend into the 
borders of the Chota-Nagpore agency in Oocleypore and Sirgoojah, 
but they are there much Hinduised and have lost their language. The 
Raja of Sirgoojah, though pretending to be a Rajpoot, is suspected to 
be a Gour ; at any rate the Gours are there the dominant tribe. 
Thence westward along the line of the Sautpoora hills, through all the 
hilly country of the districts of Mandla, Jubbulpore, Seonee, Chand- 
wara, Baitool and Hoshangabad, in fact in some degree to the neigh- 
bourhood of Asseerghur, the Gonds predominate. In the wilder parts, 
they speak their own Aboriginal language, and seem there to be a 
simple and not intractable people, following both pastoral and agricul- 
tural pursuits. In the older maps, the name Gondwana is given to a 
wider tract of country in this part of Central India, being that which 
was in modern times rather politically than ethnologically Gond, 
The Gonds (in a somewhat civilised form) were in fact for some time 
masters of all this part of the country, including the open and culti- 
vated tracts about Nagpore, Raepore, Jubbulpore- &c. and perhaps as 
far as Ellichpore on the one hand, and on the other to the south of the 
Godavery, where some of them are found among the ordinary Telinga 
population. Deogurh in the Sautpooras was the chief seat of their 
power. They immediately preceded the Marattas. These latter 
ousted them from the open and valuable tracts, and they do not now 
form any considerable part of the population of the plain country, but 
they maintained a feudal dominion in much of the hilly country ; and 
to this day not only the chiefs and large zemindars of the Sautpoora 
range, but most of the men of considerable position in parts of Saugor 
and other districts north of the Nerbudda are, I understand, Gonds, 
diluted or improved Gonds as the case may be, (most of them wish to 
beeome Rajpoots, and others have become Mussulmans), but still Gonds. 

Following up the Dravidian tribes, we next come to the Oraons, now 
located in the midst of Kolarian tribes and much mixed up with 



Tlie Ethnology of India. 33 

them. The Gonds or Gours have been mentioned as found in a not 
very pure form in the west of Oodeypore, and Sirgoojah of the Chota- 
Nagpore division. In the highlands to the east of those states and 
of Jushpore, the Oraons are found. Col. Dalton mentions them as form- 
ing the greater part of the population of a considerable portion of the 
Jushpore highlands, and it is these whom he describes as the ugliest of 
the race. Thence eastwards the Oraons have pushed themselves into 
the proper country of the Moondahs (of Kolarian race) in the plateau 
of the Chota-Nagpore district and adjoining country. They must 
have been strong, to effect an ingress to a country not originally their 
own, but I do not understand that they are now at all dominant over 
the others. In fact they seem to have very much adopted the habits 
of the Kolarians, among whom or in contact with whom they live, 
are industrious and laborious, and as much as the others contribute to 
the supply of the labour market'of Bengal. I understand that they 
form a considerable proportion of the Calcutta Dhangars ; that last 
term being one the proper meaning of which I cannot ascertain, but 
which, so far as I can learn, is applied generically to the aboriginal 
labourers in Calcutta. 

Separated from the Oraons by a considerable space (principally of 
lower but still more or less hilly country, occupied by mixed tribes of 
Kolarians, Hindustanees, and Bengalees), are the Dravidian Bajma- 
halees, whose proper tribal name, I have not ascertained. They are 
sometimes called Maler, but that is merely the Dravidian form for 
mountaineers, the word applied to so many of these tribes. 

These are the men who are well known in connection with Mr. 
Cleveland's endeavours to tame and reform them. They seem to have 
been in those days terrible depredators. That all the parts of India 
adjoining the Central hills, both at this point and throughout a con- 
siderably wider range, were'in times of anarchy dreadfully subject to 
injury from the hill-men, is still attested by the numerous and exten- 
sive 'ghatwallee' tenures held all along the foot of the hills and 
about the Ghats and passes. They are particularly numerous in the 
Bhaugulpore and Beerbhoom districts, adjoining the Rajmahal hills 
on either side. Such estates pay little or no revenue, but are held on 
the condition of guarding the passes against hill robbers, murderers, 
and cattle-lifters. The hill-men have been successfully reclaimed, 



34 The Ethnology of India. 

I believe that tliey cultivate quietly, and there appears to be now 
little complaint against them. Organised and serious raids on the 
plains are, I understand, unknown. The Rajmahal men are those who 
were enlisted into the British military service to form the local corps 
known as the Bhaugulpore Hill Bangers ; but when the usually quiet 
Santals were impelled by a sense of wrong to a headlong sort of 
rebellion, the other (and it was supposed more military) race forming 
the Bangers, when opposed to them, by no means distinguished 
themselves, and they have since, I think, been disbanded. 

I now pass to the Kolarian tribes. The more civilised and numerous 

tribes of this race, occupying an extensive country about 150 miles 

west from Calcutta, and known as Moondahs, Bhoomiz, Hos, and 

Santals, speak languages so nearly identical, that they may all 

be regarded as Sub-divisions of one people. They are in fact very 

like one another in many ways. They occupy most of the British 

districts of Chota-Nagpore, Singbhoom, Maunbhoom, and the hilly part 

of Bhaugulpore (Bajmahal hills excepted) now known as the Santal 

Pergunnahs ; also parts of West Burdwan, Midnapore and Cuttack. 

They are a simple industrious people, and are reputed to be 

remarkably honest and truthful. Their country is healthy and, 

unlike most aboriginal tribes in most parts of the world, they seem 

by no means to be dying out, but multiply and supply the labour 

market. Partly on account of the cheapness of labour in their 

country, partly on aecount of their tractable disposition and freedom 

from all caste and food prejudices, and more especially, I think, because 

of that want of attachment to the soil which distinguishes the 

Aboriginal from the Arian, they are much sought after and highly 

prized as labourers. Many of them are settled in the service of Bengal 

Indigo-planters ; they are very well known as labourers on the Railways, 

roads, and other works of Western Bengal"; and they are now, I believe, 

the favourite material for emigration to Assam. Unfortunately, 

however, coming from a healthy high and dry country, they have not 

that capacity for resisting malaria for which the wilJer tribes are 

remarkable, and seem to die very rapidly. 

In the Chota-Nagpore country, the ' Moondahs' seem to have so far 
adopted Arian manners, as to live together in considerable villages, 
instead of apart in detached houses or ibolated hamlets, according to 






TJie Ethnology of Indue. 35 

the common practice of these tribes ; but I am told that so great is 
their instability and want of attachment to any particular spot, that 
not unfrequently, on some petty quarrel with their zemindar, a whole 
Tillage will abandon their houses and seek other locations, or put 
themselves under the guidance of a Coolee recruiting-agent. The Hos 
and Bhoomiz* of the lower parts of Singbhoom and Maunbhoom, seem 
to be tolerably civilised. The Santals, though geographically near 
the plains, seem to be among the most shy and socially-isolated of 
the race. They cultivate the lower lands of their country, but seem to 
have kept very much to themselves, and to prefer locations surrounded 
by jungle and segregated from the world. They too, however, have 
now taken much to labour for hire, and they must have become 
intimate with Europeans. In the case of these people is to be found 
practical illustration of a truth of wider application in India, viz. that 
in a mere pecuniary and commercial point of view, tact and scrupulous 
fairness in dealing with the natives are more effectual than all other 
means, and go farther than any laws and any administration. I believe 
that certain of the Railway Engineers, who have gained the special 
confidence of the Santals and allied tribes, construct the railway mile 
for mile infinitely cheaper than any others. 

On the borders of the hills, a set of half-breeds seem to be not only by 
piofession Ghatwals, but to constitute a sort of caste under that name. 

I have alluded to the language of these Kolarian tribes. One 
would hope or expect here to find the origin of the non-Arian 
elements of the Hindee and other northern languages. This, however, 
has not yet been so. It is difficult to distinguish between words 
borrowed by the Aborigines from the modern Hindustanee or Bengalee 
and those of a common origin. A few of the words in Hodgson's lists are 
like Hindee, but most of them seem to be Arian words. Some words 
seem to be used throughout India as ' Donga,' a boat, and some are 
words of much wider use as ' Ka' ' Kahee' or ' Kova,' a crow and ' Pussi,' 
a cat. It is then no doubt the case that the very brief and imperfect 
vocabularies of the Kolarian tongues yet published, have not shown 
an immediate connection with any other known language. More 

* Bhoomiz, I believe merely means ' people of the soil' from Bhoomi, being 
nearly the same word as the Persian ' Zemindar.' What the Hindoo tribes are 
to the Mahomniedans, the aborigines are to the Hindoos. 



36 The Ethnology of India. 

minute inquiry would be very desirable. Besides a more exact and 
full grammar, I think it would be well to separate out from the Hindee 
a list of non- Sanscrit words of common use, (and which are not also 
common to the greater part of the world, such as " kowa" a crow, and 
some of the universal Turanian words), and having thus got what I may 
call a Hindee proper vocabulary, to compare it carefully with the 
dialects of the Santals, &c. 

In addition to the semi-civilised tribes which I have mentioned, 
nearly the same language is spoken by the wilder Lurka Coles of the 
hills to the West of the Singbhoom district. North of these latter 
again, in the highest hills to the North of Jushpore, and in those 
between Sirgoojah and Palamow, Col. Dalton mentions a considerable 
tribe called Khorewahs, who speak much the same language, whose 
manners and habits are the same, .and who are evidently of the same 
stock, though much less civilised ; some, he says, utterly savage and 
almost Nomadic. They are said to be of small stature, but better 
looking and lighter than their neighbours, the Dravidian Oraons, with 
shaggy heads of hair and some beard. 

Mention is made of some other very wild tribes scattered about the 
Chota-Nagpore division, Kherrias (who are a mystery even to Col. 
Dalton), Bendkurrs and Birhores in the south of the division, and 
Bhuhars or Boyars (not to be confounded with very different Bhuyas to 
be subsequently noticed) in the north ; but the languages and affinities 
of these tribes have not been ascertained sufficiently to place them. 
They are described as " regularly wild inhabitants of the hills and jun- 
gles, who have no fixed villages, but move about from place to place, 
burning down the jungles, sowing in the ashes ; and after reaping 
what is produced, going elsewhere. " 

On the Sumbulpore borders, the Coles, intermixed among the Gonds, 
are said to be known as " Kirkees." 

Mr. Samuells mentioned a wild tribe in the jungles of Cuttack, 
whom he calls ' Janguas,' perfect savages, small, slender, nearly 
naked, and horrid in appearance. They speak a strange language, 
and he gives a few words, some of which seem like the language 
of the Santals, &c , as l Minnah/ one, and l Bana,' two. 

The Aboriginal tribes near Cuttack strike a bargain by breaking 
a straw. 



TJie Ethnology of India. 37 

In some places the word ' Soor' or c Sourali' seems to be used, as 
if the same as ' Santal ;' and Mr. Stirling, in an article on Cuttack, 
(in the Asiatic Researches) enumerates ' Santals' and ' Soors' 
separately among the tribes of Coles. It would seem then as if 
Soors or Sourahs were a tribe of Santals on the borders of the 
Cuttack division. But the Soors under the hills north of the 
Mahanaddee, while described as small, mean, and very black, and like 
the Santals naturally harmless, peaceable and industrious, are also 
said to be without moral sense and ready to cut firewood or other men's 
throats indifferently, an accusation not, I think, brought against the 
Santals. 

Again, Macplierson tells us, that the hill tribes south of the Khonds, 
and running up to near the Godavery, are Sourahs. That is quite a 
different location, and I have not found any farther account of these 
Sourahs. Caldwell says that the Tamil people were anciently called 
* Sorahs,' but as they are the most Dravidian of all the southern 
people, they can hardly be allied to the Kolarian Santals, and the 
word must be different. The whole subject requires a good deal 
of fresh light. 

Passing north, I have till now reserved, for separate notice, the 
tribes chiefly prevailing in the district of Palamow, the hilly country 
of Mirzapore and Rewah, and the borders of Benares and Behar. 
These arc the Aboriginal tribes most directly in contact with the 
modern Hindustanees, and there is this difficulty about classifying 
them, that I have not been able to ascertain their original language. 
They now generally speak some sort of dialect of the Hindee, and 
are more mixed with the Hindustanees, perhaps I may say generally 
more civilised, than the tribes located farther in the interior of the 
hills. The principal tribe of these parts are called ' Kharwars' or 
{ Kharawars.' There is also a widely spread tribe of ' Raj wars.' A 
division of the Kharwars are called ' Bhogtahs.' The Kharwars seem 
to be altogether the dominant tribe of Palamow and Singrowlee 
(the Mirzapore hill country). Both Kharwars and Raj wars are also 
found in considerable numbers westward, in parts of Sirgoojah and 
Jushpore, while to the north-east, in the parts of the plains adjoin- 
ing the hills, they are numerous. In the. Gya district, near the 
hills, the Raj wars are the chief labouring class. They live in the 



38 The Ethnology of India. 

villages as a kind of serfs and bearers of burdens, carry palanquins, 
and when out of employ, are apt to be thieves and robbers. A little 
farther west, the Kharwars seem to perform the same functions ; they 
are mentioned by Buchanan as in the outskirts of the Patna and 
Arrah Districts. On the road from Mirzapore to Jubbulpore, where 
it passes through Rewah, &c, the palanquin bearers and coolies are 
Aborigines. When I passed that way some time ago, not having 
then gone t into the subject, I did not ask the particular tribe, nor 
have I since been able to ascertain it, but in all probability they are 
Kharwars. 

All these people have in their faces unmistakeable marks of their 
aboriginal origin. But they speak Hindee. This then brings us to 
the difficulty about language. Col. Dalton is not aware of any 
Aboriginal language spoken by the Kharwars. I have had the im- 
pression that in the Mirzapore district they spoke their own language ; 
and Capt. Blunt, who in the last century made a remarkable journey 
from Chunar right through the hills to the Grodavery (see Asiatic 
Researches, Vol. 7), almost at the outset of his journey mentions the 
Kharawars of the Singrowlee hills as very savage, and speaking a 
separate and quite unintelligible language. But the Rev. R. C. 
Mather of Mirzapore, who has been good enough to write for me a 
note on the subject (of which I have already made use), and who 
refers to a tour made by the Rev. Mr. Jones, is unable to say that 
any aboriginal language exists in these parts. He says that both 
the Kharwars and another similar tribe, locally called ' Majhwars,' 
speak the Hindee, or at least understand it when spoken. It would 
be very interesting to ascertain if the remains of an original language 
exists among these people, for with them more especially we should 
expect to find the non- Aryan Hindee roots. If aboriginal tribes 
so situated have no separate language of their own, it may arise from 
either of two causes ; either they may have abandoned their own 
language and adopted that of the people who are flooding over and 
as it were submerging them ; or the fact may be that, in its most 
radical parts, the language of these latter having been the same as 
their own, an influx of vocables on this common basis may altogether 
obliterate the landmarks by which languages are distinguished. Till 
however, this is cleared up, I think that we must on other grounds 



The Ethnology of India. . 39 

class the Kharwars, (fee. with Kolarians rather than with Dravidians. 
Mr. Mather, quoting Mr. Jones, says that, passing on from the Khar- 
wars, he came to the ' Oraons,' in whom he found " the difference from 
the Mirzapore Hill people to he so great, that they appeared to be 
quite another nation." In fact, the Oraons are now a good deal 
interposed between the Kharwars and Kolarian Moonclahs, but Col. 
Dalton also says that the Kharwars and Oraons, though in contact, 
are very unlike one another in language, appearance, manners and 
customs. The Kharwars, he says, are not quite so African looking 
as the Oraons, but some of them seem to be not much better favoured. 
A long connection with the plains would best account for the adop- 
tions of the language and some of the manners of the plains-people 
by the Kharawars and Raj wars. And here the question has suggested 
itself to me, whether they may not perhaps be identified with the 
Cheroos and Bhurs, those aboriginal tribes whose dominion in the 
plain country to the north of these hills is matter of histoiy, who 
seem certainly to have come from and to have gone to the country 
now inhabited by these tribes, and who fr?>ni this point of their his- 
tory almost or wholly disappear. Buchanan seems to speak ambi- 
guously, sometimes classing Kharawars and Cheroos together, sometimes 
treating of them as separate. While mentioning the Cheroos as 
nearly extinct in the plains, he speaks of them as still existing in 
numbers in the high country within the hills. In the accounts of 
the latter country, on the other hand, I find no mention of either 
Cheroos or Bhurs under those names. Farther inquiry seems neces- 
sary. Our use of Roman letters applied to native names is very 
uncertain, and if we could suppose the C in Cheroo to be pronounced 
hard as in Cole, Cheroo would become Kheroo, and Kheroo would be 
not very different from the Khara of Kharawar (the ( war' is a mere 
termination), while Khara might again be connected with the name 
of the Kolarian Khorewahs already mentioned, and with the Koors, 
equally Kolarian, to be subsequently noticed. Again, the Bhurs are 
more commonly known as 'Rajbhurs;' may not Rajhbur have been 
corrupted into ' Raj war ?' 

The present dominant position of the Kharwars in a considerable 
country would seem much to tally with the idea of their representing 
the tribes once so famous. Both the Rajas of Singrowlee and Jush- 



40 The Ethnology of India. 

pore are Kharwars, however they may claim an origin from Rajpoot 
foundlings, and they are the people who most affect what Col. 
Dalton calls ' refining into Rajpoots.' Although many of them may 
have achieved a good deal of improvement in their blood and appear- 
ance, they are not originally a handsome race, for Col. Dalton expressly 
tells us that in the more remote parts, the Kharwars of Palamow, 
and especially the Bhogtahs, are very ugly and ill-favoured. Like 
the other aborigines, they have no proper caste and eat anything. 

I leave, for separate notice, a very numerous tribe all along the 
borders of Bengal, Orissa, and part of Bahar, called Bhuyas, whose 
connection with the races above described is not clear. 

In this region of India, it only remains to mention one more Abori- 
ginal tribe, called Kaurs, found in the extreme west of the Chota- Nag- 
pore Agency about Korea, Oodeypore, and the adjoining parts of the 
territory of Nagpore proper, the Pergunnah of Korbah of Chatteesgurh. 
They are described as a very industrious thriving people, considerably 
advanced in civilisation. They now affect Hindoo traditions, pretend 
to be descended from the defeated remnants of the Kooroos who 
fought the Pandavas, worship Siva and speak Hindee, but in appear- 
ance they are ultra-aboriginal, very black, with broad noses and thick 
lips, and eat fowls, &c, bury most of their dead, and contemn 
Bramins ; so that their Hindooism is scarcely skin-deep. 

From the last mentioned point westward, through a broad tract of 
country, the plains are occupied by the ordinary Indian Arians, the 
hills and forests by the Gonds (who here in the centre of India meet 
the Hindustanees on the North, the Telingas on the South, and the 
Marattas on the West) ; and we do not again come to Kolarian 
Aborigines, till we get in fact to the West of India. There is then a 
hiatus, as respects the Kolarians, of four or five degrees of longitude, 
where by the advance of the conquering Gronds they have probably been 
split asunder. It somewhat singularly happens that the first people of 
this race whom we come to in the West, bear as nearly as possible the 
same name as the last we left in the East. The latter were called 
' Kaurs.' In the Western Sautpooras, in the hills about Gawalghur 
near Ellichpore, and thence towards Inelore, is a tribe called ' Coour* 
or Koor Koos. These people speak an undoubtedly Kolarian language. 
The name is sufficiently near to Gour to cause them to have been 



The Ethnology of India. 41 

sometimes confounded with their neighbours, the Gonds, but the 
difference is clear. In the notes with which I have been favoured 
from Bombay, Major Keatinge mentions them as " a tribe of Gonds 
calling themselves Koor Koos," but he goes on to distinguish them 
from the Gonds, mentioning the geographical location of each, and 
adding that the two tribes keep themselves separate, do not intermix, 
and that each has a separate language of its own. He does not give 
particulars of the language, and it is from a paper on which I stumbled 
in an old number of the Society's Journal, and which does not appear 
to have been previously much noticed, that I have been able to 
identify this tribe with precision. Dr. Voysey, writing at Ellichpore 
so long ago as 1821, also at first calls them Gonds, but he goes on to 
say that they are also called ' Goours,' and that the Gonds consider 
themselves a distinct tribe from the Coours and neither eat nor inter- 
marry with them. He then gives a small list of Coour words. This 
was taken long before Hodgson's vocabularies were published, and the 
two seem never to have been compared. I have compared Dr. Voysey's 
list with Hodgson's lists of words of the Kolarian tribes of Lurka 
Coles, Santals, &c. and find a remarkable coincidence. For instance, 
take the numerals. 

Coour. Hodgson's Coles, &c. 

1. Mea, Mi. 

2. Bariah, Barria. 

. 3. Aphe, Apia. 

4. Aphoon, Apunia. 

5. Munea, Monaya. 

6. Turrume, Turia. 

7. Aya, Iya. 

8. Ilhar, Mia. 

9. Arhe, Area. 

10. Gyl, Gel. 

And again. 

Coour. Hodgson. 
Man, Hoko, Ho. 

Water, Da, Dah. 

Fire, Singhel, Sengel. 

Tree, Darao, -Dam. 



42 The Ethnology of India. 

House, Oah, Oa. 

Mouth, Ah, A'. 

Eye, Meht, Met. 

In fact, of the first nine of Voysey's words which are also given by 
Hodgson, seven are identical, a circumstance very remarkable, seeing 
how far these illiterate tribes are separated from one another. None of 
the words correspond with the Dravidian synonyms, so there can be no 
doubt that we have traced the Kolarians so far. 

Immediately beyond the Koors, from Asseerghur westwards, we are 
in the Bombay Presidency. 

As I cannot ascertain that Mhars and Mangs and Ramooses 
now live as entirely separate tribes, I may at once say that, so far 
as my information goes, the Bombay Aborigines are (for my present 
purpose) all comprised in the two tribes of Koolees and Bheels. 
These tribes are scattered over a great portion of the Presidency, and 
in some parts, the Koolees especially, seem to live as a part of the 
general population. But the Koolees in part, and the Bheels more 
generally, are still found in portions of their original seats as distinct 
tribes, and they both seem to be numerous. Their name, position, 
and character seem to mark the Koolees as Kolarians. But beyond 
this, the more precise test of language is unfortunately wanting. I 
have not been able to find that these tribes have now any aboriginal 
languages of their own. They are generally said to speak dialects of 
the civilised languages of the neighbouring countries. In one or two 
places allusion is made to the existence or supposed existence of a 
Bheel language in remote jungles, but I have not found any precise 
indication respecting it. 

I was at first inclined to conjecture that the separation into two 
tribes of Koolee and Bheels, and perhaps the more predatory character 
of the latter, might point to a division of race ; that the Bheels might 
be Dravidians. I find, however, that the general opinion of those 
qualified to judge seems to tend to the belief that there is no essential 
difference between the two tribes. Forbes in his " Has Mala says : 
" Koolees or Bheels, for though the former would resent the classi- 
fication, the distinctions between them need not be here noticed." 
Capt. Probyn says, " I think there is no actual difference between 
Koolees and Bheels. Their religion is the same." Mr. Ashburner : 



TJie Ethnology of India. 43 

u There is no real difference between Bheels and Koolees ; their habits, 
physiognomy and mode of life are the same, modified by local circum- 
stances." And the Rev. Mr. Dunlop Moore says, " Koolees frequently 
marry Bheel wives." Other authorities, however, say that they do 
not intermarry. They both seem to claim a northern and not a southern 
origin, pointing to the hills of Rajpootana and the north of Goozerat. 
The Bheels say that they were originally called Kaiyos ; Sir John 
Malcolm says that they are related to the Meenas of R-ajpootana, and 
once ruled in the Jeypore country. Forbes again tells us that the 
Koolees were originally called Mairs ; while in Rajpootana, Col. Tod 
speaks of Mairs or Meenas as one race. 

The Rev. Mr. Dunlop says that, though these tribes speak the 
same languages as their neighbours, " certain words are universally 
recognised as peculiar to Koolees as well as Bheels." He only 
instances one word written in a character which I can read, and that 
is l Bhoroo' or ' Bhooroo,' the head. As I write, I have turned up the 
word head in Hodgson's vocabularies, and find that the Kols, Santals, 
Bhumiz and Moondas use the word ' Bu,' ' Buho' or ' Bohu' which 
seems to be the same word. The Dravidian words for head are entirely 
different. 

It would be in many ways very interesting and important to rescue 
any remains of aboriginal words or aboriginal dialects of these 
tribes, and especially to find whether among them can be traced any 
non-Aryan radicals of the Groozerattee, Maratta, and the Hindee dialects 
of Rajpootana. 

Though probably in the main of the same class and similar origin, 
the Koolees and Bheels are now quite distinct tribes, and there is 
this considerable difference that the Koolees have come much more 
into contact with Aryan blood and civilisation, are in appearance 
generally much more Hindooised than the others, and consider 
themselves altogether a higher class. As has been said, both tribes 
are now much scattered over many parts of the Presidency and in 
places a good deal intermixed, but their proper locale seems to be 
as follows. The Koolees are the Aborigines of Goozerat (where they 
now live in considerable number), and of the hills adjoining that 
Province. The hills east of G-oozerat are called ' Kolwan' and seem 
to be the property of Koolee tribes, just as in the Chota-Nagpore 






44 TJie Ethnology of India. 

territory the country of the Lurka Coles is called " Kolhan." The 
Bheels are the proper possessors of the hills farther in the interior 
and east of the Koolees, there occupying both the Sautpoora and 
the Vyndia ranges, and extending into Rajpootana. In the latter 
direction and about the Vyndians some of the tribes claim to be 
crossed with Rajpoots, and these are called Beelalahs. The Bheels 
are numerous in Candeish, and are found in some parts of the adjoining 
Deccan. They sometimes find their way to the Coast where they 
are stated to be known as c Dooblas' or the " Kala Pooruj" or ' black 
men.' The Koolees seem to be scattered down the Coast country 
nearly as far as Goa, and north again into the ' Thurr' and the 
neighbourhood of Scinde. While the wilder Koolees of the hills 
are like the Bheels, the mass of more civilised Koolees are said to 
be not only fairer and more Caucasian in feature, but also more sly 
and cunning and less truthful. A large proportion of both races 
have been much diluted in point of l aboriginality' of feature by 
intermixture, but the Bheels less than the others. Many of the 
Koolees live in villages and adopt some Hindoo practices. They are 
stated to average about 5 feet 3 inches in height. Though most of 
them are now quiet agriculturists and labourers, they were not always 
so. The wilder tribes of the race are still predatory, and Forbes 
mentions the Koolees as by far the most numerous of the arm-bearing 
castes who in former days, living in the hills between Goozerat and 
Rajpootana, disturbed the country. He describes them as of dimi- 
nutive stature, with eyes which bore an expression of liveliness and 
cunning, clothes few, arms bow and arrows, habits swift and active, 
bold in assault, but rapid in flying to the jungles, independent in 
spirit, robbers, averse to industry, addicted to drunkenness, and quar- 
relsome when intoxicated ; formidable in anarchy, but incapable of 
uniting among themselves. This description seems exceedingly well 
to apply to the wild Bheels of modern days, whom indeed Forbes 
classes with the Koolees. 

Many of the Bheels are so independent and so much apart in their 
own hills and jungles, that it seems very strange that they should 
have no language of their own ; I think that the search for such a 
language, or the remains of it, should not be abandoned without very 
careful inquiry. 



Tlie Ethnology of India. 45 

I have not been able to ascertain whether there are any of these 
aboriginal tribes in the Kattywar hills, or who are the aborigines 
of Kattywar. I have not met with any precise mention of them. 
Lassen in his map places Koolees (Kolas he calls them) in the centre 
of Kattywar. He had probably some authority for doing so, but 
more precise information on the point would be desirable. 

North of the Bombay country, in the Aravallee range running 
towards Ajmere, is the country of the Mairs or Mhairs, with whom I 
have said that the Koolees claim kindred, and whose name also suggests 
the question whether they may be related to the Maratta Mhars. 
Tod says that Mhair means Mountaineer, from f Meru' mountain. 
The modern Mhairs are probably a veiy mixed race. Col. Dixon, 
who is avowedly enthusiastic in their favour, makes them out to be 
rather good-looking, and tells the usual story (as told by the chiefs 
to him) of their descent from Rajpoots. They admit to have taken 
a few Bheel and Meena women. It is probably the case, as Col. Dixon 
says, that for hundreds of years they have been recruited by Hinclu- 
stanee refugees and rascals of all sorts. Though now out of the wa}^ 
it must be remembered that Ajmere was, under the emperors, one of 
the chief seats of Mahommedan power. 

The Meenas constitute a large portion of the population of Raj- 
pootana, especially in the Jeypore country between Ajmere and Dehli. 
I have said that they are supposed to be related to the Mhairs, and 
they are called the aborigines of the country, but I doubt if they 
are so in the sense in which I am now dealing with separate 
aboriginal tribes. In Upper India, out of their own country, these 
Meenas are principally known as dacoits ; and of those that I have 
seen in that capacity, my impression is, that they were not small and 
aboriginal-looking, but fine powerful men. I suspect that if ori- 
ginally a half-breed derived from aborigines, the Meenas are now 
members of the ordinary Indian society, and that Aryan features 
predominate in them. Farther information, however, is required. 

I am not aware of any aboriginal tribes in Bundlecund. In a 
recent Archaeological paper read at a meeting of the Society, mention 
was incidentally made of "the wild Sherrias" found about the 
southern sources of the Nerbudda, and I also find mention of a tribe 
called ' Naikras' in the hills of Oodeypore, said to be like the B heels, 



46 The Ethnology of India. 

but somewhat lower in the scale of humanity. I do not know whe- 
ther these are really sub-divisions of the Bheels or separate tribes. In 
fact there may be many remnants of tribes in the jungles of Central 
India yet undescribed. I have now, however, noticed all the aboriginal 
tribes of the hilly portions of the Indian Peninsula known to me, with 
the exception only of the Bhooyas of the borders of Bengal. 

In the plains, of course, we do not look to find separate aboriginal 
tribes, and those now classed as l castes' will be afterwards noticed ; 
but before leaving the subject of Koolees or Kolaries I may mention 
an assertion of Col. Tod that all the weaver caste throughout 
Hindustan are of this class, though they now call themselves ' Julahas' 
or Julahees. I do not know what is the ground for this assertion, 
but the weavers who have not turned Mahommedans are certainly 
sometimes or